Toast is a form of bread, browned by exposure to radiant heat. This browning is the result of a Maillard reaction altering the flavor of the bread and making it firmer so that it is easier to spread toppings on it. Toasting is a common method of making stale bread more palatable. Bread is toasted using a toaster, but toaster ovens are used. Though many types of bread can be toasted the most used is "sliced bread", referring to bread, sliced and bagged upon purchase and may be white, multigrain, etc. Toast is eaten with butter or margarine, sweetened toppings, such as jam or jelly. Regionally, savory spreads, such as peanut butter or yeast extracts, may be popular; when buttered, toast may be served as an accompaniment to savory dishes soups or stews, or topped with heartier ingredients like eggs or baked beans as a light meal. Toast is a common breakfast food. While slices of bread are most common and English muffins are toasted. Scientific studies in the early 2000s found that toast may contain carcinogens caused by the browning process.
The word "toast", which means "sliced bread singed by heat", derives from the Latin torrere, "to burn". The first reference to toast in print is in a recipe for Oyle Soppys that dates from 1430. In the 1400s and 1500s, toast was eaten after it was used as a flavoring for drinks. In the 1600s, toast was still thought of as something to be put into drinks. In his 1602 play The Merry Wives of Windsor, Shakespeare gives Falstaff the line: "Go fetch me a quart of sack. By the 1700s, there were references to "toast" as a gesture that indicates sexual attraction for a person: "Ay, Madam, it has been your Life's whole Pride of late to be the Common Toast of every Publick Table." Toast has been used as an element of American haute cuisine since at least the 1850s. In a modern home kitchen, the usual method of toasting bread is by the use of a toaster, an electrical appliance made for that purpose. To use a modern toaster, sliced bread is placed into the narrow slots on the top of the toaster, the toaster is tuned to the correct setting and a lever on the front or side is pushed down.
The toast is ready. If the bread is insufficiently toasted, the lever can be pressed down again. Bread toasted in a conventional toaster can "sweat"; this occurs because moisture in the bread becomes steam while being toasted due to heat and when cooled the steam condenses into water droplets on the surface of the bread. It can be toasted by a conveyor toaster, which device is used in hotels and other food service locations, it works by having one heating element on the top and one on the bottom with a metal conveyor belt in the middle which carries the toast between the two heating elements. This allows toast to be made as more slices can be added at any time without waiting for previous ones to pop up. Bread can be toasted under a grill, in an open oven, or lying on an oven rack; this "oven toast" is buttered before toasting. Toaster ovens are special small appliances made for toasting bread or for heating small amounts of other foods. Bread can be toasted by holding it near but not directly over an open flame, such as a campfire or fireplace.
Before the invention of modern cooking appliances such as toasters and grills, bread has been produced in ovens for millennia, toast can be made in the same oven. Many brands of ready sliced bread are available, some of which market their suitability for toasting. In modern days, toast is most eaten with butter or margarine spread over it, may be served with preserves, spreads, or other toppings in addition to or instead of butter. Toast with jam or marmalade is popular. A few other condiments that can be enjoyed with toast are chocolate spread, cream cheese, peanut butter. Yeast extracts such as Marmite in the UK, New Zealand and South Africa, Vegemite in Australia are national traditions; some sandwiches, such as the BLT, call for toast to be used rather than bread. Toast is an important component of many breakfasts, is important in some traditional bland specialty diets for people with gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea. In the United Kingdom, a dish popular with children is a soft-boiled egg eaten with toast soldiers at breakfast.
Strips of toast are dipped into the runny yolk of a boiled egg through a hole made in the top of the eggshell, eaten. In southern Sri Lanka, it is common for toast to be paired with a curry mint tea. By 2013, "artisanal toast" had become a significant food trend in upscale American cities like San Francisco, where some commentators decried the increasing number of restaurants and bakeries selling freshly made toast at what was perceived to be an unreasonably high price. Toasted bread slices may contain Benzopyrene and high levels of acrylamide, a carcinogen generated during the browning process. High acrylamide levels can be found in other heated carbohydrate-rich foods; the darker the surface colour of the toast, the higher its concentration of acrylamide. That is why, according to the recommendations made by the British Food Standards Agency, bread should be toasted to the lightest colour acceptable; the slang idiom "you're toast", "I'm toast", or "we're toast" is used to express a state of being "outcast", "finished", "burned, wiped out, demolished" (without the consolation of being
Scotch woodcock is a British savoury dish consisting of creamy, lightly-scrambled eggs served on toast, spread with anchovy paste or Gentleman's Relish, sometimes topped with chopped herbs and black pepper. It is most served as an hors d'oeuvre. Scotch woodcock was served in the refreshment rooms of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom as late as 1949, it was served at the colleges of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford and it continues to be served at the Oxford and Cambridge Club as an alternative to sweet desserts or cheeseboard. It was a well-known dish in the Victorian era, is mentioned in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management; the name is modeled on Welsh rarebit. "Scotch" is a synonym for Scottish, although now considered distasteful within Scotland itself
Devils on horseback
Devils on horseback are a hot appetizer or savoury small dish. Recipes vary, but in general they are a variation on angels on horseback, made by replacing oysters with dried fruit; the majority of recipes contain a pitted prune stuffed with mango chutney or an almond and wrapped in bacon. This is baked in the oven and quite served on toast, with watercress. Other recipes stuff the fruit with cheese, smoked oysters, or other things in place of the mango chutney. Other versions again stuffed inside the prunes. A traditional favourite is orange segments wrapped in another fruit. Devils on horseback are served as part of a Christmas feast. Angels on Horseback Bacon wrapped food Rumaki List of hors d'oeuvre List of stuffed dishes Food portal Media related to Devils on horseback at Wikimedia Commons Slater, Nigel. "Nigel Slater's classic devils on horseback recipe". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Recipe using prunes. "Baked Chicken Liver Devils On Horseback". 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
Retrieved 15 August 2015. "Devils on Horseback". Martha Stewart. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Recipe using dates
Welsh rarebit or Welsh rabbit is a traditional Welsh dish made with a savoury sauce of melted cheese and various other ingredients and served hot, after being poured over slices of toasted bread, or the hot cheese sauce may be served in a chafing dish like a fondue, accompanied by sliced, toasted bread. The names of the dish originate from 18th-century Britain. Despite the name, the dish contains no rabbit meat. Recipes for Welsh rarebit include the addition of ale, ground cayenne pepper or ground paprika and Worcestershire sauce; the sauce may be made by blending cheese and mustard into a Béchamel sauce. Some recipes for Welsh rarebit have become textbook savoury dishes listed by culinary authorities including Auguste Escoffier, Louis Saulnier and others, who tend to use the form Welsh rarebit, emphasizing that it is not a meat dish. Acknowledging that there is more than one way to make a rarebit, some cookbooks have included two recipes: the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book of 1896 provides one béchamel-based recipe and another with beer, Le Guide Culinaire of 1907 has one with ale and one without, the Constance Spry Cookery Book of 1956 has one with flour and one without.
Hannah Glasse, in her 1747 cookbook The Art of Cookery, gives recipes for "Scotch rabbit", "Welsh rabbit" and two versions of "English rabbit". To make a Scotch rabbit, toast the bread nicely on both sides, butter it, cut a slice of cheese about as big as the bread, toast it on both sides, lay it on the bread. To make a Welsh rabbit, toast the bread on both sides toast the cheese on one side, lay it on the toast, with a hot iron brown the other side. You may rub it over with mustard. To make an English rabbit, toast the bread brown on both sides, lay it in a plate before the fire, pour a glass of red wine over it, let it soak the wine up. Cut some cheese thin and lay it thick over the bread, put it in a tin oven before the fire, it will be toasted and browned presently. Serve it away hot. Or do it thus. Toast the bread and soak it in the wine, set it before the fire, rub butter over the bottom of a plate, lay the cheese on, pour in two or three spoonfuls of white wine, cover it with another plate, set it over a chafing-dish of hot coals for two or three minutes stir it till it is done and well mixed.
You may stir in a little mustard. Served with an egg on top, a Welsh rarebit is known as a golden buck. Welsh rarebit blended with tomato is known as Blushing Bunny. A version of Welsh rarebit called Le Welsh is traditionally served in the French Nord-pas-de-Calais region; the first recorded reference to the dish was "Welsh rabbit" in 1725, but the origin of the term is unknown. There is some suggestion that Welsh Rabbit derives from a South Wales Valleys staple, in which a generous lump of cheese is placed into a mixture of beaten eggs and milk, seasoned with salt and pepper, baked in the oven until the egg mixture has firmed and the cheese has melted. Onion may be added and the mixture would be eaten with bread and butter and with the vinegar from pickled beetroot; the word Welsh may have been adopted because it carries a now-archaic sense in English to mean "foreign, non-native"—an etymological phenomenon seen in its ultimate ancestor, the Proto-Germanic walhaz and many of its descendants like the dated sense of German welsch.
It is possible that the dish was attributed to the Welsh because they were considered fond of cheese, as evidenced by Andrew Boorde in his Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, when he wrote "I am a Welshman, I do love cause boby, good roasted cheese." In Boorde's account, "cause boby" is the Welsh caws pobi, meaning "baked cheese", but whether it implies a recipe like Welsh rarebit is a matter of speculation. The word rarebit is a corruption of rabbit, "Welsh rabbit" being first recorded in 1725 and the variant "Welsh rarebit" being first recorded in 1785 by Francis Grose. According to the Oxford English Dictionary,'Welsh rarebit' is an "etymologizing alteration. There is no evidence of the independent use of rarebit"; the word rarebit has no other use than in Welsh rabbit."Eighteenth-century English cookbooks reveal that it was considered to be a luscious supper or tavern dish, based on the fine cheddar-type cheeses and the wheat bread. It seems there was not only a Welsh Rabbit, but an English Rabbit, an Irish and a Scotch Rabbit, but nary a rarebit."Michael Quinion writes: "Welsh rabbit is cheese on toast".
The entry in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is "Welsh rabbit, Welsh rarebit" and states: "When Francis Grose defined Welsh rabbit in A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue in 1785, he mistakenly indicated that rabbit was a corruption of rarebit. It is not certain that this erroneous idea originated with Grose...."In his 1926 edition of the Dictionary of Modern English Usage, the grammarian H. W. Fowler states a forthright view: "Welsh Rabbit is amusing and right. Welsh Rarebit is stupid and wrong." The notion that toasted cheese was a favourite dish irresistible to the Welsh has existed since the Middle Ages. In A C Merie Talys, a printed book of jokes of 1526 AD, it is told that God became weary of all the Welshmen in heaven,'which with their krakynge and babelynge trobelyd all the others
Angels on horseback
Angels on horseback is a hot hors d'œuvre or savoury made of oysters wrapped with bacon. The dish, when served atop breads, can be a canapé; the dish is prepared by rolling shucked oysters in bacon and baking them in an oven. Modern variations of angels on horseback include frying. Serving can vary to taste on either skewers or breads, with additional accompaniments or condiments. Angels on horseback differ from the similar, fruit-based, devils on horseback, but the dishes' names are sometimes erroneously considered synonyms. Angels on horseback can be served a hors d'œuvre, as a savoury. Angels on horseback are canapés. In England, they are traditionally served as savouries. One cookbook including angels on horseback as a savoury is the 1905 Savouries Simplified, by Constance Peel. Angels on horseback should not be confused with devils on horseback; the latter dish, derived from the former, uses fruit prunes or dates. American and British chefs including Martha Stewart and Martin Blunos recognise the distinction between the dishes, though food writer John Ayto does too, he notes that the names have been used interchangeably.
This has been traced to a Chicago Tribune article and James Beard who "insisted that angels on horseback required ham as a wrapper, that if bacon were used, what you'd have would be devils on horseback." The origins of the dish are unclear. The name most derives from the French anges à cheval, there appears to be no significance in the oyster/angel and bacon/horse links, its first occurrence, according to the Oxford English Dictionary and other sources, is in 1888, in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management. However, there is a reference in an Australian newspaper to the dish, which includes a brief recipe, from 1882. References to angels on horseback in the United States date to the mid- to late 1890s. One of the earliest references in an American newspaper is an 1896 article from The New York Times, where the dish is suggested as an appetizer. In this version, the angels on horseback are skewered, sprinkled with cayenne pepper, broiled; the article suggests serving the dish without toast. In the 1930s, they are suggested as part of a picnic menu, in 1948 again as an appetizer.
In the 1950s, American newspapers featured the dish with interest, from papers including the Chicago Tribune, with the articles "For Oyster Treat, Try Angels on Horseback: They're Delectable Appetizer Sunday Menu", "These Angels on Horseback Are Oysters", the Los Angeles Times. Angels on horseback did achieve a certain popularity in the 1960s in Washington, D. C.. Mrs. Bruce called them Angels on Horseback." As late as the 1980s, the Chicago Tribune published an article calling the dish "intriguing", suggesting it had not yet become commonplace in the United States. Publications from the 1990s onwards discuss angels on horseback as an indulgence or a delicacy with frequency. 1001 Foods to Die For noted it as an indulgence in North American due to the elevation of oysters to a delicacy status. The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink noted that the luxury of oysters results in cocktail sausages replacing the oysters. According to the classic recipe, shucked oysters are wrapped in bacon, broiled in the oven, about three minutes per side.
An early recipe, from 1902, suggests frying the skewered oysters and bacon in butter. The dish is served on toast, though if prepared on skewers and broiled, it can be eaten straight from the skewer. Variations on the preparation and presentation of the angels on horseback vary considerably. In Feng Shui Food, it is prepared by rolling a shucked oyster in bacon and skewering it with a cocktail stick and served with a squeeze of lime. Joanna Pruess's book Seduced by Bacon includes a recipe for "Angels and Devils", with the suggestion that "a little hot red pepper sauce can transform them from heavenly to hellishly hot tasting, or somewhere inbetween." Myles Bader, author of The Wizard of Food's Encyclopedia of Kitchen & Cooking Secrets, suggests serving angels on horseback on toast with a lemon wedge or hollandaise sauce. An Italian variant replaces bacon with prosciutto. In the James Bond novel Doctor No, Ian Fleming writes of Bond ordering a dinner in the lair of the title character that includes angels on horseback.
Bacon wrapped food List of hors d'oeuvre Oysters en brochette Recipe by Marcus Wareing from the BBC's Great British Menu
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K