Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing about 440 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages or rockfoils. The Latin word saxifraga means "stone-breaker", from Latin saxum + frangere, it is thought to indicate a medicinal use for treatment of urinary calculi, rather than breaking rocks apart. The genera Saxifragopsis, Saxifragella are sometimes included in Saxifraga. In recent DNA based phylogenetic analyses of the Saxifragaceae, the former sections Micranthes and Merkianae are shown to be more related to the Boykinia and Heuchera clades, the most recent floras separate these groups as the genus Micranthes. Most saxifrages are smallish plants whose leaves grow close to the ground in a rosette; the leaves have a more or less incised margin. The inflorescence or single flower clusters rise above the main plant body on naked stalks; the small actinomorphic hermaphrodite flowers have five petals and sepals and are white, but red to yellow in some species.
As in other primitive eudicots, some of the 5 or 10 stamens may appear petal-like. and it lives tundra ecosystem. Saxifrages are typical inhabitants of Arctic–alpine ecosystems, are hardly found outside the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere. A good number of species grow in glacial habitats, such as S. biflora which can be found some 4,000 metres above sea level in the Alps, or the East Greenland saxifrage. The genus is abundant in the Eastern and Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows. Though the archetypal saxifrage is a small plant huddling between rocks high up on a mountain, many species do not occur in such a habitat and are larger plants found on wet meadows. Various Saxifraga species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some butterflies and moths, such as the Phoebus Apollo. Charles Darwin – erroneously believing Saxifraga to be allied to the sundew family – suspected the sticky-leaved round-leaved saxifrage, rue-leaved saxifrage and Pyrenean saxifrage to be protocarnivorous plants, conducted some experiments whose results supported his observations, but the matter has not been studied since his time.
Numerous species and cultivars of saxifrage are cultivated as ornamental garden plants, valued as groundcover or as cushion plants in rock gardens and alpine gardens. Many require neutral soil to thrive. S. × urbium, a hybrid between Pyrenean saxifrage and St. Patrick's cabbage, is grown as an ornamental plant. Another horticultural hybrid is Robertsoniana saxifrage, derived from kidney saxifrage and Pyrenean saxifrage; some wild species are used in gardening. Cambridge University Botanic Garden hosts the United Kingdom's national collection of saxifrages; the following species and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- Purple saxifrage is a popular floral emblem. It is the territorial flower of Nunavut and the county flower of County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. Known as rødsildre in Norway, it is the county flower of Nordland, it is on the seal of Fitchburg State University, whose motto is "Perseverantia" in reference to the rock-breaking abilities of the plant over time.
Tsukuba in Japan has as its city flower hoshizaki-yukinoshita, the aptera form of Creeping saxifrage. The leaves of the Japanese variety "yukinoshita" can been eaten, is consumed at least within the large southern island of Kyushu, it is prepared by frying the younger succulent leaves in tempura batter. Plants placed in Saxifraga are but not Saxifragaceae, they include: Astilboides tabularis, as S. tabularis Bergenia crassifolia, as S. cordifolia, S. crassifolia Bergenia pacumbis, as S. ligulata, S. pacumbis Bergenia purpurascens, as S. delavayi, S. purpurascens Boykinia jamesii, as S. jamesii Boykinia occidentalis, as S. elata Boykinia richardsonii, as S. richardsonii Darmera peltata, as S. peltata Leptarrhena pyrolifolia, as S. pyrolifolia Luetkea pectinata, as S. pectinata Micranthes, including: Micranthes integrifolia Micranthes howellii, as S. howellii Micranthes stellaris, as S. stellaris Mukdenia rossii, as S. rossii Several plant genera have names referring saxifrages although they might not be close relatives of Saxifraga.
They include: Golden-saxifrages, Chrysosplenium Burnet-saxifrages, Pimpinella Pepper-saxifrage, Silaum silaus. The name "silaum" comes from the Latin word sil; this refers to the sulphorous yellow colour of the flowers. Some plants refer to Saxifraga in their generic names or specific epithets, either because they are "rock-breaking" or because they resemble members of the saxifrage genus: Campanula saxifraga Celmisia saxifraga W. M. Curtis Cineraria saxifraga DC. Dryopteris saxifraga Petrorhagia saxifraga – Tunicflower Pimpinella saxifraga – Burnet saxifrage Ptychotis saxifraga Saxifragella Saxifragodes Saxifragopsis Small The Saxifrage Society Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Saxifrage". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 264
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called epetiolate; the petiole is a stalk. In petiolate leaves, the leaf stalk may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be sessile. Subpetiolate leaves are nearly petiolate, or have an short petiole, may appear sessile; the broomrape family Orobanchaceae is an example of a family. In some other plant groups, such as the speedwell genus Veronica and sessile leaves may occur in different species. In the grasses the leaves are apetiolate, but the leaf blade may be narrowed at the junction with the leaf sheath to form a pseudopetiole, as in Pseudosasa japonica. In plants with compound leaves, the leaflets are attached to a continuation of the petiole called the rachis; each leaflet may be attached to the rachis by a short stalk called the petiolule.
There may be swollen regions at either end of the petiole known as pulvina that are composed of a flexible tissue that allows leaf movement. Pulvina are common in the prayer plant family Marantaceae. A pulvinus on a petiolule is called a pulvinulus. In some plants, the petioles are flattened and widened, to become phyllodes or phyllodia, or cladophylls and the true leaves may be reduced or absent. Thus, the phyllode comes to serve the functions of the leaf. Phyllodes are common in the genus Acacia the Australian species, at one time put in Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae. In Acacia koa, the phyllodes are leathery and thick, allowing the tree to survive stressful environments; the petiole allows submerged hydrophytes to have leaves floating at different depths, the petiole being between the node and the stem. In plants such as rhubarb, celery and cardoons the petioles are cultivated as edible crops; the petiole of rhubarb produces the leaf at its end. Botanically it is culinarily used as a fruit. Petiole comes from Latin petiolus, or peciolus "little foot", "stem", an alternative diminutive of pes "foot".
The regular diminutive pediculus is used for "foot stalk". Hyponastic response Pedicel "Petiole". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Sierra Nevada (Spain)
Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, in the province of Granada and, a little further, Málaga and Almería in Spain. It contains the highest point of continental Spain and the third highest in Europe, after the Caucasus Mountains and the Alps, Mulhacén at 3,479 metres above sea level, it is a popular tourist destination, as its high peaks make skiing possible in one of Europe's most southerly ski resorts, in an area along the Mediterranean Sea predominantly known for its warm temperatures and abundant sunshine. At its foothills is found the city of Granada and, a little further, Almería and Málaga. Parts of the range have been included in the Sierra Nevada National Park; the range has been declared a biosphere reserve. The Sierra Nevada Observatory and the IRAM radiotelescope are located on the northern slopes at an elevation of 2,800 metres; the Sierra Nevada was formed during the Alpine Orogeny, a mountain-building event that formed the European Alps to the east and the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Sierra as observed today formed during the Paleogene and Neogene Periods from the collision of the African and Eurasian continental plates. Central to the mountain range is a ridge running broadly west-south-west - east-north-east. For a substantial distance, the watershed stays above 3,000 metres. On the southern side of the range, several long, narrow river valleys lead off towards the south-west, separated by a number of subsidiary ridges. On the steeper and craggier northern side, the valleys have less regular orientations; this side is dominated by the Rio Genil which starts near Mulhacén and into which many of the other rivers flow. According to the Köppen climate classification, Sierra Nevada has a Mediterranean subalpine climate, due to the location's high elevation and low summer precipitation. With June and September being around the threshold of 10 °C in mean temperature to avoid the subarctic classification, the climate at a lower elevation is continental highland climate. At an elevation lower than that classification area.
This renders Sierra Nevada's climate a highland cooled-down variety of a typical mediterranean climate. Summer and winter daytime temperatures are some 12° C cooler than found in Granada, differences that are greater in spring as Sierra Nevada takes longer to approach the short summers. In May daytime highs in Sierra Nevada are around 4 °C with Granada having an average of 24 °C; the yearly temperature of 3.9 °C is in stark contrast to Granada's 15.7 °C and coastal Málaga's 18.5 °C. Sierra Nevada Ski Station Alpujarras Baetic System Sierra Nevada National Park Francisco Pérez Raya, Joaquín Molero Mesa, Francisco Valle Tendero, 1992: "Parque Natural de Sierra Nevada. Paisaje, flora, itinerarios". Ed. Rueda. Madrid. ISBN 84-7207-067-0 "Flora de la Tundra de Sierra Nevada". Pablo Prieto Fernández, Ed. Universidad de Granada. ISBN 84-600-1810-5 "Sierra Nevada: Guía de Montaña". Aurelio del Castillo y Antonio del Castillo. Ed. Penibética, 2003. ISBN 84-932022-3-1 "Sierra Nevada, Spain". NASA Earth Observatory.
Retrieved 2006-04-28. Media related to Sierra Nevada at Wikimedia Commons Google Maps - Satellite Photo Sierra Nevada Ski Resort - official site Sierra Nevada ski resort - trail map Maps of the Sierra Nevada nevasport.com - XVII sport week - Old Pictures Natural Park Sierra Nevada Sulayr
A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence. Some authors distinguish it by requiring that the flowers be pedicellate; the branches of a panicle are racemes. A panicle may have indeterminate growth; this type of inflorescence is characteristic of grasses such as oat and crabgrass, as well as other plants such as pistachio and mamoncillo. Botanists use the term paniculate in two ways: "having a true panicle inflorescence" as well as "having an inflorescence with the form but not the structure of a panicle". A corymb may have a paniculate branching structure, with the lower flowers having longer pedicels than the upper, thus giving a flattish top superficially resembling an umbel. Many species in the subfamily Amygdaloideae, such as hawthorns and rowans, produce their flowers in corymbs. Thyrse, a branched inflorescence where the main axis has indeterminate growth, the branches have determinate growth