Circular breathing is a technique used by players of some wind instruments to produce a continuous tone without interruption. It is accomplished by breathing in through the nose while pushing air out through the mouth using air stored in the cheeks; the technique was developed independently by several cultures, is used for many traditional wind instruments. In the 13th century, Mongolian metalsmiths who specialized in gold and silver used circular breathing techniques for crafting various decorative and ornamental items. In crafting such items, craftsmen were required to blow continuously to the flame through a pipe with a needle-like hole, in order to make the hard metal melt or soften. From such necessity, craftsmen mastered a circular-like cycle of breathing inhaling through their nose while blowing without any pauses; the introduction of the circular breathing technique in the art of ancient windplayers was a productive invention in its performing technique. It is used extensively in playing the Eastern zurna, the Mongolian limbe, the Sardinian launeddas, the Egyptian arghul, the Australian didgeridoo, as well as many traditional oboes and flutes of Asia and the Middle East.
A few jazz and classical wind and brass players use some form of circular breathing. Although many professional wind players find circular breathing useful, few pieces of European orchestral music composed before the 20th century require its use. However, the advent of circular breathing among professional wind players has allowed for the transcription of pieces composed for string instruments which would be unperformable on a wind instrument without the aid of circular breathing. A notable example of this phenomenon is "Moto Perpetuo", transcribed for trumpet by Rafael Méndez from the original work for violin by Paganini. In 1997, a Guinness World Record was set for longest held musical note. Kenny G used circular breathing to sustain an E-flat on a saxophone for 47 seconds. On February 2000, Vann Burchfield set a new Guinness world record for circular breathing, holding one continuous note for 47 minutes, 6 seconds, surpassing Kenny G’s record. Mark Atkins on Didgeridoo Concerto plays for over 50 minutes continuously.
On Sunday, 14 May 2017, Nigerian saxophonist Femi Kuti broke Mark Atkins' record by playing for 51 minutes, 38 seconds. The musician inhales and begins to exhale and blow; when the lungs are nearly empty, the last volume of air is blown into the mouth, the cheeks are inflated with part of this air. While still blowing this last bit of air out by squeezing the cheeks, the musician must quickly fill the lungs by inhaling through the nose prior to running out of the air in the mouth. If done by the time the air in the mouth is nearly exhausted the musician can begin to exhale from the lungs once more, ready to repeat the process again. Circular breathing bridges the gap between exhalations with air stored in the cheeks, an extra air reserve to play with while sneaking in a breath through the nose; the usual first difficulty is to inhale through the nose. To some this may be a big hurdle, to others; this technique may be practiced by holding a finger in front of a thin air stream out of the lips and listening to the wind sound.
The next difficulty is to switch between cheek air and lung air without an unwelcome and uncontrolled jolt in the air pressure. A simple method by which this is practiced is using a thin straw to blow on to the surface of a cup of water from just above water level, watching the depression that the air stream creates on the water's surface; the aim is to blow continually and switch between cheek air and lung air without any change in the depth of this depression or groove or hole on the water's surface. The traditional method of learning in zurna groups is to have one elder player lead as the chanter zurna and asking the younger players to hold the unchanging "drone tone"s. Professional zurna groups may play non-stop for as long as the party lasts, a drone tone may be held for the whole evening; this is possible thanks to the disk that the lip may lean and rest against, because otherwise, the lip muscles that resist the air pressure get tired first. IDIDJ Australia: Australian Didgeridoo Cultural Hub Circular breathing for harmonica Learning circular breathing The Circular Breathing – Launeddas How to do circular breathing on saxophone Kenny G Circular Breathing Lesson at YouTube Young woman demonstrating circular breathing technique while playing didgeridoo in Carcassonne France at YouTube in HD
Edward Hammond Boatner Jr. known professionally as Sonny Stitt, was an American jazz saxophonist of the bebop/hard bop idiom. Known for his warm tone, he was one of the best-documented saxophonists of his generation, recording more than 100 albums, he was nicknamed the "Lone Wolf" by jazz critic Dan Morgenstern because of his relentless touring and devotion to jazz. Stitt was sometimes viewed as a Charlie Parker mimic earlier in his career, but came to develop his own sound and style when performing on tenor sax. Edward Hammond Boatner, Jr. was born in Boston and grew up in Saginaw, Michigan. He had a musical background: his father, Edward Boatner, was a baritone singer and college music professor, he was adopted by the Stitt family in Saginaw. He began calling himself "Sonny". While in high school in Saginaw, he played in a local popular swing band. In 1943, Stitt met Charlie Parker; as he recalled, the two men had similar styles. Parker is alleged to have remarked, "Well, I'll be damned, you sound just like me", to which Stitt responded, "Well, I can't help the way I sound.
It's the only way I know how to play." Kenny Clarke said of Stitt, "Even if there had not been a Bird, there would have been a Sonny Stitt."During the 1940s, he played alto saxophone as a member of Tiny Bradshaw's big band, Billy Eckstine's big band with Gene Ammons and Dexter Gordon, Dizzy Gillespie's big band. Stitt, when playing tenor saxophone, seemed to break free from some of the criticism that he was imitating Parker's style, he began to develop a far more distinctive sound on tenor, he played with other bop musicians Bud Powell and Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, a fellow tenor with a distinctly tough tone in comparison to Stitt, in the 1950s and recorded a number of sides for Prestige Records as well as albums for Argo and Roost. Stitt experimented with Afro-Cuban jazz in the late 1950s, the results can be heard on his recordings for Roost and Verve, on which he teamed up with Thad Jones and Chick Corea for Latin versions of such standards as "Autumn Leaves." Stitt joined Miles Davis in 1960, recordings with Davis' quintet can be found only in live settings on the tour of 1960.
Concerts in Manchester and Paris are available commercially and a number of concerts on the record Live at Stockholm, all of which featured Wynton Kelly, Jimmy Cobb, Paul Chambers. However, Miles fired Stitt due to the excessive drinking habit he had developed, replaced him with Hank Mobley. In the 1960s, Stitt paid homage to Parker on the album Stitt Plays Bird, which features Jim Hall on guitar. Stitt recorded several times with his friend Gene Ammons, interrupted by Ammons' own imprisonment for narcotics possession; the records recorded by these two saxophonists are regarded by many as some of both Ammons and Stitt's best work, thus the Ammons/Stitt partnership went down in posterity as one of the best dueling partnerships in jazz, alongside Zoot Sims and Al Cohn, Johnny Griffin with Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis. Stitt would venture into soul jazz, he recorded with fellow tenor saxophonist Booker Ervin in 1964 on the Soul People album. Stitt recorded with Duke Ellington alumnus Paul Gonsalves in 1963 for Impulse! on the Salt and Pepper album in 1963.
Around that time he appeared at Ronnie Scott's in London, a live 1964 encounter with Ronnie Scott, The Night Has a Thousand Eyes surfaced, another in 1966 with resident guitarist Ernest Ranglin and British tenor saxophonist Dick Morrissey. Stitt was one of the first jazz musicians to experiment with the Selmer Varitone amplification system as heard on the albums What's New in 1966 and Parallel-a-Stitt in 1967. In the 1970s, Stitt slowed his recording output and in 1972, he produced another classic, Tune-Up!, still is regarded by many jazz critics, such as Scott Yanow, as his definitive record. Indeed, his fiery and ebullient soloing was quite reminiscent of his earlier playing. In 1971 he recorded another album with Varitone, Just The Way It Was - Live At The Left Bank, released in 2000. Stitt's productivity dropped in the 1970s due to alcoholism. Stitt had drunk since giving up heroin in the late fifties and the abuse was beginning to take its toll. A series of alcohol-induced seizures caused Stitt to kick the habit for good.
Stitt said of this time: "It was pitiful, man... I was a slave. I've come back from the dead, man. I was dead."Stitt joined the all-star group The Giants of Jazz and made albums for Atlantic, Concord and EmArcy. His last recordings were made in Japan. A rejuvenated Stitt toured with Red Holloway in the late 1970s, who noted a marked improvement in his playing. In 1982, Stitt was diagnosed with cancer, he died on July 22 in Washington, D. C.. 1949–50: Sonny Stitt/Bud Powell/J. J. Johnson 1950: Stitt's Bits 1950–52: Kaleidoscope 1953: Sonny Stitt Playing Arrangements from the Pen of Johnny Richards 1954: Jazz at the Hi-Hat 1954: The Battle of Birdland with Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis 1955: Sonny Stitt Plays Arrangements from the Pen of Quincy Jones 1956: Sonny Stitt Plays 1956: New York Jazz 1956: For Musicians Only with Dizzy Gillespie and Stan Getz 1956: 37 Minutes and 48 Seconds with Sonny Stitt 1957: Personal Appearance 1957: Sonny Stitt with
Delay (audio effect)
Delay is an audio effect and an effects unit which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, plays it back after a period of time. The delayed signal may either be played back multiple times, or played back into the recording again, to create the sound of a repeating, decaying echo. Delay effects range from a subtle echo effect to a pronounced blending of previous sounds with new sounds. Delay effects can be created using tape loops, an approach developed in the 1950s; the first delay effects were achieved using tape loops improvised on reel-to-reel audio tape recording systems. By shortening or lengthening the loop of tape and adjusting the read and write heads, the nature of the delayed echo could be controlled; this technique was most common among early composers of Musique concrète, composers such as Karlheinz Stockhausen, who had sometimes devised elaborate systems involving long tapes and multiple recorders and playback systems, collectively processing the input of a live performer or ensemble.
Audio engineers working in popular music adapted similar techniques, to augment their use of reverberation and other studio technologies designed to simulate natural echo. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, several sound engineers began making devices for use in recording studios and more compact machines for live purposes. Guitarist and instrument designer Les Paul was an early pioneer in delay devices. A landmark device was the EchoSonic made by American Ray Butts, it is a portable guitar amplifier with a built-in tape echo, which became used in country music and in rock and roll. Tape echoes became commercially available in the 1950s. An echo machine is the early name for a sound processing device used with electronic instruments to repeat the sound and produce a simulated echo. One example is the Echoplex; the length of delay was adjusted by changing the distance between the tape record and playback heads. Another example is the Roland Space Echo with a record and multiple playback tape heads and a variable tape speed.
The time between echo repeats was adjusted by varying the tape speed. The length or intensity of the echo effect was adjusted by changing the amount of echo signal was fed back into the pre-echo signal. Different effects could be created by combining the different playback heads. Before the invention of audio delay technology, music employing a delayed echo had to be recorded in a reverberant space an inconvenience for musicians and engineers; the popularity of an easy-to-implement real-time echo effect led to the production of systems offering an all-in-one effects unit that could be adjusted to produce echoes of any interval or amplitude. The presence of multiple taps made it possible to have delays at varying rhythmic intervals. Many delay processors based on analog tape recording, used magnetic tape as their recording and playback medium. Electric motors guided a tape loop through a device with a variety of mechanisms allowing modification of the effect's parameters. Popular models included Ray Butts' EchoSonic, the 1959 Echoplex by Mike Battle, "whose sounds are still being experimented with today.", the Roland Space Echo, In the Echoplex EP-2, the play head was fixed, while a combination record and erase head was mounted on a slide, thus the delay time of the echo was adjusted by changing the distance between the record and play heads.
In the Space Echo, all of the heads are fixed, but the speed of the tape could be adjusted, changing the delay time. The 1959 Ecco-Fonic had a spinning head. Thin magnetic tape was not suited for continuous operation, however, so the tape loop had to be replaced from time to time to maintain the audio fidelity of the processed sounds; the Binson Echorec used disc as its storage medium. This provided an advantage over tape, as the durable drums were able to last for many years with little deterioration in the audio quality. Incorporating vacuum tube-based electronics, surviving tape-based delay units are sought by modern musicians who wish to employ some of the timbres achievable with this technology. Solid-state delay units using analog bucket-brigade devices became available in the 1970s and were a mainstream alternative to tape echo; the earliest known design, was prototyped at a Boston-based sound reinforcement company in 1976. The core technology used a Reticon SAD1024 IC. In the 1980s, this design was used by Boss Corporation for their mass-production products and the Rockman amplifier.
Though solid-state analog delays are less flexible than digital delays and have shorter delay times, several classic models such as the discontinued Boss DM-2 are still sought after for their "warmer", more natural echo quality and progressively decaying echos. Additionally, several companies make new analog delays; the availability of inexpensive digital signal processing electronics in the late 1970s and 1980s led to the development of the first digital delay effects. They were only available in expensive rack-mounted units, such as the AMS DMX 15-80 of 1978; as costs came down and the electronics grew smaller, they became available in the form of foot pedals. The first digital delay offered in a pedal was the Boss DD-2 in 1984. Rack-mounted delay units evolved into digital reverb units and on to digital multi-effects units capable of more sophisticated effects than pure delay
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
In electroacoustic music, a loop is a repeating section of sound material. Short sections of material can be repeated to create ostinato patterns. A loop can be created using a wide range of music technologies including turntables, digital samplers, sequencers, drum machines, tape machines, delay units, or they can be programmed using computer music software. "Loops are short sections of tracks, which you believe might work being repeated." A loop is not "any sample, but...specifically a small section of sound that's repeated continuously." Contrast with a one-shot sample. "A loop is a sample of a performance, edited to repeat seamlessly when the audio file is played end to end". "A drum loop is technically a short recording of multiple drum materials, edited to loop seamlessly, a drum loop repeats until an exact duration is satisfied, for example, to break a single loop to another, you might want to use a drum fill which could be a seamless loop". While repetition is used in the musics of all cultures, the first musicians to use loops were electroacoustic music pioneers such as Pierre Schaeffer, Halim El-Dabh, Pierre Henry, Edgard Varèse and Karlheinz Stockhausen.
In turn, El-Dabh's music influenced Frank Zappa's use of tape loops in the mid-1960s. An influential use of tape loops was Jamaican dub music in the 1960s. Dub producer King Tubby used tape loops in his productions, while improvising with homemade delay units. Another dub producer, Sylvan Morris, developed a slapback echo effect by using both mechanical and handmade tape loops; these techniques were adopted by hip hop musicians in the 1970s. Grandmaster Flash's turntablism is an early example in hip hop; the use of pre-recorded, digitally-sampled loops in popular music dates back to Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who released one of the first albums to feature samples and loops, 1981's Technodelic. Their approach to sampling was a precursor to the contemporary approach of constructing music by cutting fragments of sounds and looping them using computer technology; the album was produced using Toshiba-EMI's LMD-649 digital PCM sampler, which engineer Kenji Murata custom-built for YMO.
Today, many musicians use digital hardware and software devices to create and modify loops in conjunction with various electronic musical effects. A loop can be achieved by a looper pedal, it is a device which records the signal from a guitar and plays it over and over again. In the early 1990s, dedicated digital devices were invented for use in live looping, i.e. loops that are recorded in front of a live audience. Many hardware loopers exist, some in rack unit form, but as effect pedals; the discontinued Lexicon JamMan, Gibson Echoplex Digital Pro and Looperlative LP1 are 19" rack units. The Boomerang "Rang III" Phrase Sampler, DigiTech JamMan, Boss RC-300 and the Electro-Harmonix 2880 are examples of popular pedals; as of December 2015, the following pedals are in production: TC Ditto, TC Ditto X2, TC Ditto Mic, TC Ditto Stereo, Boss RC-1, Boss RC-3, Boss RC-30, Boss RC-300 and Boss RC-505. The musical loop is one of the most important features of video game music, it is the guiding principle behind devices like the several Chinese Buddhist music boxes that loop chanting of mantras, which in turn was the inspiration of the Buddha machine, an ambient-music generating device.
The Jan Linton album "Buddha Machine Music" used these loops along with others created by manually scrolling through C. D.s on a CDJ player. Music software to create music using loops range in features, user friendliness, price; some of the most used are AVID's Pro Tools, M-Audio's Ignite Sony's ACID and Sound Forge, Steinberg's Cubase Cakewalk Sonar, Apple inc.'s GarageBand and Logic Pro, Image-Line's FL Studio, Propellerhead's Reason and ReCycle, Ableton Live, Cockos's REAPER. Break, break beats are drum loops Phasing Anon.. "Looper Pedal: Reviews and Performances". LooperMusic.com. Anon.. "月刊ロッキンf 1982年3月号 LMD-649の記事 1982". Tokyosky Webmaster's Blog. Rockin'f: 140–41. Carter, Monica. "It's Easy When You're Big in Japan: Yellow Magic Orchestra at the Hollywood Bowl". The Vinyl District. Condry, Ian. Hip-hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural Globalization. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3892-0. Retrieved 12 June 2011. Decroupet and Elena Ungeheuer. "Through the Sensory Looking-Glass: The Aesthetic and Serial Foundations of Gesang der Jünglinge", translated by Jerome Kohl.
Perspectives of New Music 36, no. 1: pp. 97–142. Doi:10.2307/833578. Equipboard Staff. 2018. "5 Best Looper Pedals for Guitar". Equipboard website.. Duffell, Daniel. Making Music with Samples: Tips, 600+ Ready-to-Use Samples. San Francisco: Backbeat. ISBN 0-87930-839-7. Entropy Records. "Jan Linton: Buddha Machine Music". Entropy Records. Hawkins, Erik; the Complete Guide to Remixing: Produce Professional Dance-Floor Hits on Your Home Computer. Boston: Berklee Press. ISBN 0-87639-044-0. Holmes, Thom. "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters". Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology and Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-95781-8. Retrieved 2014-06-10. Horla
Rahsaan Roland Kirk
Rahsaan Roland Kirk was an American jazz multi-instrumentalist who played tenor saxophone and many other instruments. He was renowned for his onstage vitality, during which virtuoso improvisation was accompanied by comic banter, political ranting, the ability to play several instruments simultaneously. Kirk was born Ronald Theodore Kirk in Columbus, where he lived in a neighborhood known as Flytown, he became blind at two years old. As a teenager, Kirk studied at the Ohio State School for the Blind. By fifteen he was on the road playing rhythm and blues on weekends with Boyd Moore's band. According to saxophonist Hank Crawford, "He would be like this 14 year-old blind kid playing two horns at once, they would bring him out and he would tear the joint up." Hank said he was unbelievable when as a youth. "Now they had him doing all kinds of goofy stuff but he was playing the two horns and he was playing the shit out of them. He was an original from the beginning." Kirk felt compelled by a dream to transpose two letters in his first name to make'"Roland".
In 1970, Kirk added "Rahsaan" to his name after hearing it in a dream. Kirk's multi-instrumentality was credited as having a substantial musical conception; this inclusivity included the blues, a love of stride piano and early jazz, appreciation for pop tunes. But his vision was much wider than most of his contemporaries. According to producer Joel Dorn, he was hugely knowledgeable about classical music. Pieces by Saint-Saens, Tchaikovsky and Villa-Lobos would all feature on his albums over the years, alongside standards, pop songs and original compositions. Rahsaan's influences went beyond jazz and consequentially, he preferred the term'Black Classical Music.'Kirk's musical career spans from 1955 until his death in 1977. He preferred to lead his own bands and performed as a sideman, although he did record with arranger Quincy Jones, drummer Roy Haynes and worked with bassist Charles Mingus. One of his best-known recorded performances is the lead flute and solo on Jones' "Soul Bossa Nova", a 1964 hit song repopularized in the Austin Powers films.
Kirk was politically outspoken. During his concerts, between songs he talked about topical issues, including African-American history and the Civil Rights Movement, his monologues were laced with satire and absurdist humor. According to comedian Jay Leno, when Leno toured with Kirk as Kirk's opening act, Kirk would introduce him by saying, "I want to introduce a young brother who knows the black experience and knows all about the white devils.... Please welcome Jay Leno!"In 1975, Kirk suffered a major stroke which led to partial paralysis of one side of his body. He continued modifying his instruments to enable him to play with one arm. At a live performance at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London he managed to play two instruments, carried on to tour internationally and to appear on television, he died from a second stroke in 1977, the morning after performing in the Frangipani Room of the Indiana University Student Union in Bloomington, Indiana. His playing was rooted in soul jazz or hard bop, but Kirk's knowledge of jazz history allowed him to draw from many elements of the music's past, from ragtime to swing and free jazz.
Kirk absorbed classical influences, his artistry reflected elements of pop music by composers such as Smokey Robinson and Burt Bacharach, as well as Duke Ellington, John Coltrane and other jazz musicians. The live album Bright Moments is an example of one of his shows. Kirk played and collected a number of musical instruments various saxophones and flutes, his main saxes were stritch and a manzello. A number of his instruments were homemade. Kirk modified instruments himself to accommodate his simultaneous playing technique. Critic Gary Giddins wrote that Kirk's tenor playing alone was enough to bring him "renown", he appeared on stage with all three horns hanging around his neck, at times he would play a number of these horns at once, harmonizing with himself, or sustain a note for lengthy durations by using circular breathing. He used the multiple horns to play true chords functioning as a one-man saxophone section. Kirk insisted. While playing two or three saxophones at once, the music was intricate, powerful jazz with a strong feel for the blues.
Kirk was an influential flautist, including recorders. According to Giddins, Kirk was the first major jazz innovator on flute after the 1964 death of Eric Dolphy. Kirk employed several techniques. One technique was to hum into the flute at the same time as playing. Another was to play the standard transverse flute at the same time as a nose flute, he played a variety of other instruments, like whistles. He had unique approaches, such as using a saxophone mouthpiece on a trumpet, he used many non-musical devices, such as alarm clocks, sirens, or a section of common garden hose. From the early 1970s, his studio recordings used tape-manipulated musique concrète and primitive electronic sounds before such things became commonplace; the Case of the 3 Sided Dream in Audio Color was a unique album in jazz and popular music recorded annals. It was a two-LP set, with Side 4 "blank", the label not indicating any content. However, once wo
The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most used saxophones; the tenor is pitched in the key of B♭, written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F♯ key have a range from A♭2 to E5 and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists"; the tenor saxophone uses a larger mouthpiece and ligature than the alto and soprano saxophones. Visually, it is distinguished by the bend in its neck, or its crook, near the mouthpiece; the alto saxophone lacks its neck goes straight to the mouthpiece. The tenor saxophone is most recognized for its ability to blend well with the soprano and baritone saxophones, with its "husky" yet "bright" tone; the tenor saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and jazz.
It is included in pieces written for symphony orchestra. In concert bands, the tenor plays a supporting role, sometimes sharing parts with the euphonium and trombone. In jazz ensembles, the tenor plays a more prominent role as a member of a section that includes the alto and baritone saxes. Many of the most innovative and influential jazz musicians have been tenor saxophonists; these include Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Ben Webster, Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter. The work of younger players such as Michael Brecker and Chris Potter has been an important influence in more recent jazz; the tenor saxophone is one of a family of fourteen instruments designed and constructed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument maker and clarinetist. Based on an amalgam of ideas drawn from the clarinet, flute and ophicleide, the saxophone was intended to form a tonal link between the woodwinds and brass instruments found in military bands, an area that Sax considered sorely lacking.
Sax's patent, granted on 28 June 1846, divided the family into two groups of seven instruments, each ranging from alto down to contrabass. One family, pitched alternatively in B♭ and E♭, was designed to integrate with the other instruments common in military bands; the tenor saxophone, pitched in B♭, is the fourth member of this family. The tenor saxophone, like all saxophones, consists of an conical tube of thin brass, a type of metal; the wider end of the tube is flared to form a bell, while the narrower end is connected to a single reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. At intervals down the bore are placed between 23 tone holes. There are two small speaker holes which, when opened, disrupt the lower harmonics of the instrument and cause it to overblow into an upper register; the pads are controlled by pressing a number of keys with the fingers of the left and right hands. The original design of tenor saxophone had a separate octave key for each speaker hole, in the manner of the bassoon.
Although a handful of novelty tenors have been constructed'straight', like the smaller members of the saxophone family, the unwieldy length of the straight configuration means that all tenor saxophones feature a'U-bend' above the third-lowest tone hole, characteristic of the saxophone family. The tenor saxophone is curved at the top, above the highest tone-hole but below the highest speaker hole. While the alto is bent only through 80–90° to make the mouthpiece fit more in the mouth, the tenor is bent a little more in this section, incorporating a slight S-bend; the mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is similar to that of the clarinet, an wedge-shaped tube, open along one face and covered in use by a thin strip of material prepared from the stem of the giant cane known as a reed. The reed is shaved to come to an thin point, is clamped over the mouthpiece by the use of a ligature; when air is blown through the mouthpiece, the reed vibrates and generates the acoustic resonances required to produce a sound from the instrument.
The mouthpiece is the area of the saxophone with the greatest flexibility in shape and style, so the timbre of the instrument is determined by the dimensions of its mouthpiece. The design of the mouthpiece and reed play a big role in. Classical mouthpieces help produce a warmer and rounder tone, while jazz mouthpieces help produce a brighter and edgier tone. Materials used in mouthpiece construction include plastic and various metals e.g. bronze and stainless steel. The mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is proportionally larger than that of the alto, necessitating a larger reed; the increased stiffness of the reed and the greater airflow required to establish resonance in the larger body means the tenor sax requires greater lung power but a looser embouchure than the higher-pitched member