Ketchum is a city in Blaine County, United States, in the central part of the state. The population was 2,689 at the 2010 census, down from 3,003 in 2000. Located in the Wood River Valley, Ketchum is adjacent to Sun Valley and the communities share many resources; the city draws tourists from around the world to enjoy its fishing, trail riding, shopping, art galleries, more. The airport for Ketchum, Friedman Memorial Airport, is 15 miles south in Hailey; the smelting center of the Warm Springs mining district, the town was first named Leadville in 1880. The postal department decided, too common and renamed it for David Ketchum, a local trapper and guide who had staked a claim in the basin a year earlier. Smelters were built in the 1880s, with the Philadelphia Smelter, located on Warm Springs Road, processing large amounts of lead and silver for about a decade. After the mining boom subsided in the 1890s, sheepmen from the south drove their flocks north through Ketchum in the summer, to graze in the upper elevation areas of the Pioneer and Sawtooth mountains.
By 1920, Ketchum had become the largest sheep-shipping center in the West. In the fall, massive flocks of sheep flowed south into the town's livestock corrals at the Union Pacific Railroad's railhead, which connected to the main line at Shoshone. After the development of Sun Valley by the Union Pacific Railroad in 1936, Ketchum became popular with celebrities, including Gary Cooper and Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway loved the surrounding area, it was there he committed suicide. The local elementary school is named in his honor; every Labor Day weekend, Ketchum hosts the Wagon Days festival, a themed carnival featuring Old West wagon trains, narrow ore wagons, a parade, simulated street gunfights. The Clint Eastwood film Pale Rider was filmed in Sawtooth Mountains nearby Ketchum. Ketchum is eulogized in the song "ID" by indie rock band boygenius. Ketchum is located at an elevation of 5,853 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.08 square miles, of which, 3.05 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water.
However, two mountain streams, Trail Creek and Warm Springs Creek, join the Big Wood River in Ketchum. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,689 people, 1,431 households, 583 families residing in the city; the population density was 881.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,564 housing units at an average density of 1,168.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.9% White, 0.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 6.5% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.1% of the population. There were 1,431 households of which 15.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 59.3% were non-families. 44.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.88 and the average family size was 2.63.
The median age in the city was 44 years. 14.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.0% male and 48.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,003 people, 1,582 households, 607 families residing in the city; the population density was 991.4 people per square mile. There were 2,920 housing units at an average density of 964.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.74% White, 0.27% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 2.33% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.90% of the population. There were 1,582 households out of which 14.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.1% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 61.6% were non-families. 42.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 2.60.
In the city, the population was spread out with 12.5% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 37.6% from 25 to 44, 31.1% from 45 to 64, 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,457, the median income for a family was $73,750. Males had a median income of $31,712 versus $27,857 for females; the per capita income for the city was $41,798. About 3.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Sawtooth Botanical Garden Ketchum Sun Valley Historical Society Heritage & Ski Museum Sawtooth National Recreation Area Sun Valley's Bald Mountain or "Baldy" has 13 chairlifts and 65 runs, it has 3,400 feet of vertical from top to bottom. Trailing of the Sheep Ride Sun Valley Bike Festival Sun Valley Jazz Festival Sun Valley Summer Symphony Wagon Days Sun Valley Film Festival TEDxSunValley
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants grown for their colourful flowers. One species of poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the source of the narcotic drug opium which contains powerful medicinal alkaloids such as morphine and has been used since ancient times as an analgesic and narcotic medicinal and recreational drug, it produces edible seeds. Following the trench warfare in the poppy fields of Flanders during World War I, poppies have become a symbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime. Poppies are herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plants; some species are monocarpic. Poppies can be over a metre tall with flowers up to 15 centimetres across. Flowers of species have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the center of the flower and an ovary of from 2 to many fused carpels; the petals are showy, may be of any color and some have markings. The petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes, the petals lie flat before falling away.
In the temperate zones, poppies bloom from spring into early summer. Most species secrete latex. Bees use poppies as a pollen source; the pollen of the oriental poppy, Papaver orientale, is dark blue, that of the field or corn poppy is grey to dark green. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, grows wild in eastern and southern Asia, South Eastern Europe, it is believed. Poppies belong to the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae, which includes the following genera: Papaver – Papaver rhoeas, Papaver somniferum, Papaver orientale, Papaver nudicaule Eschscholzia – Eschscholzia californica Meconopsis – Meconopsis cambrica, Meconopsis napaulensis Stylophorum – celandine poppy Argemone – prickly poppy Romneya – matilija poppy and relatives Canbya – pygmy poppy Stylomecon – wind poppy Arctomecon – desert bearpaw poppy Hunnemannia – tulip poppy Dendromecon – tree poppy The flowers of most poppy species are attractive and are cultivated as annual or perennial ornamental plants; this has resulted in a number of commercially important cultivars, such as the Shirley poppy, a cultivar of Papaver rhoeas and semi-double or double forms of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum and oriental poppy.
Poppies of several other genera are cultivated in gardens. A few species have other uses, principally as sources of foods; the opium poppy is cultivated and its worldwide production is monitored by international agencies. It is used for production of dried latex and opium, the principal precursor of narcotic and analgesic opiates such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds are rich in oil, carbohydrates and protein. Poppy oil is used as cooking oil, salad dressing oil, or in products such as margarine. Poppy oil can be added to spices for cakes, or breads. Poppy products are used in different paints and some cosmetics. Ancient Egyptian doctors would have their patients eat seeds from a poppy to relieve pain. Poppy seeds contain small quantities of both morphine and codeine, which are pain-relieving drugs that are still used today. Poppy seeds and fixed oils can be nonnarcotic because when they are harvested about twenty days after the flower has opened, the morphine is no longer present. In Mexico, Grupo Modelo, the makers of Corona beer, used red poppy flowers in most of its advertising images until the 1960s.
Artificial poppies are used in the veterans' aid campaign by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, which provides money to the veterans who assemble the poppies and various aid programs to veterans and their families. A poppy flower is depicted on the reverse of the Macedonian 500-denar banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003; the poppy is part of the coat of arms of North Macedonia. Canada issued special quarters with a red poppy on the reverse in 2004, 2008 and 2010; the 2004 Canadian "poppy" quarter was the world's first coloured circulation coin. The girl's given name "Poppy". Poppies have long been used as a symbol of sleep and death: Sleep because the opium extracted from them is a sedative, death because of the common blood-red color of the red poppy in particular. In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead. Poppies used; this symbolism was evoked in the children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in which a magical poppy field threatened to make the protagonists sleep forever.
A second interpretation of poppies in Classical mythology is that the bright scarlet color signifies a promise of resurrection after death. The poppy of wartime remembrance is the red-flowered corn poppy; this poppy is a common weed in Europe and is found in many locations, including Flanders, the setting of the famous poem "In Flanders Fields" by the Canadian surgeon and soldier John McCrae. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa and New Zealand, artificial poppies are worn to commemorate those who died in war; this form of commemoration is associated with Remembrance Day, which falls on November 11. In Canada and the UK, poppies are worn from the beginning of November through to the 11th, or Remembrance Sunday if that falls on a date. In New Zealand and Australia, soldiers are commemorated on ANZAC day, although the poppy is still worn around Remembrance Day. Wearing of poppies has been a custom since 1924 in the United States. Miss Moina Michael of G
A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies to grapevines, while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. Certain plants always grow as vines. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on long stems; this has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy; this has been a successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism.
Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may enable plants to colonize large areas even without climbing high; this is the case with ground ivy. It is an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments; the evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: twining the stem around a support by way of adventitious, clinging roots with twining petioles using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots, leaves, or inflorescences using tendrils which produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite to the support using thorns or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches The climbing fetterbush is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns.
It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants; these may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria and common ivy, herbaceous vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns; the stem does not climb. The fronds unroll from the tip, theoretically never stop growing. A twining vine known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops are a commercially important example of a bine; the direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on.
This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean and bindweed, while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean and climbing honeysuckles. The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann; the term "vine" applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines. Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can be provided; some climbers climb by themselves. Vines differ in size and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method, he classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity.
They reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity; this climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. The environment where a vine can grow is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories suppor
Arabis, or rockcress, is a genus of flowering plants, within the family Brassicaceae, subfamily Brassicoideae. The species are herbaceous, annual or perennial plants, growing to 10–80 cm tall densely hairy, with simple entire to lobed leaves 1–6 cm long, small white four-petaled flowers; the fruit is a slender capsule containing 10-20 or more seeds. Natural habitat for Arabis species is rocky mountain/cliff sides or dry sites Cultivation of Arabis is best suited for rock gardens or container gardens; this genus is pollinated by members of Lepidoptera. Though traditionally recognized as a large genus with many Old World and New World members, more recent evaluations of the relationships among these species using genetic data suggest there are two major groups within the old genus Arabis; these two groups are not each other's closest relatives, so have been split into two separate genera. Most of the Old World members remain in the genus Arabis, whereas most of the New World members have been moved into the genus Boechera, with only a few remaining in Arabis.
Selected speciesArabis aculeolata Arabis alpina Arabis armena Arabis blepharophylla Arabis caucasica Willd. Arabis cypria Arabis glabra Arabis hirsuta Arabis kazbegi Arabis kennedyae Arabis lemmonii Arabis macdonaldiana Arabis procurrens Arabis pycnocarpa Arabis serotina Some species, notably A. alpina, are cultivated as ornamental plants in gardens. Many others are regarded as weeds. Natural History Museum
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, medicinal purposes, or for fragrances. Culinary use distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant, while spices are dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark and fruits. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between medicinal herbs; the word "herb" is pronounced in Commonwealth English, but is common among North American English speakers and those from other regions where h-dropping occurs. In botany, the word "herb" is used as a synonym for "herbaceous plant". In botany, the term herb refers to a herbaceous plant, defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial parts die back to the ground at the end of each growing season; the term refers to perennials, although herbaceous plants can be annuals, or biennials.
This term is in contrast to trees which possess a woody stem. Shrubs and trees are defined in terms of size, where shrubs are less than 10 meters tall, trees may grow over 10 meters; the word herbaceous is derived from Latin herbāceus meaning "grassy", from herba "grass, herb". Another sense of the term herb can refer to a much larger range of plants, with culinary, therapeutic or other uses. For example, some of the most described herbs such as Sage and Lavender would be excluded from the botanical definition of a herb as they do not die down each year, they possess woody stems. In the wider sense, herbs may be herbaceous perennials but trees, shrubs, lianas, mosses, algae and fungi. Herbalism can utilize not just stems and leaves but fruit, roots and gums; therefore one suggested definition of a herb is a plant, of use to humans, although this definition is problematic since it could cover a great many plants that are not described as herbs. Ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus divided the plant world into trees and herbs.
Herbs came to be considered in namely pot herbs, sweet herbs and salad herbs. During the seventeenth century as selective breeding changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as vegetables as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide flavor rather than substance to food. Herbs can be perennials such as thyme, sage or lavender, biennials such as parsley, or annuals like basil. Perennial herbs can be shrubs such as rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, or trees such as bay laurel, Laurus nobilis – this contrasts with botanical herbs, which by definition cannot be woody plants; some plants are used as both herbs and spices, such as dill weed and dill seed or coriander leaves and seeds. There are some herbs, such as those in the mint family, that are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Emperor Charlemagne compiled a list of 74 different herbs.
The connection between herbs and health is important in the European Middle Ages--The Forme of Cury promotes extensive use of herbs, including in salads, claims in its preface "the assent and advisement of the masters of physic and philosophy in the King's Court". Some herbs can be infused in boiling water to make herbal teas; the dried leaves, flowers or seeds are used, or fresh herbs are used. Herbal teas tend to made from aromatic herbs, may not contain tannins or caffeine, are not mixed with milk. Common examples include mint tea. Herbal teas are used as a source of relaxation or can be associated with rituals. Herbs were used in prehistoric medicine; as far back as 5000 BCE, evidence that Sumerians used herbs in medicine was inscribed on cuneiform. In 162 CE, the physician Galen was known for concocting complicated herbal remedies that contained up to 100 ingredients; some plants contain phytochemicals. There may be some effects when consumed in the small levels that typify culinary "spicing", some herbs are toxic in larger quantities.
For instance, some types of herbal extract, such as the extract of St. John's-wort or of kava can be used for medical purposes to relieve depression and stress. However, large amounts of these herbs may lead to toxic overload that may involve complications, some of a serious nature, should be used with caution. Complications can arise when being taken with some prescription medicines. Herbs have long been used as the basis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, with usage dating as far back as the first century CE and far before. In India, the Ayurveda medicinal system is based on herbs. Medicinal use of herbs in Western cultures has its roots in the Hippocratic elemental healing system, based on a quaternary elemental healing metaphor. Famous herbalist of the Western tradition include Avicenna, Paracelsus and the botanically inclined Eclectic physicians of 19th
Aquilegia is a genus of about 60–70 species of perennial plants that are found in meadows, at higher altitudes throughout the Northern Hemisphere, known for the spurred petals of their flowers. The genus name Aquilegia is derived from the Latin word for eagle, because of the shape of the flower petals, which are said to resemble an eagle's claw; the common name "columbine" comes from the Latin for "dove", due to the resemblance of the inverted flower to five doves clustered together. The leaves of this plant are compound and the flowers contain five sepals, five petals and five pistils; the fruit is a follicle, formed at the end of the pistils. Underneath the flower are spurs which contain nectar consumed by long-beaked birds such as hummingbirds. Columbines are related to plants in the genera Actaea and Aconitum, which like Aquilegia produce cardiogenic toxins, they are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera caterpillars. These are of noctuid moths – noted for feeding on many poisonous plants without harm – such as cabbage moth, dot moth and mouse moth. the engrailed, a geometer moth uses columbine as a larval food plant.
The larvae of the Papaipema leucostigma feed on columbine. Plants in the genus Aquilegia are a major food source for a species of bumblebee, they have been found to forage on species of Aquilegia vulgaris in Belgium and Aquilegia chrysantha in North America and Belgium. The bees do not show any preference in color of the flowers. Columbine is a hardy perennial, it will grow to a height of 15 to 20 inches. It will grow in full sun. Columbine is rated at hardiness zone 3 in the United States so does not require mulching or protection in the winter. Large numbers of hybrids are available for the garden, since the European A. vulgaris was hybridized with other European and North American varieties. Aquilegia species are interfertile, will self-sow; some varieties are short-lived so. The following hybrid cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: The British National Collection of Aquilegias is held by Mrs Carrie Thomas at Killay near Swansea; the flowers of various species of columbine were consumed in moderation by Native Americans as a condiment with other fresh greens, are reported to be sweet, safe if consumed in small quantities.
The plant's seeds and roots are poisonous however, contain cardiogenic toxins which cause both severe gastroenteritis and heart palpitations if consumed as food. Native Americans used small amounts of Aquilegia root as a treatment for ulcers. However, the medical use of this plant is better avoided due to its high toxicity. An acute toxicity test in mice has demonstrated that ethanol extract mixed with isocytisoside, the main flavonoid compound from the leaves and stems of Aquilegia vulgaris, can be classified as non-toxic, since a dose of 3000 mg/kg did not cause mortality; the Colorado blue columbine is the official state flower of Colorado. Columbines have been important in the study of evolution, it was found that the Sierra columbine and crimson columbine each has adapted to a pollinator. Bees and hummingbirds are the visitors to A. formosa, while hawkmoths would only visit A. pubescens when given a choice. Such a "pollination syndrome", being due to flower color and orientation controlled by their genetics, ensures reproductive isolation and can be a cause of speciation.
Aquilegia petals show an enormous range of petal spur length diversity ranging from a centimeter to the 15 cm spurs of Aquilegia longissima. Selection from pollinator shifts is suggested to have driven these changes in nectar spur length, it was shown that this spur length diversity is achieved through changing cell shape, not cell number or cell size. This suggests that a simple microscopic change can result in a dramatic evolutionarily relevant morphological change. Columbine species include: Columbine cup Nora Barlow Allan M. Armitage: Armitage's Native Plants for North American Gardens. Timber Press, 2006 ISBN 0-88192-760-0 ISBN 978-0-88192-760-3 Dezhi, Fu. Aquilegia. In: Wu, Z. Y.. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. ISBN 1-930723-25-3 HTML fulltext Fulton, M.. A.. "Floral isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 266: 2247–2252. Doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0915. PMC 1690454. Hodges, S. A.. "Genetics of Floral Traits Influencing Reproductive Isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens".
The American Naturalist. 159: S51–S60. Doi:10.1086/338372. PMID 18707369. Nold, Robert: Columbines: Aquilegia and Semiaquilegia. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-588-8 Preview at Google Books Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh: Digital Flora Europaea: Aquilegia species list. Retrieved 2008-NOV-25. Tilford, Gregory L.: Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Pub. Missoula, Montana. ISBN 0-87842-359-1 United States Department of Agriculture: USDA Plants Profile: Aquilegia. Retrieved 2008-NOV-
A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame; the interior of a greenhouse exposed to sunlight becomes warmer than the external ambient temperature, protecting its contents in cold weather. Many commercial glass greenhouses or hothouses are high tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers; the glass greenhouses are filled with equipment including screening installations, cooling and may be controlled by a computer to optimize conditions for plant growth. Different techniques are used to evaluate optimality-degrees and comfort ratio of greenhouse micro-climate in order to reduce production risk prior to cultivation of a specific crop; the idea of growing plants in environmentally controlled areas has existed since Roman times. The Roman emperor Tiberius ate a cucumber-like vegetable daily.
The Roman gardeners used artificial methods of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. Cucumbers were planted in wheeled carts which were put in the sun daily taken inside to keep them warm at night; the cucumbers were stored under frames or in cucumber houses glazed with either oiled cloth known as specularia or with sheets of selenite, according to the description by Pliny the Elder. The first description of a heated greenhouse is from the Sanga Yorok, a treatise on husbandry compiled by a royal physician of the Joseon dynasty of Korea during the 1450s, in its chapter on cultivating vegetables during winter; the treatise contains detailed instructions on constructing a greenhouse, capable of cultivating vegetables, forcing flowers, ripening fruit within an artificially heated environment, by utilizing ondol, the traditional Korean underfloor heating system, to maintain heat and humidity. The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty confirm that greenhouse-like structures incorporating ondol were constructed to provide heat for mandarin orange trees during the winter of 1438.
The concept of greenhouses appeared in the Netherlands and England in the 17th century, along with the plants. Some of these early attempts required enormous amounts of work to winterize. There were serious problems with providing balanced heat in these early greenhouses; the first'stove' greenhouse in the UK was completed at Chelsea Physic Garden by 1681. Today, the Netherlands has many of the largest greenhouses in the world, some of them so vast that they are able to produce millions of vegetables every year; the French botanist Charles Lucien Bonaparte is credited with building the first practical modern greenhouse in Leiden, during the 1800s to grow medicinal tropical plants. Only on the estates of the rich, the growth of the science of botany caused greenhouses to spread to the universities; the French called their first greenhouses orangeries, since they were used to protect orange trees from freezing. As pineapples became popular, pineries, or pineapple pits, were built. Experimentation with the design of greenhouses continued during the 17th century in Europe, as technology produced better glass and construction techniques improved.
The greenhouse at the Palace of Versailles was an example of their size and elaborateness. The golden era of the greenhouse was in England during the Victorian era, where the largest glasshouses yet conceived were constructed, as the wealthy upper class and aspiring botanists competed to build the most elaborate buildings. A good example of this trend is the pioneering Kew Gardens. Joseph Paxton, who had experimented with glass and iron in the creation of large greenhouses as the head gardener at Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, working for the Duke of Devonshire and built The Crystal Palace in London. Other large greenhouses built in the 19th century included the New York Crystal Palace, Munich’s Glaspalast and the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken for King Leopold II of Belgium. In Japan, the first greenhouse was built in 1880 by Samuel Cocking, a British merchant who exported herbs. In the 20th century, the geodesic dome was added to the many types of greenhouses. Notable examples are the Eden Project, in Cornwall, The Rodale Institute in Pennsylvania, the Climatron at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky.
Greenhouse structures adapted in the 1960s when wider sheets of polyethylene film became available. Hoop houses were made by several companies and were frequently made by the growers themselves. Constructed of aluminum extrusions, special galvanized steel tubing, or just lengths of steel or PVC water pipe, construction costs were reduced; this resulted in many more greenhouses being constructed on garden centers. Polyethylene film durability increased when more effective UV-inhibitors were developed and added in the 1970s. Gutter-connected greenhouses became more prevalent in the 1990s; these greenhouses have