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Scale (music)

In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale; some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending, for example, the melodic minor scale. In the context of the common practice period, most or all of the melody and harmony of a musical work is built using the notes of a single scale, which can be conveniently represented on a staff with a standard key signature. Due to the principle of octave equivalence, scales are considered to span a single octave, with higher or lower octaves repeating the pattern. A musical scale represents a division of the octave space into a certain number of scale steps, a scale step being the recognizable distance between two successive notes of the scale. However, there is no need for scale steps to be equal within any scale and as demonstrated by microtonal music, there is no limit to how many notes can be injected within any given musical interval.

A measure of the width of each scale step provides a method to classify scales. For instance, in a chromatic scale each scale step represents a semitone interval, while a major scale is defined by the interval pattern W–W–H–W–W–W–H, where W stands for whole step, H stands for half-step. Based on their interval patterns, scales are put into categories including diatonic, major and others. A specific scale is defined by its characteristic interval pattern and by a special note, known as its first degree; the tonic of a scale is the note selected as the beginning of the octave, therefore as the beginning of the adopted interval pattern. The name of the scale specifies both its tonic and its interval pattern. For example, C major indicates a major scale with a C tonic. Scales are listed from low to high pitch. Most scales are octave-repeating. An octave-repeating scale can be represented as a circular arrangement of pitch classes, ordered by increasing pitch class. For instance, the increasing C major scale is C–D–E–F–G–A–B–, with the bracket indicating that the last note is an octave higher than the first note, the decreasing C major scale is C–B–A–G–F–E–D–, with the bracket indicating an octave lower than the first note in the scale.

The distance between two successive notes in a scale is called a scale step. The notes of a scale are numbered by their steps from the first degree of the scale. For example, in a C major scale the first note is the second D, the third E and so on. Two notes can be numbered in relation to each other: C and E create an interval of a third. A single scale can be manifested at many different pitch levels. For example, a C major scale can be started at C4 and ascending an octave to C5; as long as all the notes can be played, the octave they take on can be altered. Scales may be described according to the number of different pitch classes they contain: Chromatic, or dodecatonic Octatonic: used in jazz and modern classical music Heptatonic: the most common modern Western scale Hexatonic: common in Western folk music Pentatonic: the anhemitonic form is common in folk music in Asian music. Many music theorists concur that the constituent intervals of a scale have a large role in the cognitive perception of its sonority, or tonal character.

"The number of the notes that make up a scale as well as the quality of the intervals between successive notes of the scale help to give the music of a culture area its peculiar sound quality." "The pitch distances or intervals among the notes of a scale tell us more about the sound of the music than does the mere number of tones."Scales may be described by their symmetry, such as being palindromic, chiral, or having rotational symmetry as in Messiaen's modes of limited transposition. The notes of a scale form intervals with each of the other notes of the chord in combination. A 5-note scale has 10 of these harmonic intervals, a 6-note scale has 15, a 7-note scale has 21, an 8-note scale has 28. Though the scale is not a chord, might never be heard more than one note at a time, still the absence and placement of certain key intervals plays a large part in the sound of the scale, the natural movement of melody within the scale, the selection of chords taken from the scale. A musical scale that contains tritones is called tritonic, one without tritones is atritonic.

A scale or chord that contains semitones is called hemitonic, without semitones is anhemitonic. Scales can be abstracted from composition, they are often used precompositionally to guide or limit a composition. Explicit instruction in scales has been part of compositional training for many centuries. One or more scales may be used in a compositi


Pukë is a town and municipality in northern Albania. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Gjegjan, Pukë, Qelëz, Qerret and Rrapë, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the town Pukë. The total population is 11,069, in a total area of 505.83 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 3,607; the local football club is called KS Tërbuni Pukë. At 838 metres above sea level, the town is one of the highest in elevation in Albania and a well-known ski area, it is 150 km from Tirana. In the 20th century, Pukë was expanded as a centre of Catholic education; the distinguished Albanian poet Migjeni worked there from 1936 to 1937. The school where he worked as a teacher is a tourist attraction; the town is surrounded by a 400-hectare massif covered with pine trees. Since the end of the communist era, there has been a spread of disease in the pines caused by pine processionary moths, whose nests are conspicuous.

The settlement is inhabited by the tribe of Puka, itself one of the "seven tribes of Puka". According to tradition, collected by Hyacinthe Hecquard in the mid-19th century, the settlement of Puka had been founded by a Paolo Zenta, who according to Marin Barletius was a relative of Lekë Dukagjini; the region has its own Kanun, a set of traditional Albanian laws and is known as Kanuni i Pukës and used in Northern Albania and Kosovo. The toponym may derive from Latin via publica; the hotel standing in the town square has been upgraded and now boasts a microbrewery producing Puka Beer, a lager in draught form. Etilda Gjonaj - Albanian politician and professor, she is the Minister of Justice of Albania Altin Lala - Former captain of Albania national football team and Hannover 96 Kristjan Sokoli - NFL player West Cenaj - footballer Xhovalin Delia - Painter Fabio Gjonikaj - footballer Taulant Marku - footballer Sebino Plaku - footballer Flavio Prendi - footballer Shtjefën Gjeçovi - Catholic priest and the collector and writer of Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit/Kanun Ndoc Mark Gega - Patriot Millosh Gjergj Nikolla - Teacher and writer Berishe Dardhe, Korce List of mayors of Pukë List of ski areas and resorts in Europe Elsie, Robert.

The Tribes of Albania: History and Culture. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78453-401-1. Through The Embers of Chaos ISBN 0-7195-6232-5, Dervla MurphyThe author refers to processionary disease in Pukë on a cycle trip through Albania, including a stay in the town, described on page 213 Official website Hotel Turizem Puka Official Website Pukë A Web page dedicated to Pukë and the surrounding area Puka Tourist Guide


Seaborgium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Sg and atomic number 106. It is named after the American nuclear chemist Glenn T. Seaborg; as a synthetic element, it is not found in nature. It is radioactive. In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block transactinide element, it is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 6 elements as the fourth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that seaborgium behaves as the heavier homologue to tungsten in group 6; the chemical properties of seaborgium are characterized only but they compare well with the chemistry of the other group 6 elements. In 1974, a few atoms of seaborgium were produced in laboratories in the Soviet Union and in the United States; the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry established seaborgium as the official name for the element.

It is one of only two elements named after a living person at the time of naming, the other being oganesson, element 118. Following claims of the observation of elements 104 and 105 in 1970 by Albert Ghiorso et al. at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a search for element 106 using oxygen-18 projectiles and the used californium-249 target was conducted. Several 9.1 MeV alpha decays were reported and are now thought to originate from element 106, though this was not confirmed at the time. In 1972, the HILAC accelerator received equipment upgrades, preventing the team from repeating the experiment, data analysis was not done during the shutdown; this reaction was tried again several years in 1974, the Berkeley team realized that their new data agreed with their 1971 data, to the astonishment of Ghiorso. Hence, element 106 could have been discovered in 1971 if the original data was analyzed more carefully. Two groups claimed discovery of the element. Unambiguous evidence of element 106 was first reported in 1974 by a Russian research team in Dubna led by Yuri Oganessian, in which targets of lead-208 and lead-207 were bombarded with accelerated ions of chromium-54.

In total, fifty-one spontaneous fission events were observed with a half-life between four and ten milliseconds. After having ruled out nucleon transfer reactions as a cause for these activities, the team concluded that the most cause of the activities was the spontaneous fission of isotopes of element 106; the isotope in question was first suggested to be seaborgium-259, but was corrected to seaborgium-260. 20882Pb + 5424Cr → 260106Sg + 2 n 20782Pb + 5424Cr → 260106Sg + nA few months in 1974, researchers including Glenn T. Seaborg, Carol Alonso and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California, E. Kenneth Hulet from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory synthesized the element by bombarding a californium-249 target with oxygen-18 ions, using equipment similar to that, used for the synthesis of element 104 five years earlier, observing at least seventy alpha decays from the isotope seaborgium-263m with a half-life of 0.9±0.2 seconds. The alpha daughter rutherfordium-259 and granddaughter nobelium-255 had been synthesised and the properties observed here matched with those known, as did the intensity of their production.

The cross-section of the reaction observed, 0.3 nanobarns agreed well with theoretical predictions. These bolstered the assignment of the alpha decay events to seaborgium-263m. 24998Cf + 188O → 263m106Sg + 4 10n → 259104Rf + α → 255102No + αA dispute thus arose from the initial competing claims of discovery, though unlike the case of the synthetic elements up to element 105, neither team of discoverers chose to announce proposed names for the new elements, thus averting an element naming controversy temporarily. The dispute on discovery, dragged on until 1992, when the IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group, formed to put an end to the controversy by making conclusions regarding discovery claims for elements 101 to 112, concluded that the Soviet synthesis of seaborgium-260 was not convincing enough, "lacking as it is in yield curves and angular selection results", whereas the American synthesis of seaborgium-263 was convincing due to its being anchored to known daughter nuclei; as such, the TWG recognised the Berkeley team as official discoverers in their 1993 report.

Seaborg had suggested to the TWG that if Berkeley was recognised as the official discoverer of elements 104 and 105, they might propose the name kurchatovium for element 106 to honour the Dubna team, which had proposed this name for element 104 after Igor Kurchatov, the former head of the Soviet nuclear research programme. However, due to the worsening relations between the competing teams after the publication of the TWG report, this proposal was dropped from consideration by the Berkeley team. After being recognized as official discoverers, the Berkeley team started deciding on a name in earnest:...we were given credit for the discovery and the accompanying right to name the new element. The eight members of the Ghiorso group suggested a wide range of names honoring Isaac Newton, Thomas Edison, Leonardo da Vinci, Ferdinand Magellan, the mythical Ulysses, George Washington, Finland, the native land of a member of the team. There was no front-runner for a long period. One day Al walked into my office and asked what I thought of naming element 106 "seaborgium."

I was f

Roanoke Island Festival Park

Roanoke Island Festival Park is a North Carolina state historic site located at the end of NC 400 in Manteo, North Carolina on Roanoke Island. The park includes a recreated 16th-century sailing ship, living history demonstrators, a museum, a variety of performing and visual arts. Admission is valid for two days; the Roanoke Adventure Museum is an interactive museum about the history of Roanoke Island and the Outer Banks. Exhibits include the colonial-era English settlers and Native Americans and maritime history, Civil War history including the local Freedmen's Colony, a 1900s era general store display. Many displays include hands-on activities for children; the Elizabeth II is a full-size representative 16th-century sailing ship, designed and named after one of the seven ships used by Sir Walter Raleigh's fleet when he first brought colonists to Roanoke Island in 1587. The ship is a square-rigged bark with three masts, 69 feet long, 17 feet wide and draws 8 feet of water. Guides dressed in period clothing portray the seamen and colonists who traveled to Roanoke with the fleet.

The ship was commissioned to be part of the 400th anniversary celebration of founding of Roanoke and America. Launched in 1983, she presented to the state as a State Historic Site on July 13, 1984 during ceremonies to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the first English ships to the North Carolina Outer Banks. Costumed interpreters at the Settlement Site portray the colonists living and working as they did when the island was settled. Visitors can try blacksmithing and colonial games, see how the colonists lived and cooked. Soldiers display the weapons and armor. Other trade crafts include shoemaking, carpentry and canvas works; the Roanoke Island Festival Park Art Gallery showcases a different art exhibit each month with local and international artists. The "Legend of Two Path" is a 50-minute docu-drama film that portrays the views of the Algonquians about the arrival of the English colonists; the film was produced by the School of Film Making at University of North Carolina School of the Arts, is shown several times a day in the 242-seat Film Theater.

On the grounds is a recreation of an American Indian settlement which would have been typical of the time period, such as that of the Croatan people who were native to the area when Roanoke Colony was founded. The Outer Banks History Center, located in Manteo across from Roanoke Island, is a public research facility focused on the history of the Outer Banks; the Center features permanent and changing exhibits of local history, is open on weekdays. The Center is operated by the North Carolina Division of Archives & History as a regional component of the North Carolina State Archives, houses many archival historic materials including books, journals, microforms and organizational papers, photographs, oral history tapes and ephemera. Http:// - Roanoke Island Festival Park Official Web Site - American Indian Town - Roanoke Island Festival Park Official Web Site - American Indian Town

Chaalbaaz (2003 film)

Chaalbaaz is an action Hindi film made in 2003. A revenge drama, with Mithun Chakraborty in the lead role. V. V. Airlines owner Mr. Vijay Khanna a successful businessman as well as popular social activist. One day he helps. Bhaiji’s gangsters kidnaps Vinita, the daughter of Vijay Khanna and his wife Sheetal; the kidnappers demand rupees five crores to release his daughter. The case is taken care by Inspector Nirmal Chopra. Vijay Khanna announces on TV that he is not going to give five crore rupees to the kidnappers, but he will present rupees ten crores to the person who brings back his daughter safely. Will Vijay Khanna get his daughter back? Why does he take this decision? Will his decision cost his daughter's life? Mithun Chakraborty - Vijay Khanna Rajat Bedi - Nirmal Chopra Rupanjali - Sheetal Bhavisha - Vinita Deepak Shirke - Terrorist Bhaiji Dinesh Hingoo - Anil Nagrath Shiva Rindani Mera Pyar Hai Tu Sansar Hai Tu - Mithun, Poornima Aa_Jara_Aa_Jara_-_Sunidhi Chauhan, Mithun Uska Danda Jo Dekha Mai Dar Gayi Chadh Gayi Daaru - Romantic Song | Vinod Rathod, Richa Sharma Chaalbaaz on IMDb

87 (number)

87 is the natural number following 86 and preceding 88. 87 is: the sum of the squares of the first four primes. The sum of the sums of the divisors of the first 10 positive integers; the twenty-sixth distinct semiprime and the eighth of the form. 5! - 4! - 3! - 2! - 1! = 87 Cricket in Australia holds 87 as a superstitiously unlucky score and is referred to as "the devil's number." This originates from the fact. 187, 287 and so on are considered unlucky but is not as common as 87 on its own. In the National Hockey League, Wayne Gretzky scored a league-high 87 goals with the Edmonton Oilers in the 1983–84 NHL season. Eighty-seven is also: The atomic number of francium An answer to a popular puzzle question states 16, 06, 68, 88, xx, 98; the answer is 87. The number of years between the signing of the U. S. Declaration of Independence and the Battle of Gettysburg, immortalized in Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address with the phrase "fourscore and seven years ago..." The model number of Junkers Ju 87 The number of the French department Haute-Vienne The code for international direct dial phone calls to Inmarsat and other services The 87 photographic filter blocks visible light allowing only infrared light to pass The ISBN Group Identifier for books published in Denmark.

The opus number of the 24 Preludes and Fugues of Dmitri Shostakovich. In model railroading, the ratio of the popular H0 scale is 1:87. Proto:87 scale claims to offer precise proportions of wheels and tracks of real railroads. David Bowie CD Never Let Me Down includes the song, "'87 and Cry" The 87th United States Congress met from January 3, 1961 - January 3, 1963, during John F. Kennedy's time in office Ed McBain's 87th Precinct: Lightning film starred Randy Quaid 87 punch includes one bottle of Bacardi rum and 7-up Wenger Swiss Army Knife version XXL, listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's most multi-functional penknife with 87 tools Sonnet 87 by William Shakespeare Vault 87 is a main location in the game Fallout 3 M87* is the first black hole photographed. List of highways numbered 87