The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Swamp People is an American reality series, first broadcast on History on August 22, 2010. The show follows the day-to-day activities of alligator hunters living in the swamps of the Atchafalaya River Basin who hunt American alligators for a living; the program's tenth season premiered on January 31, 2019. Alligator season in Louisiana lasts for 30 days. In this time, many of the alligator hunters, following a tradition dating back about 300 years, earn most of their yearly income in a high risk vocation dependent on experience and the whims of weather within strict regulation by wildlife laws. Hunters are each issued a certain number of tags. During this 30-day window, some of these hunters earn most of their annual income culling alligators. Most of the hunters spend the rest of the year harvesting other species to augment their yearly incomes and/or holding down full-time jobs in other industries; each season, the series focuses on various teams of alligator hunters. Some episodes feature other aspects of the social and sporting life of the swamp, including fishing and hunting for other animals.
Beginning with the fourth season, the program expanded to venues outside the Atchafalaya River Basin, featuring gator hunting crews in other parts of Louisiana, as well as the swamplands of Texas. Sources: On May 14, 2012, Mitchell Guist suffered an accident on the Belle River near Pierre Part. According to authorities he fell while loading items onto his boat, it was reported that he suffered a seizure, but it is unclear whether the seizure was a result of the fall or if it was caused by a medical condition. It was revealed that Guist suffered a heart attack. Guist was pronounced dead at a Morgan City hospital. Guist was 47 years old at the time of his death; the Voodoo Bayou episode aired on May 17, 2012, was dedicated in Guist's memory. The series premiered on August 22, 2010, set a ratings record for History; the show was broadcast on Sunday nights at 10 p.m. ET/PT. Season Two saw the show move from Sunday to Thursday, again at 10 p.m. ET/PT; the season was met with great record breaking viewers for the History channel.
For Season Three, Swamp People moved one hour earlier to 9 p.m. ET/PT on Thursday nights; the show returned to that night and time for its fourth season, on February 14, 2013 moving an hour to 10 p.m. ET/PT on May 30, 2013 after Pawn Stars moved to Thursdays at 9PM ET. For Season Five, Swamp People moved to Monday nights at 9 p.m. ET / PT and will continue in to do so for the beginning of Season Six. Season 6 premiered on February 2, 2015 and ended on July 13, 2015. After the end of season 6, a majority of the cast members were let go after a new producer was bought in, only a few of the original cast members remained, it was announced that season 7 would be the final season. Fans refused to believe. Season 7 premiered on February 8, 2016 with the newest episode set to air on May 2, 2016. Season 7 is still airing on the History Channel. After several posts on Jacob Landry's Facebook many fans were left wondering if this would be the last season of Swamp People, it was announced on April 28, 2016 via Jacob Landry's Facebook page that History had ordered an eighth season of the series.
This season premiered on February 16, 2017. The series opener of Swamp People premiered on August 22, 2010; the series premiere garnered 3.1 million total viewers, 2.5 million adults 25–54 and 2.3 million adults 18–49 – driving The History Channel to #1 in cable within the 10-11 p.m. time period in total viewers and Adults 25–54. Episode 1 of season 2 premiered on March 31, 2011; the second season premiere drew 3.9 million total viewers, increased 26% versus the season 1 average. It was the series' most-watched episode ever. Swamp People captured 2.0 million adults age 18–49 and age 25–50 impressions up +25% and +18% from the season 1 average respectively. The final episode of season 2 was met with record breaking ratings; the final episode drew 5.5 million viewers. It drew 2.8 million adults 25-54 and adults 18-49 – scoring the #1 show on cable for the night and the #2 spot in all of television. The season overall averaged 4.1 million viewers for the season, up 32% versus season 1. On October 21, 2012, a spinoff of Swamp People, Outback Hunters, debuted on the History Channel.
Following the same format as Swamp People, the series focuses on crocodile hunters in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory. Its first season, consisting of 11 episodes, ended on December 30, 2012. A second spinoff, Swamp Mysteries With Troy Landry, started airing on the History Channel on June 7, 2018; the spinoff follows Troy Landry collaborating with local experts to capture local problem creatures across the Southern United States. The first season of this spinoff consists of six episodes, the last of which aired on July 12, 2018. Two mobile app games were produced as a tie-in to the show: Choot'Em Angry Swamp, is an arcade-style game featuring Troy Landry, is available for Apple, Android Google Play and Kindle Amazon; the self-titled Swamp People, is a hunting simulation game, is available for Apple and Android-supported devices. Australia -- 7mate Canada -
American Restoration is an American reality television series airing on the History channel. Produced by Leftfield Pictures, the first six seasons were recorded in Las Vegas, where it chronicled the daily activities at Rick's Restorations, an antique restoration shop, with its owner Rick Dale, his staff, teenage son, as they restore various vintage items to their original condition. For season 7, History rebooted the program with a new concept and cast, with the series now following five American restoration shops; the show is the first spin-off of Pawn Stars, in which Dale has appeared several times as an on-camera expert and restored various items. The series has featured cameo appearances by the cast of Pawn Stars, American Pickers, Counting Cars, magician/illusionist Lance Burton & David Copperfield, NASCAR driver Greg Biffle, musicians Sammy Hagar, Billy Joel, Jason Mraz; the series focuses on Rick's Restorations, a company owned and operated by Las Vegas area metal artist and antique restoration expert Rick Dale, restoring various vintage items for 30 years.
Dale and his company first appeared on the History reality television series Pawn Stars, in that show's first-season episode "Time Machines," and in nine subsequent episodes in which he restored numerous decades-old items for the Harrisons, including vending machines, gas pumps, barber chairs and jukeboxes. Beginning with the June 6, 2012 episode, a new feature, "Rick's Tips", was added preceding the second commercial break, in which Rick poses a question related to restoration, similar to the trivia question feature on Pawn Stars. According to Dale, who claims to emphasize a great attention to detail in his work, his shop works on 6 – 12 projects at any given time. Although he and his staff restore the items brought in by customers themselves, they are shown consulting other merchants and experts for parts, calling in freelance employees, such as Bob, a metalworker, when their workload requires it. In addition to items brought in by customers, Dale will purchase items himself to restore from pickers, such as the toy train he purchases in "Buttered Up."
The range of services offered by Rick's Restorations is limited by financial concerns. Although Dale has a positive view of his staff's abilities, he observes that they are sometimes difficult to manage, in particular his younger brother, Ron. Starting on January 1, 2016, History started airing 13 new episodes of American Restoration featuring projects helmed by Bodie Stroud, Dale Walksler, Andy Bowman Jr. Steve Hale, Bob Halliday, who own five separate restoration shops around the country. Rick Dale – Metal artist, antique restoration expert, owner of Rick's Restorations. Rick Harrison of Pawn Stars, one of Dale's top customers, has praised Dale's work by calling him "a certified miracle worker". Tyler Dale – Rick's teenage son, who has worked with him in the shop since age two. Rick has opined that Tyler is sometimes lazy, which worries Rick, who wishes Tyler to take over the shop one day. Rick states in the premiere; the hair on left side of his head is dyed blonde. In the episode "Tyler's Promotion", he was promoted to Shop Foreman, welcomed with mixed reactions from the rest of the crew.
Ron Dale – Rick's younger brother, who works as a picker. Rick feels. Ron, who says his life is "relaxed easy-paced", takes his time in his work; when going to get an item cleaned away from the shop in "Ice Cold", he and Tyler take lunch though Tyler informs that the staff does not do so, which Ron says is one of the "perks" of being out with him. Tyler remarks. Rick worries that Tyler, who looks up to Ron, enjoys going out on jobs with him, will pick up Ron's bad habits. Ron first appeared in the Pawn Stars episode "Time Machines", in which he sells an old Coke machine to Rick Harrison, who sends it to Rick Dale, Ron's brother, to be restored. Kowboy aka Kevin Lowery – Employee who does the metal polishing in the shop. Rick describes Kowboy as "the grumpiest bastard I've met," saying, "He would have a bad thing to say about a bonus", he used to do all the polishing and woodworking in the shop. Brettly Otterman – Rick's stepson and Tyler's stepbrother, he provides comic relief as the bumbling "village idiot".
Rick describes Brettly as the "low man on the totem pole", delegated the most tedious tasks, such as sandblasting old rust and paint from items, or disposing of beehives. Because of his perceived ineptitude, Ron refers to sodablasting, which presents no danger of damaging restored items, as "Brettly-proof." In seasons Brettly proves to be a good picker, in one episode, impresses Rick with his skills as a one-time auctioneer. Ted Hague – A lettering artist with 25 years of experience handpainting items, owner of Letter Perfect Incorporated, a Las Vegas-based signage and design firm. Kyle Astorga – Kyle is in charge of reassembling disassembled projects and applying finishing touches, he is good friends with Kowboy, whom he drives to work every day, is described by History.com as "one of the most skillful and loyal workers at the shop." Kelly Dale – Rick's wife, Tyler's stepmother and Brettly's mother, she handles the business side of the shop such as payroll, maintaining budgets, ordering parts, customer relations.
She is the woman featured in the Rick's Restorations logo. In the third-season episode "Hot & Salty", Rick
Ancients Behaving Badly
Ancients Behaving Badly is a British and Canadian produced documentary series that aired from November to December 2009 on the Canadian The History Channel and the American The History Channel. The show focuses on the misdeeds of famous historical figures using forensic investigation, animated sequences, historian interviews. Although events are depicted in a serious manner, the series has an tongue-in-cheek narrative style. Narrated by Tom McCamus, each episode features a new historical leader who "behaved badly." The person's life story is explored through cartoon sequences and historian interviews. The historical figure is placed on an "Ancients Behaving Badly Psychograph." The y-axis rates them from "goal driven killer" to "psychopathic murderer", while the x-axis measures individual pathologies. Caligula Attila the Hun Julius Caesar Alexander the Great Nero Hannibal Genghis Khan Cleopatra Ancients Behaving Badly on IMDb Ancients Behaving Badly at epguides.com
The Curse of Oak Island
The Curse of Oak Island is an active reality television series that first premiered in Canada on the History network on January 5, 2014. The show features what is known as the Oak Island mystery, showing efforts to search for historical artifacts and treasure; the Curse of Oak Island follows brothers Marty and Rick Lagina from Kingsford, through their efforts to find the speculated treasure or historical artifacts believed to be on Oak Island. The series discusses the history of the island, recent discoveries and prior attempts to investigate the site. Areas of interest include the "Money Pit", Borehole 10-x, Smith's Cove, "Nolan's Cross", the "Hatch", the "Watchtower" and the "Swamp"; the Lagina brothers became fascinated with the island after reading the January 1965 issue of Reader's Digest magazine that features an article on the Restall family's work to investigate the so-called "Money Pit". Marty and his brother Rick obtained a controlling interest in Oak Island Tours, which owns most of the island.
The brothers were approached by Prometheus Entertainment to do a reality show. Rick and Marty have engaged the assistance of father-and-son Dan and Dave Blankenship, permanent residents of the island who have been searching for treasure since the 1960s. Dan Blakenship died on March 17, 2019, at age 95; the series explores various Oak Island theories and conjectures through conversations with independent researchers. Persons featured have included Zena Halpern discussing her theory about North African gold and sharing copies of a French map of the island which she claims is dated 1347, it has been suggested by Zena Halpern, without evidence, that the Templars worshipped the Phoenician goddess Tanit. Having started in 2014, The Curse of Oak Island is in its sixth season. On August 2, 2016, it was announced that Nova Scotia Business Inc. approved $1,271,546 in film funding for the production of the 4th season. In October 2017, a fifth season was announced, which began airing on November 7, 2017. Season 6 began airing November 13, 2018.
MacDonald, David. "Treasure Hunt: The Mystery of Oak Island". Reader's Digest – via readersdigest.ca. Sullivan, Randall. "The Curse of Oak Island: The Story of the World's Longest treasure Hunt" Official website Official Facebook Page The Curse of Oak Island on IMDb
Mars is a borough in Butler County, United States. The population was 1,699 at the 2010 census. Mars is located in southern Butler County at 40°41′48″N 80°0′44″W, about halfway between the cities of Pittsburgh and Butler; the small community is nestled in a small valley along Breakneck Creek. Pennsylvania Route 228 bypasses the borough to the south, leading east 4 miles to Pennsylvania Route 8 and west 5 miles to Interstates 79 and 76 in Cranberry Township; the Mars-Evans City Road leads out of town to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough of Mars has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all land. Mars is home to the popular roadside attraction the Mars "Spaceship" or "Flying Saucer", it is home to the Mars Station, one of the last railroad depots still standing from the now defunct Pittsburgh and Western Railroad. In 1873, Samuel Parks constructed a water-powered gristmill along Breakneck Creek. Parks decided to have a post office placed in his home, so he received help from his friend Samuel Marshall to help establish it.
The name of the post office became Overbrook. In 1877, the Pittsburgh, New Castle and Lake Erie Railroad was constructed through Overbrook, had a station built there. In 1882, the name of the community was changed to Mars since the railroad had a stop with the name "Overbrook". No one is sure; some say it was Park's wife who enjoyed astronomy, while others believe it was shortened after Samuel Marshall's name. On March 6, 1895, Mars was incorporated as a borough. In 1904, the Pittsburgh and Butler Street Railway gained permission from Mars to construct its right-of-way through the borough; the line become part of the Pittsburgh, Harmony and New Castle Railway in 1917, being renamed Pittsburgh and Butler Railway. The line closed in 1931; the USS Mars was named after the borough. The ship became part of the United States Pacific Fleet in 1963, was decommissioned in 1998, it was sunk in 2006 as a target vessel. The bell of the USS Mars was donated to the borough and has become a permanent memorial in the downtown park.
Mars National Bank, founded in 1900, has its headquarters located in the borough, with seven branches located in Butler and Allegheny counties. The Mars Area School District serves the boroughs of Mars and Valencia, as well as Adams Township and Middlesex Township in Butler County; the Mars Fightin' Planets are one of the many teams located in the north Pittsburgh area. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,746 people, 687 households, 395 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,906.5 people per square mile. There were 715 housing units at an average density of 1,599.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.68% White, 0.46% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.40% of the population. There were 687 households, out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families.
38.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 24.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.89. In the borough the population was spread out, with 18.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 33.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 70.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 64.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $33,073, the median income for a family was $46,136. Males had a median income of $34,083 versus $26,080 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $17,701. About 7.8% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Because of its unique name, proximity to Pittsburgh, Mars has on occasion received national media attention. In 2011, a representative from The Walt Disney Company invited students from Mars Elementary School to attend the Pittsburgh premiere of Mars Needs Moms, after reading a featured article on the town by msnbc.com.
Mars was the only school nationwide invited to the film's premiere. The borough has been a location for films and television commercials; the 1988 comedy-drama film The Prince of Pennsylvania and the 1996 comedy film Kingpin were filmed throughout the borough. In 2000, a Kraft salad dressing commercial was filmed in downtown. Canadian musician John Southworth named his first album Mars, Pennsylvania after the town, which he had passed through many years earlier on a school trip. Mars was the inspiration for the fictional town of Athena, the setting for the 2015 fictional trilogy, Benjamin's Field, by local author J. J. Knights. Mars has several Christian denominations located within and just outside the community. One of the largest churches was Saint Kilian Parish. Founded in 1917, the parish was located in downtown Mars, but by the early 2000s, membership had swelled so much that a new facility was constructed just outside the neighboring Seven Fields borough along PA 228 in 2008. There is a large presence of Presbyterians in the borough.
The Mars United Presbyterian was founded in 1969 with the merging of two older churches, one under the United Presbyterian Church of North America, the other under the Presbyterian Church. There is a Lutheran and Methodist church located within the borough; the Woodlan
Laura Lane Welch Bush is an American educator, First Lady of the United States during the presidency of her husband, George W. Bush, from 2001 to 2009. Bush served as First Lady of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Born in Midland, Bush graduated from Southern Methodist University in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in education, took a job as a second grade teacher. After attaining her master's degree in library science at the University of Texas at Austin, she was employed as a librarian. Bush met her future husband, George W. Bush, in 1977, they were married that year; the couple had twin daughters in 1981. Bush's political involvement began during her marriage, she campaigned with her husband during his unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress, for his successful Texas gubernatorial campaign. As First Lady of Texas, Bush implemented many initiatives focused on health and literacy. In 1999–2000, she aided her husband in campaigning for the presidency in a number of ways, such as delivering a keynote address at the 2000 Republican National Convention, which gained her national attention.
She became First Lady after her husband was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2001. Polled by The Gallup Organization as one of the most popular First Ladies, Bush was involved in national and global concerns during her tenure, she continued to advance her trademark interests of education and literacy by establishing the annual National Book Festival in 2001, encouraged education on a worldwide scale. She advanced women's causes through The Heart Truth and Susan G. Komen for the Cure organizations, she represented the United States during her foreign trips, which tended to focus on HIV/AIDS and malaria awareness. Laura Lane Welch was born on November 4, 1946, in Midland, the only child of Harold Welch and Jenna Louise Hawkins Welch. Bush is of English and Swiss ancestry, her father was a house builder and successful real estate developer, while her mother worked as the bookkeeper for her father's business. Early on, her parents encouraged leading to what would become her love of reading.
She said, "I learned at home from my mother. When I was a little girl, my mother would read stories to me. I have loved books and going to the library since. In the summer, I liked to spend afternoons reading in the library. I enjoyed the Little House on the Prairie and Little Women books, many others... Reading gives you enjoyment throughout your life." Bush has credited her second grade teacher, Charlene Gnagy, for inspiring her interest in education. On the night of November 6, 1963, two days after her 17th birthday, Laura Welch ran a stop sign and struck another car, killing its driver; the victim was classmate Michael Dutton Douglas. By some accounts, Douglas had been Welch's boyfriend at one time, but she stated that he was not her boyfriend at that time but rather a close friend. Bush and her passenger, both 17, were treated for minor injuries. According to the accident report released by the city of Midland in 2000, in response to an open-records request, she was not charged in the incident.
Bush's spokesman said, "It was a tragic accident that affected the families and was painful for all involved, including the community at large." In her book Spoken from the Heart she says that the crash caused her to lose her faith "for many, many years". She attended James Bowie Elementary School, San Jacinto Junior High School, Robert E. Lee High School in Midland, she graduated from Lee in 1964 and went on to attend Southern Methodist University in Dallas where she was a member of Kappa Alpha Theta. She graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Education. After graduating from SMU, she began her career as a school teacher at Longfellow Elementary School in the Dallas Independent School District, she taught for three years at John F. Kennedy Elementary School, a Houston Independent School District school in Houston, until 1972. In 1973, Bush attained a Master of Science degree in Library Science from the University of Texas at Austin, she was soon employed as a librarian at the Kashmere Gardens Branch at the Houston Public Library.
The following year, she moved back to Austin and took another job as a librarian in the Austin Independent School District school Dawson Elementary until 1977. She reflected on her employment experiences to a group of children in 2003, saying, "I worked as a teacher and librarian and I learned how important reading is in school and in life." She met George W. Bush in July 1977 when mutual friends Joe and Jan O'Neill invited her and Bush to a backyard barbecue at their home, he proposed to her at the end of September and they were married on November 5 of that year at the First United Methodist Church in Midland, the same church in which she had been baptized. Laura bought a two-toned dress off the rack for the wedding; the couple honeymooned in Mexico. George W. Bush detailed his choice to marry Laura as the "best decision of life". Laura, an only child, said she gained "brothers and sisters and wonderful in-laws" who all accepted her after she wed George W. Bush; the year after their marriage, the couple began campaigning for George W. Bush's 1978 Congressional candidacy.
According to George Bush, when he asked her to marry him, she had said, "Yes. But only if you promise me that I'll never have to make a campaign speech." She soon relented, gave her first stump speech for him in 1978 on the courthouse steps in Muleshoe, Texas. After narrowly winning the primary, he lost the general election. Bush attended the inauguration of father-in-law George H. W. Bush as Vice President in January 1981, after he and his running mate Ronald Reagan w