Sylvain Van de Weyer
Jean-Sylvain Van de Weyer was a Belgian politician, and the Belgian Minister at the Court of St. Jamess, effectively the ambassador to the United Kingdom. Van de Weyer was born in Louvain, his family relocated to Amsterdam in 1811, the family returned to Leuven when his father, Josse-Alexandre, was named police commissioner for the city. Jean-Sylvain studied law at the State University of Louvain and set up as a lawyer in Brussels in 1823, here he frequently defended newspapers and journalists which fell foul of the government of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, of which modern Belgium formed the southern half. On the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution in 1830, Van de Weyer was in Leuven and his command of the English language resulted in him serving as a diplomatic representative of the revolutionaries. King Leopold I appointed Van de Weyer his special representative in London, Van de Weyer served as the eighth Prime Minister of Belgium. He was Vice-President of the London Library from 1848 till his death in 1874 and they had two sons and five daughters, who were brought up in Marylebone and on their country estate at New Lodge in the parish of Winkfield in Berkshire.
Their youngest daughter, was the mother of Sylvia Brett and their second daughter Alice Emma Sturgis van de Weyer married 15 August 1878, Major Hon. Charles Brand, MFH, of Littledene, near Glynde, East Sussex, fourth son of Speaker Brand. The eldest son Lt. Victor married Lady Emily Georgiana daughter of William Craven, one of Victor and Lady Emilys sons Major William John Bates van de Weyer was responsible for Buddleja × weyeriana. Minister of State, By Royal Decree, Grand cordon in the Order of Leopold. Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, knight Grand Cross in the Order of Charles III. Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Tower and Sword, knight Grand Cross in the Saxe-Ernestine House Order. Commander of the Legion of Honour, tribute to his father-in-law Joshua Bates. Biographie nationale de Belgique, par Herman Vander Linden, t, inventaire des papiers de Sylvain Van de Weyer, by Lucienne Van Meerbeeck, CONSERVATEUR BRUXELLES78, GALERIE RAVENSTEIN1960. Sylvain Van de Weyer at Stad Leuven
Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership, in November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, from 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. Prussia existed de jure until its liquidation by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them.
In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk and their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a Lesser Germany which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleons defeat, Prussia acquired a section of north western Germany.
The country grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians. In the Weimar Republic, the state of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. East Prussia lost all of its German population after 1945, as Poland, the main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a cross with gold insert
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the last sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and, from 1826, the first sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was the father of Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria and is thus a patrilineal ancestor, Ernest fought against Napoleon Bonaparte and through construction projects and the establishment of a court theatre left a strong imprint on his residence town, Coburg. Ernest was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his youngest brother, Leopold Georg Christian Frederick, was elected the first King of the Belgians. On 10 May 1803, aged 19, Ernest was proclaimed an adult because his father had become gravely ill, when his father died in 1806, he succeeded in the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld as Ernest III. However, he could not immediately take over the government of his lands. The following year, after the Peace of Tilsit, the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was reunited and restored to Ernest and this occurred through Russian pressure, since his sister Juliane was married to the brother of the Russian Tsar.
In Gotha on 3 July 1817, Ernest married Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the marriage was unhappy because husband and wife were alike promiscuous. As the biographer Lytton Strachey put it, The ducal court was not noted for the strictness of its morals, the Duke was a man of gallantry, and the Duchess followed her husbands example. There were scandals, one of the Court Chamberlains, a charming and cultivated man of Jewish extraction, was talked of, at last there was a separation and Louise were separated in 1824 and were officially divorced on 31 March 1826. As heirs to Coburg, the remained with their father. Seven months after the divorce, in October 1826, Louise secretly married one of her lovers, in Coburg on 23 December 1832, Ernest married his niece Duchess Marie of Württemberg, the daughter of his sister Antoinette. This marriage made Marie both Prince Alberts first cousin and his stepmother, Ernest had three illegitimate children, Berta Ernestine von Schauenstein, born to Sophie Fermepin de Marteaux.
She married her first cousin Eduard Edgar Schmidt-Löwe von Löwenfels, the son of her fathers sister. Ernst Albert Bruno von Bruneck, born to Margaretha Braun, robert Ferdinand von Bruneck, born to Margaretha Braun. After 1813, Ernest was a Prussian general and participated in actions against Napoleon. He fought in the battles of Lützen and Leipzig and drew in 1814 into the French fortress of Mainz, after the battle of Leipzig, he commanded the 5. After the defeat of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, the Congress of Vienna on 9 June 1815 gave him an area of 450 square kilometres with 25,000 inhabitants around the town of St. Wendel. In 1816, this received the name of Principality of Lichtenberg
Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown
The order was presented in one class and consisted of a badge and a breast star. For military merit the award was presented with crossed swords, the order was presented once with diamonds. In each of the compartments between the four arms of the cross is a crown surmounting the royal monogram. The central disc on the obverse of the shows a golden crown with red enamel, surrounded by a blue-enamelled circular band bearing the gold-lettered motto. The disc on the bears the intertwined initials IR W II. The star of the order is a golden eight-pointed star with straight rays, the sash of the order is blue, edged with orange stripes. The medal was awarded only 57 times, general von Gossler was the only person who received the awards in both departments. Zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 1997, ISBN 3-00-001396-2, kurt-Gerhard Klietmann, Der Verdienstorden der Preußischen Krone, Mitteilung aus dem Institut für Wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, Der Herold - Band 12,32
Order of the Red Eagle
The Order of the Red Eagle was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was awarded to military personnel and civilians, to recognize valor in combat, excellence in military leadership and faithful service to the kingdom. As with most German orders, the Order of the Red Eagle could only be awarded to commissioned officers or civilians of equivalent status. However, there was a medal of the order, which could be awarded to non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, lower ranking civil servants and other civilians. The predecessor to Order of the Red Eagle was founded on November 17,1705 and this soon fell into disuse but was revived in 1712 in Brandenburg-Bayreuth and again in 1734 in Brandenburg-Ansbach, where it first received the name Order of the Brandenburg Red Eagle. The statutes were changed in 1777 and the Order named therein as the Order of the Red Eagle, the Order was conferred in one class, limited to fifty knights. The Kingdom of Prussia absorbed both Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach in January,1792, and on June 12,1792, King Frederick William II again revived the order as a Prussian royal order.
After the Order of the Black Eagle, the Red Eagle was the second highest order of the kingdom in order of precedence, in 1810, King Frederick William III revised the statutes of the Order, expanding it into three classes. In 1830, a breast star was authorized for the Second Class, the statutes were further revised in 1861, and a Grand Cross was established as the highest class of the Order. By 1918, an affiliated soldiers medal had been available to commoners. The monarchy collapsed on November 9,1918, a new German constitution was signed into law, August 11,1919, effectually putting a legal end to the monarchy. Among these were, All classes but the Medal of the Red Eagle Order could be awarded with swords for distinction in wartime, the swords passed through the arms of the cross behind the center medallion. All classes above the 4th Class could be awarded with Swords on Ring, indicating that the recipient of that class without swords had earlier received a class of the order with swords. A pair of crossed swords were worn above the cross on the ring or above the medallion on the upper arm of the breast star.
All classes could be awarded with or without crown as an added distinction, the Grand Cross, 1st and 2nd Class could be awarded with oak leaves, indicating prior receipt of the next lower class of the order, and/or with diamonds, as a special distinction. Royal family members were awarded the Grand Cross with crown, the Maltese cross badge was suspended from a miniature of the Prussian crown, which covered the usual suspension ring. The Grand Cross was awarded at least once with crossed marshals batons, the crossed batons were worn above the Maltese cross badge of the Grand Cross, on its suspension ring. The 3rd Class could be awarded with bow, indicating prior receipt of the 4th Class, prussians who were Knights of the Order of St. John of Malta
Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Bernhard II Erich Freund, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen was a Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. He was the son of Georg I Frederick Karl, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Bernhard was a brother of Queen Adelaide of the United Kingdom and Ida. In Kassel on 23 March 1825, Bernhard II married Princess Marie Frederica of Hesse-Kassel, a very kind family man and proud of his House, Bernhard was a thoughtful husband and father, as long as they obeyed him. In the Austro-Prussian War, he made a decision to side with the Habsburgs, when the Habsburgs lost the War, it cost Bernhard the Duchy. On 20 September 1866, Bernhard was forced to abdicate all his territories to his only son and he spent the rest of his days as a private citizen. Schloss and park Altenstein Bernhard II at ADB
Saxe-Altenburg was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 1323 square kilometers, the territory of the duchy consisted of two non-contiguous territories separated by land belonging to the Principality of Reuss. Its economy was based on agriculture and small industry, the state had a constitutional monarchical form of government with a parliament composed of thirty members chosen by male taxpayers over 25 years of age. The duchy had its origins in the medieval Burgraviate of Altenburg in the Imperial Pleissnerland, upon a partition treaty of 1485, Altenburg fell to Ernst, Elector of Saxony, the progenitor of the Ernestine Wettins. After the Division of Erfurt in 1572 among Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony and his nephews, when Johann Wilhelms son and successor Friedrich Wilhelm I died in 1602, the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar passed to his younger brother Johann II. In 1603 Frederick Williams eldest son Johann Philipp received the newly created Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg as compensation and this family ruled the duchy until the end of the monarchies in the course of the German Revolution of 1918–19.
The succeeding Free State of Saxe-Altenburg was incorporated into the new state of Thuringia in 1920, Saxe-Altenburg had an area of 1,323 km² and a population of 207,000. The Saxe-Altenburg line became extinct following the death of Prince George Moritz in 1991, the leadership of the house passed to Michael, head of the genealogically more senior house of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Its representation was merged with the one of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Ernestine duchies Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Saxe-Altenburg. Media related to Saxe-Altenburg at Wikimedia Commons Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg
Felix de Muelenaere
Felix Amandus, Count de Muelenaere was a Belgian Roman Catholic politician. Born in Pittem, he was a lawyer in Bruges and was from 1824 until 1829 member of the Second Chamber of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands for the province of West Flanders. After the inauguration of Leopold I as king in 1831, he became the third Prime Minister until 1832, afterwards, he became again provincial governor for West-Flanders and Minister of Foreign Affairs. From 1850 until his death in 1862 he was member of the Chamber for the arrondissement of Tielt, Minister of State, By royal Decree. Belgium, Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold, Grand Officier in the Legion of Honour. Spain, Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Charles III, knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Dannebrog. Portugal, Grand cross of the order of Our Lady of Villa Viciosa. Netherlands, knight in the Order of the Netherlands Lion
Silver-gilt or gilded/gilt silver, sometimes known in American English by the French term vermeil, is silver gilded with gold. Most large objects made in goldsmithing that appear to be gold are actually silver-gilt, for example most sporting trophies, apart from being much cheaper than gold, large silver-gilt objects are much lighter if required to be lifted, and stronger. The gold threads used in embroidered goldwork are normally silver-gilt, keum-boo is a special Korean technique of silver-gilding, using depletion gilding. In China gilt-bronze, known as ormolu, was more common, in 18th century London two different silversmiths charged 3 shillings per ounce of silver for an initial gilding, and 1 shilling and 9 pence per ounce for regilding. Often only the interior of cups was gilded, perhaps from concern at the compounds used to clean tarnish from silver. Fully silver-gilt items are visually indistinguishable from gold, and were no doubt often thought to be solid gold, the English Gothic Revival architect, Sir George Gilbert Scott was concerned by the morality of this.
Gilding of the only he accepted, but with all-over gilding we. Reach the actual boundary of truth and falsehood, and I am convinced if we adopt this custom we overstep it. Why make our gift look more costly than it is and we increase its beauty, but it is at the sacrifice of truth. Indeed, some Early Medieval silver-gilt Celtic brooches had compartments, apparently for small weights to aid such deception. Silver in England, Taylor & Francis,2006, ISBN 0-415-38215-7, greek and Roman Gold and Silver Plate, Taylor & Francis,1979, ISBN 0-416-72510-4, ISBN 978-0-416-72510-0 Inventory of the goods, etc. Jamess, and several places, with the several contracts made by the contractors for sale of the said goods
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany. It lasted from 1826 to 1918, in the early part of the 20th century, before the First World War, it was the family of the sovereigns of the United Kingdom, Portugal and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. In 1910, the Portuguese king was deposed, and the same thing occurred in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1918, as of 2016, branches of the family still reign in Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the other Commonwealth realms. The former Tsar of Bulgaria, Simeon II, kept his surname while serving as the Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005, after the extinction of the Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg line, the Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen exchanged his Duchy for that of Saxe-Altenburg. By then, the Principality of Lichtenberg, on the Nahe River, had already been a part of the Duchy of Coburg for ten years. Ernest III, the sovereign of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, had received it in 1816 from the Congress of Vienna for providing assistance to the Allies in their war against France.
But, because of the distance from Coburg and of the unrest caused by the Hambach Festival. The newly created Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was initially a double duchy, ruled by Ernest III as Duke Ernest I in a personal union, the opportunity to unify the two duchies in 1826 was missed. After the Staatsgrundgesetz of 1852, the duchies were bound in a political and real union and they were a quasi-federal unitary state. It joined the German Zollverein in 1834, the North German Confederation in 1866 and his elder son and successor, Ernest II, ruled until his own death in 1893. Because he had died childless, the throne of the two duchies would have passed to his late brother Prince Alberts male descendants. But Prince Albert was the husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and his eldest son, besides, he was prohibited by the Constitutions of both duchies from inheriting the throne if there were other eligible male heirs. But he had renounced his claim in favour of his next brother, Prince Alfred.
So Alfred became the next Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, Charles Edward, because of his age, began under the Regency of Prince Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg until he came of age in 1905. The new Duke continued to use his British title, the Duke of Albany, because he chose to side with the Germans against the British in the First World War, he was stripped of his British titles in 1919. After the November Revolution ended the monarchy in 1918, the two became two different and independent states, the Free State of Coburg and the Republic of Gotha. But their leaders believed that their new countries were not economically feasible so they began to search for possible mergers, eventually, a referendum was held on 30 November 1919 and the decision was made. On 1 May 1920 the Free State of Gotha merged with the new State of Thuringia, in the German Empire, the Duchy had only one vote in the Bundestag and two votes in the Reichstag
Olav V of Norway
Olav V was King of Norway from 1957 until his death. Olav was the child of Haakon VII and Maud of Wales. He became heir apparent to the Norwegian throne when his father was elected King of Norway in 1905. He was the first heir to the Norwegian throne to be brought up in Norway since Olav IV, in preparation for his future role, he attended both civilian and military schools. In 1929, he married his first cousin Princess Märtha of Sweden, during World War II his leadership was much appreciated and he was appointed Norwegian Chief of Defence in 1944. At his death in 1991, he was the last surviving grandchild of Edward VII of the United Kingdom, due to his considerate, down-to-earth style, King Olav was immensely popular, resulting in the nickname Folkekongen. In a 2005 poll by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, Olav was voted Norwegian of the century, Olav was a Danish prince born in Appleton House on the royal Sandringham Estate, United Kingdom. He was named Alexander Edward Christian Frederik, when his father was elected king of Norway, he took the Norwegian name Haakon VII, and on the day he was inaugurated, he gave his son the Norwegian name Olav.
Olav was the first heir to the throne since medieval times to have raised in Norway. Unlike his father, who was an officer, Olav chose to complete his main military education in the army. He graduated from the three-year Norwegian Military Academy in 1924, with the fourth best score in his class, Olav went on to study jurisprudence and economics for two years at Balliol College, Oxford. During the 1930s, Crown Prince Olav was a naval cadet serving on the training ship Olav Tryggvason. Olav moved upwards in the ranks of the Norwegian armed forces, rising in the army from a rank of first lieutenant, to captain in 1931. Olav jumped from the Holmenkollen ski jump in Oslo, and competed in sailing regattas and he won a gold medal in sailing at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam and remained an active sailor into old age. On 21 March 1929 in Oslo, he married his first cousin Princess Märtha of Sweden with whom he had two daughters and Astrid and one son, Harald. As exiles during World War II, Crown Princess Märtha and the children lived in Washington.
She died in 1954, before her husband ascended the throne, as Crown Prince, Olav had received extensive military training and had participated in most major Norwegian military exercises. Because of this he was one of the most knowledgeable Norwegian military leaders and was respected by other Allied leaders for his knowledge