France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Claude Makélélé Sinda is a French football manager and former professional player who played as a defensive midfielder. He is the head coach of Belgian First Division A club Eupen. In his playing career, which ended at Paris Saint-Germain, Makélélé played for Nantes, Celta Vigo, Real Madrid and Chelsea, he won league titles in France and England, as well as the 2001–02 UEFA Champions League during his time with Real Madrid. Makélélé was a French international for 13 years, was part of the France national team which reached the final of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, he represented his nation at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, two UEFA European Championships and the 1996 Summer Olympics. Regarded as one of the greatest players in his position, Makélélé has been credited with redefining the defensive midfield role in English football during the 2004–05 FA Premier League season, where he played a key role in helping Chelsea win the title with 95 points. In homage, a deep defensive midfield position is colloquially known as the "Makelele Role".
Makélélé was born in Zaire. "Makélélé" means "noises" in one of the languages spoken in the country. He moved to Savigny-le-Temple, a suburb of Paris in Seine-et-Marne, in 1977, when he was four years old, his father, André-Joseph Makélélé, was a football player. He represented the DR Congo, ended his career in the third division of Belgium by Union Royal Namur. At age 15, Makélélé signed for U. S. Melun in Melun, a city near Savigny-le-Temple, he played with Lilian Thuram there, left at the age of 16, when he joined the training centre of Brest-Armorique in Brittany. According to him, it was not easy to adapt to the new life in Brest; the training academy life was tough as it was the first time he was far from his family. He worked hard in Brest, but it was in the city of Nantes where he discovered the real pleasure of playing. Makélélé was recruited by FC Nantes in December 1991. Robert Budzynski, Nantes' sporting director, confessed that once he had discovered Makélélé in Brest, he was sure he would become the new Emmanuel Petit.
At the beginning of the 1992–93 season, Makélélé was in the Nantes first-team playing in the French first division. He played at Nantes for five seasons, winning the French championship in 1995 and helped the club to the semi-final of the UEFA Champions League the following season; this earned him a move to Marseille for. Makélélé was transferred to Celta Vigo. While playing alongside Aleksandr Mostovoi, Valeri Karpin, Haim Revivo and Míchel Salgado, Celta achieved historic victories such as 4–1 against Liverpool and 4–0 against Juventus in the UEFA Cup. In 2000, he was recruited by Real Madrid, his transfer was controversial because Celta did not want to sell Makélélé unless a substantial improvement on their offer was made. Makélélé refused to train. Celta were reluctantly forced to sell him for €14 million, far less than their valuation of the player. At Real, Makélélé added to his medal tally, winning two Spanish La Liga championships, the Champions League, the Supercopa de España, the UEFA Super Cup and the Intercontinental Cup.
As an ever-present in Vicente del Bosque's Real Madrid side, Makélélé established himself as one of the best defensive midfielders in the world. Despite his value to the team, Makélélé was one of its most under-paid members, earning a fraction of that paid to teammates like Zinedine Zidane, Luís Figo, Raúl, Roberto Carlos, Steve McManaman and Guti. In the summer of 2003, feeling that his position at the club was insecure after the shock sacking of Del Bosque and the arrival of David Beckham, encouraged by teammates Zidane, Raúl, McManaman and Fernando Morientes, Makélélé decided to ask for an improved contract; the Real management flatly refused to consider his request. Upset, Makélélé handed in a transfer request, whereupon. Club president Florentino Pérez infamously poured scorn on Makélélé's footballing abilities and proclaimed that Makélélé would not be missed: He wasn't a header of the ball and he passed the ball more than three metres. Younger players will arrive, his opinion differed from that of players like Zidane, who remarked the following after Makélélé was sold and Beckham was bought: Why put another layer of gold paint on the Bentley when you are losing the entire engine?
In his autobiography, published in 2006, McManaman described Makélélé as the most important and yet least appreciated midfielder at Real. Retired former Real Madrid player and captain Fernando Hierro criticised Pérez for both Makélélé's departure and the manner of his departure, saying: I think Claude has this kind of gift – he's been the best player in the team for years but people just don't notice him, don't notice what he does, but you ask anyone at Real Madrid during the years we were talking about and they will tell you he was the best player at Real. We all knew, the players all knew; the loss of Makélélé was the beginning of the end for Los Galacticos… You can see that it was the beginning of a new dawn for Chelsea. He was the base, the key and I think he is the same to Chelsea now. In the summer of 2003, Makélélé signed for Chelsea for £16.8 million, where manager Claudio Ranieri proclaimed that Makélélé would be the "battery" of the team. Chelsea finished second in the 2003–04 FA Premier League and were eliminated by Monaco in the semi-finals of the 2003–04 UEFA Champions
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t
Vitry-sur-Seine is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 7.5 km from the centre of Paris. Vitry-sur-Seine was called Vitry; the name Vitry comes from Medieval Latin Vitriacum, before that Victoriacum, meaning "estate of Victorius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. In 1897 the name of the commune became Vitry-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Vitry. Musée d'Art Contemporain du Val-de-Marne For some years, Vitry-sur-Seine operated a cultural policy of bringing art to all. For this reason, the commune contains over 100 contemporary sculptures, notably in establishments of public education. Vitry hosts the Musée d'Art Contemporain du Val-de-Marne. Opened on 18 November 2005, this museum offers in addition to the workshops of plastic arts, an auditorium and a cinema for art and experimental film. Vitry is one of the cities. Consequentially, urban art has a important place in the city Vitry-sur-Seine is served by two stations on Paris RER line C: Vitry-sur-Seine and Les Ardoines.
Orly Airport is located near Vitry-sur-Seine. The city can be separated into three distinct parts: the center containing numerous cités HLM, peripheral neighborhoods belonging to the middle class, a large industrial area along the Seine river; the bordering towns are Ivry-sur-Seine, Chevilly-Larue, Choisy-le-Roi, Alfortville. In 2008 the population of the city was estimated at 82,500 inhabitants; the rate of unemployment is 26.5%, while national average is under 10% Vitry-sur-Seine is the fiftieth most populated city of France and the tenth of Île-de-France. As of circa 1998 Ivry-sur-Seine and Vitry had a combined Asian population of 3,600; that year about 250 Asians from those communes worked in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, the overall demographics of Ivry and Vitry Asians were similar to those in the 13th arrondissement. Vitry is divided into two cantons: Vitry-sur-Seine-1 counts 46,849 inhabitants Vitry-sur-Seine-2 counts 44,339 inhabitants Cité Balzac Cité Du Colonel Fabien Lucien Français Les Marronniers La Sablière 200 La Commune de Paris Mario Capra Les Montagnards Les Montagnes La Tourraine Le Mail Le Moulin Vert Les Toits et Joie Gabriel Peri Cité Robespierre Cité Barbusse Le Square de l'Horloge Cité Camille Groult Les Malassis Rouget de l'isle La Glacière Cité Bourgogne Cité Verte Cité Bleu Cité des Combattants Roger Derry Rosenberg Cité des Peupliers-Manouchians La Semise Couzy As of 2016 the commune has 23 preschools, 21 elementary schools, with a combined total of 9,000 students.
Public junior high schools: Danielle-Casanova, Adolphe-Chérioux, Gustave-Monod, Collège Jules-VallesIn addition Collège Romain-Rolland in Ivry-sur-Seine serves a portion of Vitry-sur-Seine Senior high schools: Lycée Adolphe-Chérioux, Lycée Camille-Claudel, Lycée Jean-MacéLycée Romain-Rolland is in adjacent Ivry-sur-Seine Private junior-senior high school: Collège-lycée privé EpinParis 12 Val de Marne University is the area university. Vitry-sur-Seine is twinned with: Kladno, Czech Republic, since 1966 Meissen, since 1973 Jimmy Briand, footballer Cédric Bakambu, footballer Cerrone, Musician Doudou Masta, rapper Damien Dovy, karateka David Fleurival, footballer Mickaël Hanany, athlete Jimmy Kébé, footballer rap group 113 composed of rappers (Rim'K, AP and Mokobé Ritchie Makuma Mpasa, footballer Richard Massolin, footballer Jérémy Menez, footballer Maguy Nestoret, athlete Rohff, rapper Arsène Tchakarian, French resistance fighter and last surviving member of the Manouchian Group Lassana Touré, basketball player Rabbi Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry, 11th century Talmudist, disciple of Rashi Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Ary Bitter INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website Val-de-Marne's Museum of Contemporary Art Paris-Sud Community
Aulnay-sous-Bois is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 13.9 km from the Kilometre zero. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aulnaysiennes; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located in the Paris area and is 19 km north-east of Notre-Dame Cathedral, 1 km east of Le Bourget Airport, 5 km south-west of Charles de Gaulle Airport; the commune stretches over a length of 6.5 km from north to south and a width ranging from 1.4 to 4.3 km from east to west and covers an area of 1,620 hectares. The town is surrounded by the A3 autoroute in the west. Route nationale 2 passes through the heart of the commune from west to east with the N370 coming from the south-east along the eastern border to join the N2; the D44 passes through from north-west to south-east and the D115 from Bobigny in the south-west passes through the centre and continues to Villepinte in the east.
The Ourcq Canal passes through the south-eastern end, adjacent to Livry-Gargan. Distribution of urban zones is: Residential: 44% Industrial: 30% Housing Estates: 11% Natural areas: 15% The north of Aulnay-sous-Bois consists of large housing estates, industrial areas, parks: The Rose des Vents The Etangs The Merisier The City of Emmaus Balagny La Garenne Ambourget Savigny The Gros Saule The central area, called the district of Vieux Pays, is older with its Church of Saint-Sulpice built in the 12th century and its farm, it includes La Roseraie, Maximilien Robespierre, Le Vieux Pays, Tour Eiffel, Hotel de Ville. The south, across the railway line, is residential in nature, it is bordered by the Canal de l'Ourcq. It includes Chanteloup, Central Station, Pont de l'Union, Nonneville; when the construction of Clos Saint-Lazare at Stains ended, urbanization of the northern districts of Aulnay-sous-Bois began. The idea was to create an area of factories, it was on this basis that the area of Rose des Vents was built in 1969 in the northern part of Aulnay-sous-Bois.
This "Great Housing Estate" was built on former agricultural land. Its mission was to provide shelter for workers and managers for a new Citroën plant to be located a few hundred metres away. Beyond the Rose des Vents, known as the City of 3000, all of the housing estates in the northern districts total 6,500 housing units including 745 detached houses. 24,000 people, or 30% of the population of Aulnay-sous-Bois, are housed on 4% of the territory. The city is served by: Autoroutes: A1, A3, A104 National Roads: N2 and N370 Departmental Routes: D115, D44, D40, D401 The commune is traversed by the main railway line from Paris to Soissons and Hirson which serves the Aulnay-sous-Bois railway station where all buses and semi-direct services of and the Transilien Paris to Crépy-en-Valois stop and it is the terminus of the line; the station has a ride with a parking fee. Since November 2006, the classic commuter train the Ligne des Coquetiers between Aulnay-sous-Bois to Bondy has been replaced by a Tram-train that takes the same route and allows connection to the and.
Two branches are planned: the first to Clichy-sous-Bois and Montfermeil on the Gargan heights. Between September 2009 to January 2011, the Aulnay-sous-Bois station has had work done to allow access to all platforms for disabled persons including: the development of four lifts, the rehabilitation of the railway station and underpasses, the installation of new lighting. Aulnay-sous-Bois station is served by bus routes: RATP 251 TRA 605 607a 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 637 680 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 15 RATP N140Villepinte Station is located halfway between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Villepinte and it provides access to the district of Rose des Vents. Villepinte station is served by buses: TRA 609 615 617 642 683 In 2023 a station on line 16 in the Grand Paris Express project is planned north of the commune on the embankment of the former N2 road, its platforms will be at a depth of 15 metres. The city is served by various bus networks: RATP 148 251 350 TRA 605 607a 607b 609 610 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 634 637 680 683 684 686 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 1 15 32A 43 44 45 93 100 RATP N42 N140In the medium term, it is proposed the creation of a "transverse" line by merging TRA 614 627 637 lines.
In addition, it is planned to create a circular line to connect different parts of the city to avoid "reloading" for trips between all economic areas of the city and its public facilities. There is a taxi rank at Aulnay-sous-Bois station. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located 5 km from Charles de Gaulle Airport; the airport can be reached by the A1 and A3 autoroutes. "Aulnay" is a common French toponym and may derive from the Medieval Latin alnetum meaning "alder grove" after the alder trees which covered Aulnay-sous-Bois in ancient times. An alternative derivation is th
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere