Open space reserve
An open space reserve is an area of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside. The purpose of an open space reserve may include the preservation or conservation of a community or region's rural natural or historic character. Open space reserves may be suburban, or rural, they may be publicly owned by non-profit or private interests. A certain amount of overlap occurs with similar conservation terms. Protected areas are open space reserves in which certain resources indigenous to the landscape are protected as opposed to conserved. Urban open space refers to open space reserves within an urban setting. Greenways are linear open space reserves, linear corridors that span interconnected open space reserves, or linear chains of connected open space reserves. A green belt is a general area of open space surrounding an urban area. Green infrastructure is the total mass and viability of undeveloped and agricultural land and waterways, protected or not protected, within a particular community or region.
Nature reserves and wildlife refuges are areas of open space set aside for the sake of protecting non-human species. National parks, state parks, municipal parks, recreation areas, reservations are types of open space reserves managed by government agencies for the primary purpose of passive or active human enjoyment. National forests, state forests, municipal forests are types of open space reserves set aside for the primary purpose of forest conservation. Flood control projects and protected ecological research areas may be considered open space reserves secondary to their primary purpose. There is growing evidence that open space is unequally distributed based on race and class in the US state of California, leading to concerns regarding Open Space Accessibility in California and other areas. Arastradero Preserve near Palo Alto, California, USA Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve, Simi Hills, California, USA. Protected area Urban open space Greenway Green infrastructure Green belt Greenfield land Nature reserve Open Space 101 Landscope America.
Retrieved December 30, 2008. "What is open space?" USDA Forest Service. Retrieved December 30, 2008. Chapter 18.11 Open Space Reserve and Urban Reserve Land Use.. Half Moon Bay Municipal Code. Retrieved December 30, 2008. Definition of Open Space. Town of Shelburne, Vermont. Retrieved December 30, 2008. 11-935.01 Arizona State legislature. Retrieved December 30, 2008. Open Space Land Application Schedule: "Line 5: The statutory definition of Open Space is as follows..." Maine.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2008
The Mercury News
The Mercury News is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, United States. It is published by a subsidiary of Digital First Media; as of March 2013, it was the fifth largest daily newspaper in the United States, with a daily circulation of 611,194. As of 2018, the paper has 415,200 on Sundays. First published in 1851, the Mercury News is the last remaining English-language daily newspaper covering the Santa Clara Valley, it became the Mercury News in 1983 after a series of mergers. During much of the 20th century, it was owned by Knight Ridder; because of its location in Silicon Valley, the Mercury News has covered many of the key events in the history of computing, it was a pioneer in delivering news online. It was the first American newspaper to publish in three languages; the paper's name derives from the San Jose Mercury and San Jose News, two daily newspapers that merged to form the Mercury News. The San Jose Mercury's name was a double entendre; the word "mercury" refers to the importance of the mercury industry during the California Gold Rush.
At the time, the nearby New Almaden mine was North America's largest producer of mercury, needed for hydraulic gold mining. In addition, Mercury is the Roman messenger of the gods as well as the god of commerce and thieves, known for his swiftness, so the name Mercury is used for newspapers without the quicksilver association; the paper's local coverage and circulation is concentrated in Santa Clara County and San Mateo County. With the Mercury News, East Bay Times, Marin Independent Journal, Silicon Valley Community Newspapers, the Bay Area News Group covers much of the San Francisco Bay Area with the notable exception of San Francisco itself; the Mercury News's predecessor, the Weekly Visitor, began as a Whig paper in the early 1850s but switched its affiliation to the Democratic Party. The paper remained a conservative voice through the mid 20th century, when it supported pro-growth city leaders and pursued a staunchly pro-growth, anti-union agenda, it became more moderate in the 1970s, reflecting new ownership and changes to the local political landscape.
It endorsed John B. Anderson for President in 1980 and has endorsed Democratic presidential candidates in every election since 1992; the newspaper now known as the Mercury News began in 1851 or 1852. California legislators had just moved the state capital from San Jose to Vallejo, leading to the failure of San Jose's first two newspapers, the Argus and State Journal. A group of three businessmen led by John C. Emerson bought the papers' presses to found the San Jose Weekly Visitor; the Weekly Visitor began as a Whig paper but switched its affiliation to the Democratic Party. It was renamed the Santa Clara Register in 1852; the following year, F. B. Murdoch took over the paper. W. A. Slocum assumed control of the Telegraph in 1860 and merged it with the San Jose Mercury or Weekly Mercury to become the Telegraph and Mercury. William N. Slocum soon dropped Telegraph from the name. By this point, the Mercury was one of two newspapers publishing in San Jose. James Jerome Owen, a forty-niner and former Republican New York assemblyman, became the Mercury's publisher in the spring of 1861 acquiring a controlling interest in the paper along with a partner, Benjamin H. Cottle.
The paper published daily as the San Jose Daily Mercury for three months in the fall of 1861 from August 1869 to April 1870 with the addition of J. J. Conmy as partner, again from March 11, 1872, after the purchase of the Daily Guide. In 1878, Owen formed the Mercury Publishing Company. In 1881, Owen proposed to light San Jose with a moonlight tower; the San Jose electric light tower was dedicated that year. The Mercury boasted that San Jose was the first town west of the Rocky Mountains lighted by electricity; the Mercury merged with the Times Publishing Company in 1884. The Daily Morning Times and Daily Mercury became the Times-Mercury, while the Weekly Times and Weekly Mercury become the Times-Weekly Mercury. In 1885, both publications adopted the San Jose Mercury name; that year, Owen moved to San Francisco. In late 1900, Everis A. Hayes and his brother Jay purchased the Mercury. In August 1901, they purchased the San Jose Daily Herald, an evening paper, formed the Mercury Herald Company. In 1913, the two papers were consolidated into the San Jose Mercury Herald.
In 1942, the Mercury Herald Company purchased the San Jose News but continued to publish both papers, the Mercury Herald in the morning and the News in the evening, with a combined Sunday edition called the Mercury Herald News. The Herald name was dropped in 1950. Herman Ridder's Northwest Publications purchased the Mercury and News in 1952. During the mid 20th century, the papers took conservative, pro-growth positions. Publisher Joe Ridder was a vocal proponent of San Jose City Manager A. P. Hamann's development agenda, which emphasized urban sprawl within an ever-expanding city limits. Ridder counted on increasing population to lead to increased newspaper subscriptions and advertising sales; the paper supported a series of general obligation bonds worth $134 million, most of it spent on capital improvements that benefited real estate developers. It supported a revision to the city charter that introduced a direct mayoral elections and abolished the vote of confidence for city manager. By 1967, the Mercury had risen to rank among the to
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter and mates for reproduction; the physical factors are for example soil, range of temperature, light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are specific in their requirements. A habitat is not a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a rotten log, a rock or a clump of moss, for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a single cell within the host's body. Habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical; the terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, semi-arid or desert. Fresh water habitats include marshes, rivers and ponds, marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, reefs, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.
Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as the eruption of a volcano, an earthquake, a tsunami, a wildfire or a change in oceanic currents. Other changes come as a direct result of human activities; the introduction of alien species can have a devastating effect on native wildlife, through increased predation, through competition for resources or through the introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity. The word "habitat" has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of an organism, the type of place in which it is natural for it to live and grow, it is similar in meaning to a biotope. The chief environmental factors affecting the distribution of living organisms are temperature, climate, soil type and light intensity, the presence or absence of all the requirements that the organism needs to sustain it. Speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities.
Some plants and animals are generalists, their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations. The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica, its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. The large blue butterfly is much more specific in its requirements. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats. In the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Wildflower meadows are sometimes created by conservationists but most of the flowering plants used are either annuals or biennials and disappear after a few years in the absence of patches of bare ground on which their seedlings can grow. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm and the algae swept away, or shifting sediment exposes new areas for colonisation.
Another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species, not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts. Within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types. Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own typical communities of plants and animals. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities and its efficiency as a coloniser. Freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements; the water velocity, its temperature and oxygen saturation are important factors, but in river systems, there are fast and slow sections, pools and backwaters which provide a range of habitats.
Aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marginal plants provide important habitat for both invertebrates and vertebrates, submerged plants provide oxygenation of the water, absorb nutrients and play a part in the reduction of pollution. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the open sea, the intertidal zone, the sea bed and deep / shallow water zones. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, seagrass beds, all supporting their own flora and fauna; the benth
San Rafael Bay
San Rafael Bay is an embayment of San Pablo Bay, located in Marin County and the northern San Francisco Bay Area, California. San Pablo Bay is the northern bay section of the larger San Francisco Bay, in the North Bay region. San Rafael Bay is located along the Marin County coast, adjacent to the City of San Rafael; the Marin Islands are within bay. The river mouth and estuary of San Rafael Creek is located at its shoreline. San Pablo Bay topics
Coyote Creek (Marin County)
Coyote Creek is a stream in the Richardson Bay watershed, draining Tamalpais-Homestead Valley, California eastward into Richardson Bay, Marin County, United States. The stream originates on Coyote Ridge and flows 2.5 miles to the bay at the south end of Bothin Marsh. The Richardson Bay watershed is located on the aboriginal lands of the Coast Miwok. Spanish colonization began in neighboring Sausalito, California, in 1775, when Juan de Ayala sailed the first ship into San Francisco Bay; these explorers named the area Saucelito after the vegetation spotted from shipboard. When the Mission San Rafael Arcángel, established in 1817, was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, the mission lands were granted to prominent Californios as ranchos; the Rancho Corte Madera del Presidio included a sawmill for processing redwood trees and horse ranches, a brickyard, a stone quarry. Sausalito became an important ferry port; the railroad brought supplies from the north to be shipped across San Francisco Bay.
Coyote Creek hosted California golden beaver whose beaver dams played a role in removing sediment and improving over-summering habitat for steelhead and salmon smolt. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Coyote Creek - Geographic Names Information System Richardson Bay Watershed Map Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks
Codornices Creek, 2.0 miles long, is one of the principal creeks which runs out of the Berkeley Hills in the East Bay area of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. In its upper stretch, it passes within the city limits of Berkeley, marks the city limit with the adjacent city of Albany in its lower section. Before European settlement, Codornices had no direct, permanent connection to San Francisco Bay. Like many other small creeks, it filtered through what early maps show as grassland to a large, northward-running salt marsh and slough that carried waters from Marin Creek and Schoolhouse Creek. A channel was cut through in the 19th Century, Codornices flows directly to San Francisco Bay by way of a narrow remnant slough adjacent to Golden Gate Fields racetrack; the name derives from the Spanish word "codornices", meaning "quails". California valley quail were once common in the area; the name was given by one of owners of the vast Rancho San Antonio. Luis Maria Peralta, military governor at San Jose, divided the land grant among his sons, giving the area that now is Berkeley and Albany to Domingo, who built his home on the banks of Codornices Creek.
The first of his dwellings was an adobe, destroyed in the 1868 Hayward earthquake on October 21, 1868. He replaced it with a wooden structure, razed in the 1930s for an apartment building. Both were located on the high banks of Codornices Creek across from the site of what today is St. Mary's College High School near the Westbrae district of Berkeley. In the 19th century, a quarry was opened at one of the heads of Codornices Creek in the La Loma district, it was replaced by a city park in the late 1960s. Another feeder comes down from Remillard Park. Others, on private land, have lovely small waterfalls. Napoleon Bonaparte Byrne, a wealthy Missourian who crossed the plains before the Civil War, attempted to farm along the creek and built his large home on the south bank of the creek above today's Oxford Street; the Byrne family was accompanied by two freed slaves, believed to have been Berkeley's earliest African American residents. Byrne's property was acquired by Henry Berryman, a developer who in 1877 built Berryman Reservoir south of today's Codornices Park, above Euclid.
The reservoir became part of the East Bay Municipal Utility District system and was enlarged and covered, but has been drained because of fears it might rupture in an earthquake. In 2010 construction was begun on a replacement, a large tank on the site, put into service in 2013. From 1912 to 1928, a 275-foot-long wooden streetcar and road trestle spanned Codornices Creek along Euclid Avenue. In 1928, the trestle was filled in and a culvert laid through it for the creek. Codornices Creek was recognized early for its beauty. In 1914, the Berkeley City Council voted to acquire Live Oak Park as Berkeley's first "nature park." In 1915, Codornices Park was opened along the east side of Euclid Avenue. In that streetcar era, both parks had busy club houses and large picnic areas with stone fireplaces. Across Euclid from this park, the WPA constructed the Berkeley Rose Garden during the 1930s; the creek once flowed into a swimming hole below today's Henry Street, but today enters a culvert above Henry. This culvert was installed to carry the creek under the extensive fill emplaced along Henry Street by the Southern Pacific when it extended the Berkeley Branch steam line for its new East Bay Electric Lines.
Much of the material used for the fill came from the excavation of the nearby Northbrae Tunnel. For a time before the fill was emplaced, a wooden trestle spanned the creek in this locale. A steel bridge spanned a gap left in the fill over Eunice Street; the overcrossing was removed when the Key System ceased running its F-train here in 1958, more fill was added to bring the uphill portion of Eunice up to the level of Henry Street. The lower portion of Eunice now deadends at a retaining wall below Henry. Downstream, Berkeley's first zoning designated the marshy area near the creek and railroad tracks for "noxious industries." In the 1920s, the city built a garbage incinerator just south of the creek channel at Second Street, across from today's city Transfer Station. The incinerator failed, the building became a slaughterhouse. Other industries edging the creek included scrap-metal yard. Codornices Creek may have escaped burial in pipes because much of it formed the Berkeley–Albany border, making projects complicated.
It is Berkeley's most intact creek, in and out of culverts at streets. Some of the longer covered portions are below Neilson Street, San Pablo Avenue, Eastshore Highway, Interstate 80; the creek exits this last culvert into a narrow tidal slough—the remnant of the former salt marsh - that makes a right turn to follow between Golden Gate Fields Racetrack and the I-80/I-580 freeway, following the creek's original northward course to San Francisco Bay. Just south of Buchanan Street in Albany, this channel widens into a small salt marsh; this marsh in turn empties into the Albany tide flats and San Francisco Bay via four pipes under Buchanan Street. After a brief post-World War II boom, the industries that had polluted the lower creek began to wither; the University of California bought the housing, used for shipyard workers and returning G. I.s, used it for student families. Contemplating expansion, the University had creek meanders straightened in the 1960s, but i