SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Scalability

Scalability is the property of a system to handle a growing amount of work by adding resources to the system. In an economic context, a scalable business model implies that a company can increase sales given increased resources. For example, a package delivery system is scalable because more packages can be delivered by adding more delivery vehicles. However, if all packages had to first pass through a single warehouse for sorting, the system would not be scalable, because one warehouse can handle only a limited number of packages. In computing, scalability is a characteristic of computers, algorithms, networking protocols and applications. An example is a search engine, which must support increasing numbers of users, the number of topics it indexes. Webscale is an computer architectural approach that brings the capabilities of large scale cloud computing companies into enterprise data centers. In mathematics, scalability refers to closure under scalar multiplication; the Incident Command System is the emergency management system used across emergency response agencies in the United States.

ICS can scale resource coordination from a single-engine roadside brushfire to an interstate wildfire. The first resource on scene establishes command, with authority to order resources and delegate responsibility; as an incident expands, more senior officers assume command. Scalability can be measured over multiple dimensions, such as: Administrative scalability: The ability for an increasing number of organizations or users to access a system. Functional scalability: The ability to enhance the system by adding new functionality without disrupting existing activities. Geographic scalability: The ability to maintain effectiveness during expansion from a local area to a larger region. Load scalability: The ability for a distributed system to expand and contract to accommodate heavier or lighter loads, the ease with which a system or component can be modified, added, or removed, to accommodate changing loads. Generation scalability: The ability of a system to scale by adopting new generations of components.

Heterogeneous scalability is the ability to adopt components from different vendors. A routing protocol is considered scalable with respect to network size, if the size of the necessary routing table on each node grows as O, where N is the number of nodes in the network; some early peer-to-peer implementations of Gnutella had scaling issues. Each node query flooded its requests to all nodes; the demand on each peer increased in proportion to the total number of peers overrunning their capacity. Other P2P systems like BitTorrent scale well because the demand on each peer is independent of the number of peers. Nothing is centralized, so the system can expand indefinitely without any resources other than the peers themselves. A scalable online transaction processing system or database management system is one that can be upgraded to process more transactions by adding new processors and storage, which can be upgraded and transparently without shutting it down; the distributed nature of the Domain Name System allows it to work efficiently, serving billions of hosts on the worldwide Internet.

Resources fall into two broad categories: vertical. Scaling horizontally means adding more nodes to a system, such as adding a new computer to a distributed software application. An example might involve scaling out from one web server to three. High-performance computing applications such as seismic analysis and biotechnology workloads scaled horizontally to support tasks that once would have required expensive supercomputers. Other workloads, such as large social networks exceed the capacity of the largest supercomputer and can only be handled by scalable systems. Exploiting this scalability requires software for efficient resource management and maintenance. Scaling vertically means adding resources to a single node involving the addition of CPUs, memory or storage to a single computer. Larger numbers of elements increases management complexity, more sophisticated programming to allocate tasks among resources and handle issues such as throughput and latency across nodes, while some applications do not scale horizontally.

Note that network function virtualization defines these terms differently: scaling out/in is the ability to scale by add/remove resource instances, whereas scaling up/down is the ability to scale by changing allocated resources Scalability for databases requires that the database system be able to perform additional work given greater hardware resources, such as additional servers, processors and storage. Workloads have continued to grow and demands on databases have followed suit. Algorithmic innovations have include table and index partitioning. Architectural innovations include shared nothing and shared everything architectures for managing multi-server configurations. In the context of scale-out data storage, scalability is defined as the maximum storage cluster size which guarantees full data consistency, meaning there is only one valid version of stored data in the whole cluster, independently from the number of redundant physical data copies. Clusters which provide "lazy" redundancy by updating copies in an asynchronous fashion are called'eventually consistent'.

This type of scale-out design is suitable when availability and responsiveness are rated higher than consistency, true for many web file hosting services or web caches. For a

Guy Spelman

Guy Dennis Spelman is a former English cricketer. Spelman was a left-handed batsman, he was born at London. Spelman made his debut for Kent in a List A match against Yorkshire in the 1978 John Player League, he played List A cricket for Kent until 1980, making six appearances, the last of which came against Middlesex in the 1980 John Player League. Spelman, whose main role was a bowler, took 7 wickets in his six List A matches, which came at an average of 27.71, with best figures of 3/30. It wasn't until 1980 that Spelman made his first-class debut for the county against Sussex in the County Championship, he made six further first-class appearances for Kent, the last of which came against Oxford University in 1982. In his seven first-class appearances, he took 10 wickets at an average of 35.70, with best figures of 2/27. Guy Spelman at ESPNcricinfo Guy Spelman at CricketArchive

The Apprentice (British series 13)

Series Thirteen of The Apprentice, a British reality television series, began broadcasting in the UK during 2017, from 4 October to 17 December on BBC One. Unlike a number of series before which had both their filming and broadcast schedules altered to ensure the programme could aired without clashing with live TV coverage of major sporting and political events within the UK, it is the first series to focus its broadcast around late Autumn to early Winter, rather than in Spring as had been done when the programme first premiered. Alongside the standard twelve episodes, the series was preceded by the mini online episode "Meet the Candidates" on 26 September, with two specials aired alongside the series – "The Final Five" on 8 December, "Why I Fired Them" on 14 December. Eighteen candidates took part in the thirteenth series, with James White and Sarah Lynn becoming the overall winners, marking it as the first time in the programme's history that a series ended with joint winners. Excluding the specials, the series averaged around 6.94 million viewers during its broadcast.

Applications for the thirteenth series began in late November 2016, towards the end of the twelfth series, with applicants assessed and interviewed by production staff between January and February 2017. Filming took place during Spring to early Summer that year, once the final line-up of eighteen participants had been finalised, with final editing completed before the programme's premiere episode was broadcast in mid-Autumn. Unlike previous series in which the filming schedules had to be rearranged so that the programme's broadcast did not clash with live coverage of major sporting and political events, it was decided that The Apprentice maintain its Autumn broadcast for the foreseeable future, out of convenience seen from the successive rescheduling in past consecutive years after the ninth series. Filming of the first task saw the men name their team Vitality, while the women named their team Graphene. Of those who took part, both James White and Sarah Lynn would become the eventual winners, an event that marks the first time in the programme's history that Alan Sugar invested in two business partners in the finals as well as choosing joint winners for a series.

The aftermath of this result received mixed feedback from fans of the show. While James would go on to use his investment to start up his IT recruitment firm Right Time Recruitment, Sarah would go on to use her investment to start up an online personalised sweets gift service Sweets in the City. Key: The candidate won this series of The Apprentice; the candidate won as project manager for this task. The candidate lost as project manager for this task; the candidate was on the winning team for this task / they passed the Interviews stage. The candidate was on the losing team for this task; the candidate was brought to the final boardroom for this task. The candidate was fired in this task; the candidate was fired. Official episode viewing figures are from BARB. Official site BBC