OCRFeeder is an optical character recognition suite for GNOME, which supports any command-line OCR engine, such as CuneiForm, GOCR, Ocrad and Tesseract. It converts paper documents to digital document files and can serve to make them accessible to visually impaired users. OCRFeeder is free and open-source software subject to the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 or later, it is available for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. OCRFeeder was started as a master's thesis in computer science by Joaquim Rocha, hired by Igalia, S. L. and continued development there. The first version was published in March 2009; the OCRFeeder project was published and hosted on Google Code, temporarily used Gitorious and now uses the GNOME infrastructure. Since 5 April 2010 a software package is included in the official Debian repositories. Version 0.7 from July 30, 2010 brought image pre-processing features, 0.7.1 enabled for scanner access from within OCRFeeder. OCRFeeder has a simple graphical user interface, designed to the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines.
It transfers the layout to capable output formats. It searches for content areas, outlines them and guesses the content type and processes text areas through the OCR back-end, it can use any command-line OCR engine as back-end and features auto-detection and auto-configuration for all popular free engines. OCR back-ends may be either auto-configured, the necessary command line entered in a GUI dialogue or configured directly via a XML file. Scan image post-processing including de-skewing can be done. All recognition results can be edited before saving to the desired output format. Sessions can be loaded; the suite includes a spell checker. OCRFeeder has built-in procedures for the post-processing of the raw OCR results returned by the OCR engine, it can remove remaining segmentation to printed lines of text with removal of hyphenation. Although OCRFeeder is a GUI tool, it can run in command line mode, which may be a useful tool for automatic document batch processing. In this mode OCRFeeder uses the default OCR engine, which the user can set in the application's preferences.
The program uses the GTK + library. It acts as a graphical front-end for other existing tools. For example, it does not make actual character recognition itself, but uses external programs such as an “OCR engine”, installed on the system, it can automatically detect and configure CuneiForm, GOCR, Ocrad and Tesseract as backend OCR engines. Scanners are accessed via SANE. For post-processing of scanned images there is integration of the command-line tool “Unpaper”, among other things. PDF files are processed using Ghostscript in the backend. OCRFeeder can import data from graphic files. From 0.7.1a version it supports grabbing images directly from the scanner device. The results can be saved in OpenDocument, plain text or PDF file formats. HOCR file output is planned. Initial formatting can be done directly in the program. Official website
A cherub is one of the unearthly beings who directly attend to God according to Abrahamic religions. The numerous depictions of cherubim assign to them many different roles. In Jewish angelic hierarchy, cherubim have the ninth rank in Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the third rank in Kabbalistic works such as Berit Menuchah. De Coelesti Hierarchia places them in the highest rank alongside Thrones. In the Book of Ezekiel and Christian icons, the cherub is depicted as having two pairs of wings, four faces: that of a lion, an ox, a human, an eagle, their legs were straight, the soles of their feet like the hooves of a bull, gleaming like polished brass. Tradition ascribes to them a variety of physical appearances; some early midrashic literature conceives of them as non-corporeal. In Western Christian tradition, cherubim have become associated with the putto, resulting in depictions of cherubim as small, winged boys. In Islam, the cherubim are the angels closest to God. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall noted Rūḥ as one of the most noble among the cherubim.
Others are the Bearers of the archangels. In Ismailism, there are seven cherubim, comparable to the Seven Archangels. Mythological hybrids are common in the art of the Ancient Near East. One example is the Babylonian lamassu or shedu, a protective spirit with a sphinx-like form, possessing the wings of an eagle, the body of a lion, the head of a king; this was adopted in Phoenicia. The wings, because of their artistic beauty, soon became the most prominent part, animals of various kinds were adorned with wings. Albright argued that "the winged lion with human head" found in Phoenicia and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age is "much more common than any other winged creature, so much so that its identification with the cherub is certain". A related source is the human-bodied Hittite griffin, unlike other griffins, appear always not as a fierce bird of prey, but seated in calm dignity, like an irresistible guardian of holy things; the traditional Hebrew conception of cherubim as guardians of the Garden of Eden is backed by the Semitic belief of beings of superhuman power and devoid of human feelings, whose duty it was to represent the gods, as guardians of their sanctuaries to repel intruders.
It has been suggested that the image of cherubim as storm winds explains why they are described as being the chariot of Yahweh in Ezekiel's visions, the Books of Samuel, the parallel passages in the Books of Chronicles, passages in the early Psalms: for example "and he rode upon a cherub and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind." In particular, in a scene reminiscent of Ezekiel's dream, the Megiddo Ivories depict an unknown king being carried on his throne by hybrid winged-creatures. Delitzch connects the name it with Assyrian karabu. Karppe glosses Babylonian karâbu as "propitious" rather than "mighty". Dhorme connected the Hebrew name to Assyrian kāribu, a term used to refer to intercessory beings that plead with the gods on behalf of humanity; the folk etymological connection to a Hebrew word for "youthful" is due to Abbahu. The cherubim are the most occurring heavenly creature in the Hebrew Bible, with the Hebrew word appearing 91 times. Despite these many references, the role of the cherubim is never explicitly elucidated.
While Hebrew tradition must have conceived of the cherubim as guardians of the Garden of Eden, they are depicted as performing other roles. The cherub who appears in the "Song of David", a poem which occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible, in 2 Samuel 22 and Psalm 18, participates in Yahweh's theophany and is imagined as a vehicle upon which the deity descends to earth from heaven in order to rescue the speaker. In Exodus 25:18-22, Yahweh tells Moses to make multiple images of cherubim at specific points around the Ark of the Covenant. Many appearances of the words cherub and cherubim in the Bible refer to the gold cherubim images on the mercy seat of the Ark, as well as images on the curtains of the Tabernacle and in Solomon's Temple, including two measuring ten cubits high. In Isaiah 37:16, Hezekiah prays, addressing Yahweh as "enthroned above the cherubim". Cherubim feature at some length in the Book of Ezekiel. While they first appear in chapter one, in which they are transporting the throne of Yahweh by the river Chebar, they are not called cherubim until chapter 10.
In Ezekiel 1:5-11 they are described as having the likeness of a man, having four faces: that of a man, a lion, ox, an eagle. The four faces represent the four domains of God's rule: the man represents humanity; these faces peer out from the center of an array of four wings. Under their wing
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
GNOME is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems. GNOME was an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. GNOME is part of the GNU Project and developed by The GNOME Project, composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat, it is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software. GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, SteamOS, Kali Linux and Endless OS; the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many distributions that targets low usage of system resources.
GNOME was started on August 15 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it. It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, growing in popularity, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version 2.0. In place of Qt, the GTK toolkit was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License, a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, the GNU General Public License for its applications; the name "GNOME" was an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001.
De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code in 1999 in Massachusetts. During the transition to GNOME 2 around the year 2001 and shortly thereafter there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite. On September 15, 2003 GNOME-Office 1.0, consisting of AbiWord 2.0, GNOME-DB 1.0 and Gnumeric 1.2.0 was released. Although some release planning for GNOME Office 1.2 was happening on gnome-office mailing list, Gnumeric 1.4 was announced as a part of it, the 1.2 release of the suite itself never materialized. As of May 4, 2014 GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment". GNOME 2 was similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but switched to Metacity as its default window manager; the handling of windows and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations.
However, these features can be moved to any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether. As of 2009, GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris. GNOME 1 and 2 followed the traditional desktop metaphor. GNOME 3, released in 2011, changed this with GNOME Shell, a more abstract metaphor where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops takes place in a separate area called "Overview". Since Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager, the minimize and maximize buttons no longer appear by default, the title bar, menu bar and tool bar combinated in one horizontal bar called "header bar" via Client-Side Decoration mechanism. Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme. Many GNOME Core Applications went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience; the release of GNOME 3, notable for its move away from the traditional menu bar and taskbar, has caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux community.
Many users and developers have expressed concerns about usability. A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases. GNOME 3 aims to provide a single interface for desktop computers and tablet computers; this means using only input techniques that work on all those devices, requiring abandonment of certain concepts to which desktop users were accustomed, such as right-clicking, or saving files on the desktop. These major changes evoked widespread criticism; the MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface, whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3. The Linux Mint team addressed the issue in another way by developing the "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor; this led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.
Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a wh
Celemony Software GmbH is a German musical software company that specializes in digital audio pitch correction software. It produces a popular audio pitch modification tool similar to Auto-Tune. Celemony was founded in October 2000 by Peter Neubäcker, Prof. Dr. Hildegard Sourgens and Carsten Gehle, it is based in Germany. In 2009, Melodyne won an MIPA Award for Most innovative product. In 2011, Celemony released Capstan, a stand-alone audio restoration software that eliminates wow and flutter from digital recordings. In October 2011, Celemony and Presonus introduced Audio Random Access, an extension for audio plug-in formats like AU and VST that permits to exchange data between them, supported by several DAWs. Three years before Celemony was founded, Peter Neubäcker was working on a research experiment with sound; this experiment turned into the Melodyne pitch correction product. Melodyne has become a tool, used by a large number of professional record producers worldwide to tune and manipulate audio signals a singer's vocals.
Melodyne has facilities for time-stretching, rebuilding melodies. It can be used to aid the creation of backing vocals from an existing lead vocal; the first public viewing of Melodyne was at the Winter NAMM Show in 2001 and it has since won various awards. As of January 2016, the current release is Melodyne 4. Artists who use the software include Herbie Hancock, Björk, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Newman, it is used in classical music for the pitch analysis of speech. Composer Jonathan Harvey and IRCAM engineers used Melodyne to extract melodic material for his composition Speakings. Direct Note Access allows independent manipulation of individual notes within chords and polyphonic recordings. Announced at Musikmesse Frankfurt 2008 to be released at the end of that year, it was postponed to Q1 2009 finally released on November 16, 2009 as part of Melodyne editor. On January 14, 2016, Celemony integrated DNA into their multitrack software Melodyne studio. Celemony was honored with a Special Merit/Technical Grammy Award at the 54th Grammy Awards in February 2012.
The category recognizes "contributions of outstanding technical significance to the recording field." Audio Random Access Audio time stretching and pitch scaling Dynamic tonality — the real-time changes of tuning and timbre for new chord progressions, musical temperament modulations, etc. Auto-Tune, a similar product As of this edit, this article uses content from "Celemony", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed. Official website Interview with Melodyne inventor Peter Neubäcker
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Microtonal music or microtonality is the use in music of microtones—intervals smaller than a semitone called "microintervals". It may be extended to include any music using intervals not found in the customary Western tuning of twelve equal intervals per octave. In other words, a microtone may be thought of as a note that falls between the keys of a piano tuned in equal temperament. Microtonal music can refer to any music containing microtones; the words "microtone" and "microtonal" were coined before 1912 by Maud MacCarthy Mann in order to avoid the misnomer "quarter tone" when speaking of the srutis of Indian music. Prior to this time the term "quarter tone" was used, not only for an interval half the size of a semitone, but for all intervals smaller than a semitone, it may have been slightly earlier as early as 1895, that the Mexican composer Julián Carrillo, writing in Spanish or French, coined the terms microtono/micro-ton and microtonalismo/micro-tonalité. In French, the usual term is the somewhat more self-explanatory micro-intervalle, French sources give the equivalent German and English terms as Mikrointervall and micro interval (Amy 1961.
1998. "Microinterval" is a frequent alternative in English in translations of writings by French authors and in discussion of music by French composers. In English, the two terms "microtone" and "microinterval" are synonymous; the English analogue of the related French term, micro-intervalité, however, is rare or nonexistent being translated as "microtonality". Ezra Sims, in the article "Microtone" in the second edition of the Harvard Dictionary of Music defines "microtone" as "an interval smaller than a semitone", which corresponds with Aristoxenus's use of the term diesis. However, the unsigned article "Comma, Schisma" in the same reference source calls comma and diaschisma "microintervals" but not "microtones", in the fourth edition of the same reference a new "Comma, Schisma" article by André Barbera calls them "intervals". In the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Paul Griffiths, Mark Lindley, Ioannis Zannos define "microtone" as a musical rather than an acoustical entity: "any musical interval or difference of pitch distinctly smaller than a semitone", including "the tiny enharmonic melodic intervals of ancient Greece, the several divisions of the octave into more than 12 parts, various discrepancies among the intervals of just intonation or between a sharp and its enharmonically paired flat in various forms of mean-tone temperament", as well as the Indian sruti, small intervals used in Byzantine chant, Arabic music theory from the 10th century onward, for Persian traditional music and Turkish music and various other Near Eastern musical traditions, but do not name the "mathematical" terms schisma and diaschisma.
"Microtone" is sometimes used to refer to individual notes, "microtonal pitches" added to and distinct from the familiar twelve notes of the chromatic scale, as "enharmonic microtones", for example. In English the word "microtonality" is mentioned in 1946 by Rudi Blesh who related it to microtonal inflexions of the so-called "blues scales", it was used still earlier by W. McNaught with reference to developments in "modernism" in a 1939 record review of the Columbia History of Music, Vol. 5. In German the term Mikrotonalität came into use at least by 1958, though "Mikrointervall" is still common today in contexts where small intervals of early European tradition are described, as e.g. in the new Geschichte der Musiktheorie while "Mikroton" seems to prevail in discussions of the avant-garde music and music of Eastern traditions. The term "microinterval" is used alongside "microtone" by American musicologist Margo Schulter in her articles on medieval music; the term "microtonal music" refers to music containing small intervals but can include any tuning that differs from Western twelve-tone equal temperament.
Traditional Indian systems of 22 śruti. Microtonal variation of intervals is standard practice in the African-American musical forms of spirituals and jazz. Many microtonal equal divisions of the octave have been proposed in order to achieve approximation to the intervals of just intonation. Terminology other than "microtonal" has been proposed by some theorists and composers. In 1914, A. H. Fox Strangways objected that "'heterotone' would be a better name for śruti than the usual translation'microtone'". Modern Indian researchers yet write: "microtonal intervals called shru