Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
A ninja or shinobi was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan. The functions of a ninja included espionage, infiltration and guerrilla warfare, their covert methods of waging irregular warfare were deemed dishonorable and beneath the honor of the samurai. Though shinobi proper, as specially trained spies and mercenaries, appeared in the 15th century during the Sengoku period, antecedents may have existed as early as the 12th century. In the unrest of the Sengoku period and spies for hire became active in Iga Province and the adjacent area around the village of Kōga, it is from the area's clans that much of our knowledge of the ninja is drawn. Following the unification of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century, the ninja faded into obscurity. A number of shinobi manuals based on Chinese military philosophy, were written in the 17th and 18th centuries, most notably the Bansenshukai. By the time of the Meiji Restoration, shinobi had become a topic of popular imagination and mystery in Japan.
Ninjas figured prominently in legend and folklore, where they were associated with legendary abilities such as invisibility, walking on water and control over the natural elements. As a consequence, their perception in popular culture is based more on such legend and folklore than on the spies of the Sengoku period. Ninja is an on'yomi reading of the two kanji "忍者". In the native kun'yomi kanji reading, it is pronounced shinobi, a shortened form of the transcription shinobi-no-mono; the word shinobi appears in the written record as far back as the late 8th century in poems in the Man'yōshū. The underlying connotation of shinobi means "to steal away. Mono means "a person"; the word ninja was not in common use, a variety of regional colloquialisms evolved to describe what would be dubbed ninja. Along with shinobi, some examples include monomi, rappa and Iga-mono. In historical documents, shinobi is always used. Kunoichi, (くノ一） is an argot which means "woman" came from the characters くノ一, which make up the three strokes that form the kanji for "woman".
In fictions written in the modern era, Kunoichi means "female ninja",In the West, the word ninja became more prevalent than shinobi in the post–World War II culture because it was more comfortable for Western speakers. In English, the plural of ninja can be either unchanged as ninja, reflecting the Japanese language's lack of grammatical number, or the regular English plural ninjas. Despite many popular folktales, historical accounts of the ninja are scarce. Historian Stephen Turnbull asserts that the ninja were recruited from the lower class, therefore little literary interest was taken in them; the social origin of the ninja is seen as the reason they agree to operate in secret, trading their service for money without honor and glory. The scarcity of historical accounts is demonstrated in war epics such as The Tale of Hōgen and The Tale of the Heike, which focus on the aristocratic samurai, whose deeds were more appealing to the audience. Historian Kiyoshi Watatani states that the ninja were trained to be secretive about their actions and existence: So-called ninjutsu techniques, in short are the skills of shinobi-no-jutsu and shinobijutsu, which have the aims of ensuring that one's opponent does not know of one's existence, for which there was special training.
The title ninja has sometimes been attributed retrospectively to the semi-legendary 4th-century prince Yamato Takeru. In the Kojiki, the young Yamato Takeru disguised himself as a charming maiden, assassinated two chiefs of the Kumaso people. However, these records take place at a early stage of Japanese history, they are unlikely to be connected to the shinobi of accounts; the first recorded use of espionage was under the employment of Prince Shōtoku in the 6th century. Such tactics were considered unsavory in early times, according to the 10th-century Shōmonki, the boy spy Koharumaru was killed for spying against the insurgent Taira no Masakado; the 14th-century war chronicle Taiheiki contained many references to shinobi, credited the destruction of a castle by fire to an unnamed but "highly skilled shinobi". It was not until the 15th century, it was around this time that the word shinobi appeared to define and identify ninja as a secretive group of agents. Evidence for this can be seen in historical documents, which began to refer to stealthy soldiers as shinobi during the Sengoku period.
Manuals regarding espionage are grounded in Chinese military strategy, quoting works such as The Art of War by Sun Tzu. The ninja emerged as mercenaries in the 15th century, where they were recruited as spies, raiders and terrorists. Amongst the samurai, a sense of ritual and decorum was observed, where one was expected to fight or duel openly. Combined with the unrest of the Sengoku period, these factors created a demand for men willing to commit deeds considered disreputable for conventional warriors. By the Sengoku period, the shinobi had several roles, including spy, surprise attacker, agitator; the ninja families were organized into each with their own territories. A system of rank existed. A jōnin was the highest rank, hiring out mercenaries. This
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
Lightning is a violent and sudden electrostatic discharge where two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves during a thunderstorm. Lightning creates a wide range of electromagnetic radiations from the hot plasma created by the electron flow, including visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Thunder is the sound formed by the shock wave formed as gaseous molecules experience a rapid pressure increase; the three main kinds of lightning are: created either inside one thundercloud, or between two clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. The 15 recognized observational variants include "heat lightning", seen but not heard, dry lightning, which causes many forest fires, ball lightning, observed scientifically. Humans have deified lightning for millennia, lightning inspired expressions like "Bolt from the blue", "Lightning never strikes twice", "blitzkrieg" are common. In some languages, "Love at first sight" translates as "lightning strike"; the details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification.
The main charging area in a thunderstorm occurs in the central part of the storm where air is moving upward and temperatures range from −15 to −25 °C, see figure to the right. At that place, the combination of temperature and rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, graupel; the updraft carries the super-cooled cloud droplets and small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, larger and denser, tends to fall or be suspended in the rising air; the differences in the movement of the precipitation cause collisions to occur. When the rising ice crystals collide with graupel, the ice crystals become positively charged and the graupel becomes negatively charged. See figure to the left; the updraft carries. The larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm; the result is that the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged.
The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud to spread out horizontally some distance from thunderstorm cloud base. This part of the thunderstorm cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main charging process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm. In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the thunderstorm cloud due to the precipitation and warmer temperatures. A typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash culminates in the formation of an electrically conducting plasma channel through the air in excess of 5 km tall, from within the cloud to the ground's surface; the actual discharge is the final stage of a complex process. At its peak, a typical thunderstorm produces three or more strikes to the Earth per minute. Lightning occurs when warm air is mixed with colder air masses, resulting in atmospheric disturbances necessary for polarizing the atmosphere.
However, it can occur during dust storms, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, in the cold of winter, where the lightning is known as thundersnow. Hurricanes generate some lightning in the rainbands as much as 160 km from the center; the science of lightning is called fulminology, the fear of lightning is called astraphobia. Lightning is not distributed evenly around the planet. On Earth, the lightning frequency is 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year and the average duration is 0.2 seconds made up from a number of much shorter flashes of around 60 to 70 microseconds. Many factors affect the frequency, distribution and physical properties of a typical lightning flash in a particular region of the world; these factors include ground elevation, prevailing wind currents, relative humidity, proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, etc. To a certain degree, the ratio between IC, CC and CG lightning may vary by season in middle latitudes; because human beings are terrestrial and most of their possessions are on the Earth where lightning can damage or destroy them, CG lightning is the most studied and best understood of the three types though IC and CC are more common types of lightning.
Lightning's relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs after hundreds of years of scientific investigation. About 70 % of lightning occurs over land in the tropics; this occurs from both the mixture of warmer and colder air masses, as well as differences in moisture concentrations, it happens at the boundaries between them. The flow of warm ocean currents past drier land masses, such as the Gulf Stream explains the elevated frequency of lightning in the Southeast United States; because the influence of small or absent land masses in the vast stretches of the world's oceans limits the differences between these variants in the atmosphere, lightning is notably less frequent there than over larger landforms. The North and South Poles are limited in their coverage of thunderstorms and theref
Bartholomew Henry Allen II is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. Allen first appeared as the superhero Impulse, a teenage sidekick of the superhero The Flash, before he became the second hero known as Kid Flash; the character first made a cameo appearance in The Flash #91 in 1994, while his first full appearance in issue #92, appeared as the lead character in Impulse and The Flash: The Fastest Man Alive. In the latter series, the character became the fourth hero to assume the identity of The Flash. Bart prominently features in the superhero team titles Young Justice and Teen Titans; as the Flash, Bart was a core character in 10 issues of Justice League of America. As first conceived by writers, Bart was born in the 30th century to Meloni Thawne and Don Allen, is part of a complex family tree of superheroes and supervillains, his father, Don, is one of the Tornado Twins and his paternal grandfather is Barry Allen, the second Flash. His paternal grandmother, Iris West Allen, is the adoptive aunt of the first Kid Flash, Wally West.
Additionally, Bart is the first cousin of a Legionnaire and daughter of Dawn Allen. On his mother's side, he is a descendant of supervillains Professor Zoom and Cobalt Blue as well as the half-brother of Owen Mercer, the second Captain Boomerang. In addition to these relatives, he had a supervillain clone known as Inertia. For most of his superhero career, Bart was the sidekick to the Wally West version of the Flash. After West's apparent death in the Infinite Crisis crossover event in 2006, Allen grew up and became the Flash, his tenure as the Flash was brief, he was killed off in issue 13 of his series, The Flash: The Fastest Man Alive. Allen was subsequently absent for nearly two years after his apparent death, but resurfaced—young again—as Kid Flash, in 2009's Final Crisis: Legion of 3 Worlds. After DC revised its continuity in 2011 as part of a company-wide relaunch of its most popular titles, Bart Allen became the alias of Bar Torr, a feared reactionary from the distant future, sent to the 21st century without his memories, attempting to forge an identity for himself as Kid Flash.
Outside of comics, Bart has been portrayed by Kyle Gallner in the live-action television series Smallville. Jason Marsden voiced Impulse/Kid Flash in the animated series Young Justice; as depicted in a Legion of Super-Heroes story, Barry Allen's children—the Tornado Twins—were arrested in A. D. 2995 by the government of Earth, which had fallen under the covert control of the Dominators. Following a one-day trial on trumped-up charges of treason, the Twins were executed. According to a Daily Planet news report, Don Allen is survived by his wife Carmen Johnson, his mother Iris West Allen, his two-year-old son: Barry Allen II, or Bart; this timeline was wiped out by the events of Zero Hour: Crisis in Time miniseries. However, a parallel set of events occurred on Earth-247, with the Tornado Twins and their families having traveled there from New Earth. Suffering from a hyper-accelerated metabolism, Bart Allen was aging at a faster rate than that of any other human being, thus causing him to appear the age of twelve when he was chronologically only two years old.
To prevent him from developing mental health problems, he was raised in a virtual reality machine which created a simulated world that kept pace with his own scale of time. When it became clear that this method was not helping, his grandmother, Iris Allen, took him back in time to the present where The Flash, Wally West, tricked Bart into a race around the world. By forcing Bart into an extreme burst of speed, Wally managed to shock his hyper metabolism back to normal; because he had spent the majority of his childhood in a simulated world, Bart had no concept of danger and was prone to leaping before he looked. The youth proved to be more trouble than Wally could handle, he was palmed off onto retired superhero speedster Max Mercury, who moved Bart to the fictitious Manchester, Alabama. Bart created the Impulse codename for himself, though a retcon in Impulse #50 has Batman codenaming him such as a warning, not a compliment. Bart joined the Titans early in his career before going on to become one of the founding members of the superhero team Young Justice.
For a time, Impulse became the owner of a spaceship granted to him by a rich sultan in appreciation for having helped save his castle. The team used this ship to reunite Doiby Dickles with his queen and restore the rightful rule of Myrg. Impulse stayed with Young Justice for an extensive period of time during which he developed the ability to make speed-force energy duplicates; this allowed him to be in multiple places at once. The newly acquired power proved useful until one of the duplicates was killed during the "Our Worlds at War" storyline when half the team was lost on Apokolips. Bart quit Young Justice temporarily as the death of his duplicate led him to come to terms with his own mortality. Following Max Mercury's disappearance, Bart was taken in by Jay Garrick, the first Flash, his wife Joan. After the breakup of Young Justice, Bart joined some of his former teammates in a new line-up of the Teen Titans. Shortly after Bart joined the Teen Titans, he was shot in the knee by Deathstroke and received a prosthetic one.
While recovering, Bart read every single book in the San Francisco Public Library and reinvented himself as the new Kid Flash. Once healed, the artificial knee did not affect his ability to run at speeds approaching that of light, but reminding him that he needs to think first rather than to act impulsively; when Robin reminded him that by becomi
Flash (Jay Garrick)
Jay Garrick is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. He is the first superhero known as the Flash; the character was created by artist Harry Lampert. He first appeared in Flash Comics #1. After a bizarre laboratory accident, he acquired the ability to move at superhuman speed, chose to fight crime as a costumed vigilante, calling himself "the Flash". Jay Garrick has made numerous appearances in other media, including his live-action debut as a cameo in Smallville, played by Billy Mitchell, in The Flash, portrayed by John Wesley Shipp; the character of Jay Garrick was created by artist Harry Lampert. The character first appeared in the first issue of the anthology series Flash Comics in 1940, published by All-American Publications, he was soon featured in All-Star Comics as part of the Justice Society of America. In 1941, he got All-Flash. After World War II, superheroes declined in popularity, causing many of the Flash's comic book series to be canceled.
All-Flash was canceled in 1948 after 32 issues. Flash Comics was canceled in 1949 after 104 issues. All-Star Comics was canceled in 1951 after 57 issues. Garrick would not appear again for ten years, never got another solo series. In 1956, DC Comics reinvented the Flash character, giving him a new costume and background; this new Flash, named Barry Allen, was unrelated to Jay Garrick. In fact, Garrick had never existed. Barry Allen's first appearance shows him reading a copy of Flash Comics, lamenting that Garrick was "just a character some writer dreamed up". Readers welcomed the new Flash, but still had an interest in the old one. Jay Garrick made a guest appearance in Flash #123. In this issue, Garrick was treated as residing in a parallel universe, which allowed the character to exist without any continuity conflicts with Barry Allen, yet allowed him to make guest appearances in Silver Age books. Garrick only made guest appearances for most of the 70s. However, starting in 1976, Garrick became a regular character in the revived All-Star Comics, partaking in adventures with the Justice Society, in stories set in modern times.
In 1981, he and the Justice Society appeared in All-Star Squadron in stories set during World War II. In 1985, DC Comics merged all of its fictional characters into a single shared universe. Jay Garrick now shared the same world as the new Flash. DC wrote the character out of continuity in the one-shot Last Days of the Justice Society, but brought the character back in the 1990s due to fan interest. Unlike characters such as Batman or Superman, DC decided not to update Jay as a young hero, but portrayed him as a veteran of World War 2 with a magically-prolonged lifespan. Jay Garrick became a regular character in Justice Society of America. Jason Peter Garrick is a college student, prior to 1940, accidentally inhales hard water vapors after taking a smoke break in his laboratory where he had been working; as a result, he finds that he can run at superhuman speed and has fast reflexes. Retcons imply that the inhalation activated a latent metagene. After a brief career as a college football star, he dons a red shirt with a lightning bolt and a stylized metal helmet with wings.
He begins to fight crime as the Flash. The helmet belonged to Jay's father, who fought during World War I, he sometimes uses a type of shield, as seen in Infinite Crisis. He has used it to direct a beam of light at Eclipso. In The Flash: Rebirth, he used it to de-stabilize Reverse Flash. In the early stories, it seems to be known that Garrick is the Flash. Stories would show him as having his identity secret, that he is able to maintain it without the use of a mask by "vibrating" his features, making him hard to recognize or photograph; the effectiveness of this is debatable, as he blamed his girlfriend, deducing his true identity on his lack of a mask. Garrick made his identity as the Flash public to the world. During his career, he would find himself embroiled in semi-comic situations inadvertently initiated by Winky and Noddy, a trio of tramps known as the Three Dimwits, who tried their hand at one job after another, never successfully, his first case involves battling the Faultless Four, a group of blackmailers, who plot to steal an atomic bombarder and sell it.
It is revealed that a professor found the last container of heavy water vapors and used it to gain superspeed, becoming the Rival. He takes away Jay's speed after capturing him, making him super-slow, but Jay uses the gases again, allowing him to regain his superspeed and defeat the Rival. Like the Flashes who followed him, Garrick became a close friend of the Green Lantern of his time, Alan Scott, whom he met through the Justice Society of America; the Flash soon became one of the best-known of the Golden Age of superheroes. He served as its first chairman, he was based in New York City, but this was retconned to the fictional Keystone City. He returned several years later, he had a distinguished career as a crime-fighter during the 1940s. Garrick's early history was the subject of retcons. A story explaining the retirement of the JSA members, including the Flash, explained that, in 1951, the JSA was investigated by th
The Flash (2014 TV series)
The Flash is an American superhero television series developed by Greg Berlanti, Andrew Kreisberg, Geoff Johns, airing on The CW. It is based on the DC Comics character Barry Allen / Flash, a costumed superhero crime-fighter with the power to move at superhuman speeds, it is a spin-off from existing in the same fictional universe. The series follows Barry Allen, portrayed by Grant Gustin, a crime scene investigator who gains super-human speed, which he uses to fight criminals, including others who have gained superhuman abilities. Envisioned as a backdoor pilot, the positive reception Gustin received during two appearances as Barry on Arrow led to executives choosing to develop a full pilot to make use of a larger budget and help flesh out Barry's world in more detail. Colleen Atwood, costume designer for Arrow, was brought in to design the Flash's suit; the creative team wanted to make sure that the Flash would resemble his comic book counterpart, not be a poor imitation. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Flash premiered in North America on October 7, 2014, where the pilot became the second-most watched premiere in the history of The CW, after The Vampire Diaries in 2009. It has been well received by critics and audiences, won the People's Choice Award for "Favorite New TV Drama" in 2014; the series, together with Arrow, has spun characters out to their own show, Legends of Tomorrow, which premiered on January 21, 2016. On April 2, 2018, The CW renewed the series for a fifth season, which premiered on October 9, 2018. On January 31, 2019, The CW renewed the series for a sixth season. In season one, after witnessing his mother's supernatural murder, Barry Allen is taken in by Detective Joe West and his family. Barry becomes a brilliant but awkward crime scene investigator for the Central City Police Department. A particle accelerator malfunctions, bathing the city center with a radiation during a thunderstorm, Barry is struck by lightning. Awakening after a coma, he discovers. Harrison Wells, the accelerator's designer, describes Barry's nature as "metahuman".
Barry vows to use his gifts to protect Central City. As the Flash, Barry pursues his mother's murderer, the Reverse-Flash. In season two, after a singularity event occurs, the Flash is recognized as Central City's hero. However, the event brings a new threat from a parallel earth: Zoom, a demonic speedster who seeks to eliminate all speedsters throughout the multiverse. Harrison Wells' parallel universe counterpart nicknamed "Harry", his daughter Jesse, work to help Barry stop Zoom and explore the multiverse. Joe and his daughter, struggle with the arrival of Iris's brother Wally West. After Zoom kills Barry's father, following Zoom's defeat, Barry travels back in time to save his mother's life. In season three, by changing his past, Barry creates the alternate timeline "Flashpoint". Though he is somewhat able to restore the timeline, this creates new threats, including the emergence of Savitar, a god-like speedster with a grudge against Barry. After Harry and Jesse return to Earth-2, another Wells doppelgänger is recruited: the novelist "H.
R." Wells. Both Wally and Caitlin Snow begin to manifest metahuman abilities; when Barry accidentally travels to the future and sees Iris killed by Savitar, he becomes desperate to change the future to prevent that from happening. After saving Iris and defeating Savitar, Barry takes his place in the Speed Force in order to repent for his creation of Flashpoint. In season four, following Barry's departure and Cisco have been able to protect Central City; when a new foe defeats them requesting a battle against the Flash, the team decides to bring Barry back. While they manage to do so, Barry's return releases dark matter, turning a dozen people on a city bus into metahumans. One of these metas is private detective Ralph Dibny; the team encounters Clifford DeVoe, an adversary with the fastest mind alive, who has orchestrated Barry's return from the Speed Force as well as the creation of the bus metas. Harry Wells, with his parallel universe counterparts, establish an alliance coined the Council of Wells to assist Team Flash in stopping DeVoe.
Though they fail to stop DeVoe from stealing the bus metas' powers, they succeed in foiling his scheme, the Enlightenment. Following this, the team is approached by Barry and Iris' daughter from the future, Nora West-Allen, who claims to have made "a big, big mistake". In season five, Nora claims. However, the team discovers that Nora's presence not only altered the timeline, but unleashed a new threat in the form of Cicada, a serial killer bent on killing metahumans. In addition, they discover that meta-technology was created following their battle with the Thinker, meaning anyone wielding meta-tech can utilize the power of a metahuman; the Council of Wells sends one of their doppelgängers, detective Sherloque Wells, to aid Team Flash in countering these crises. Grant Gustin as Barry Allen / The Flash: A Central City assistant police forensic investigator. Moments after an explosion at the S. T. A. R. Labs particle accelerator, Barry is struck by lightning in his laboratory and doused by chemicals affected by the accident.
When he awakens from a nine-month coma, he has superhuman speed. In September 2013, Grant Gustin was cast in the titular role. Andy Mientus, who would be cast as Hartley Rathaway auditioned for the role. Gustin began researching the character during the audition process, reading as many comics as possible. Gustin focused