SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Scan line

A scan line is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a line of video on a cathode ray tube display of a television set or computer monitor. On CRT screens the horizontal scan lines are visually discernible when viewed from a distance, as alternating colored lines and black lines when a progressive scan signal with below maximum vertical resolution is displayed; this is sometimes used today as a visual effect in computer graphics. The term is used, for a single row of pixels in a raster graphics image. Scan lines are important in representations of image data, because many image file formats have special rules for data at the end of a scan line. For example, there may be a rule; this means that otherwise compatible raster data may need to be analyzed at the level of scan lines in order to convert between formats. Interlaced video Progressive video Scanline rendering Flicker Stroboscopic effect

Volksdeutsche Bewegung

Volksdeutsche Bewegung was a Nazi movement in Luxembourg that flourished under the German-occupied Luxembourg during World War II. Formed by Damian Kratzenberg, a university professor with a German background, the movement only emerged after the invasion and was declared the only legal political movement in Luxembourg by the Nazis. Using the slogan Heim ins Reich, their declared aim was the full incorporation of Luxembourg into Nazi Germany; the policy was supported by Nazis. The aim was accomplished in August 1942, although the VDB continued to operate and peaked at 84,000 members. Many of these joined. A number of leading members held dual membership of the National Socialist German Workers Party after incorporation; the movement disappeared after the war, Kratzenberg was executed in 1946. The predecessors of the Volksdeutsche Bewegung, the "Luxemburger Gesellschaft für Deutsche Literatur und Kunst“, was led from 1935 by Damian Kratzenberg. Kratzenberg, a Luxembourgish National Socialist, advocated for the integration of the Grand Duchy into the German Empire, advanced the "Deutschtum" of the Luxembourgers as a historical and linguistic justification for this.

The "GEDELIT" engaged in propaganda in schools and assembled Nazi-sympathising groups of students in GEDELIT premises. After the German Wehrmacht occupied the neutral Grand Duchy on 10 May 1940, 7 days the "Volksdeutsche Bewegung" was founded in the city of Luxembourg. In his function as the president of the Volksdeutsche Bewegung, Kratzenberg now reported to the head of the civilian administration, the Gauleiter Gustav Simon. In 1941 the civil administrator ordered a referendum, disguised as a census, in which the Luxembourgers were supposed to admit their German ethnicity and thus give their blessing to a "voluntary" joining of the Third Reich. In the "Referendum", the people were to be asked three questions on their "nationality", "mother tongue", "ethnicity", the questions being formulated in a leading manner such that the only logical answer was supposed to be "German." This attempt was a failure. The Luxembourgish Resistance learned of the plan and spread the word that the Luxembourgers should answer dräimol Lëtzebuergesch.

A test run of the civil administration failed for this reason, the referendum was cancelled. Through the failure of the referendum, the occupiers recognised that they could not overcome the resistance of the population; the German policy towards the Luxembourgers changed, became much more brutal. The Volksdeutsche Bewegung lost significance, played little role until the end of the war; the head of the Volksdeutsche Bewegung, Damian Kratzenberg, managed to flee towards Weißenburg a few days before the liberation on 1 September. A letter to his daughter after the end of the war, gave his location away, he was put on trial. On 1 August Kratzenberg was sentenced to death and on 11 October 1946 was shot at the shooting range of the barracks of the Holy Ghost Plateau in Luxembourg City

Law enforcement in Guatemala

Guatemalan law enforcement, some of, performed by its military, has a poor record with regard to human rights violations. President Otto Pérez Molina, elected in 2012, is a career military official, has stepped up the use of military reinforcement in the country's law enforcement. During the country's civil war from 1960 to 1996, 200,000 people were killed and 45,000 forcibly disappeared. According to the Historical Clarification Commission, Guatemala's truth and reconciliation commission, the Guatemalan state was responsible for over 90 percent of human rights abuses recorded there. More in October 2012, six people were killed and another 34 injured when soldiers open fired into a crowd of indigenous protesters; the military has been tied to drug trafficking and organized crime. Since 2012, the government has opened at least five new military bases, with over 21,000 troops deployed throughout nine states; these "Citizen Security Squadrons" range from Huehuetenango to Quiche and Alta Verapaz, from Escuintla to Suchitepequez and Santa Rosa, from Zacapa to Izabal and Chiquimula, are stationed in Guatemala City.

A new military unit, known as Joint Task Force Tecún Umán, began operating in zones along the border shared with Mexico. Policía Judicial Policía Militar Ambulate Guardia de Hacienda Ejército Secreto Anti-Comunista Centro de Servicios Especiales de la Presidencia World Police Encyclopedia Wo, ed. by Dilip K. Das & Michael Palmiotto. By Taylor & Francis. 2004. WoWorld Encyclopedia of Police Forces and Correctional SystemsWo, 2nd edition. Gale, 2006. Sullivan, Larry E. et al. WoEncyclopedia of Law EnforcementWo. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2005