In botany, a peduncle is a stem supporting an inflorescence, or after fecundation, an infructescence. The peduncle is a stem green, though some peduncles are more or less florally colored or neutral in color, having no particular pigmentation. In some species, peduncles are leafless, though others bear small leaves, or cataphylls, at nodes; the peduncle is the inflorescence base without flowers. When an unbranched peduncle has no obvious nodes, rises directly from a bulb or stem, if it rises directly from the ground, it is referred to as a scape; the acorns of the pedunculate oak are borne on hence the name of the tree. Pedicel Scape
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Some Agave species are native to tropical areas of South America; the genus Agave is known for its succulent and xerophytic species that form large rosettes of strong, fleshy leaves. Plants in this genus may be considered perennial, because they require several to many years to mature and flower. However, most Agave species are more described as monocarpic rosettes or multiannuals, since each individual rosette flowers only once and dies. Along with plants from the related genera Yucca and Hesperaloe, various Agave species are popular ornamental plants in hot/dry climates, as they require little supplemental water to survive. Most Agave species grow slowly; some Agave species are known by the common name "century plant". The succulent leaves of most Agave species have sharp marginal teeth, an sharp terminal spine, are fibrous inside; the stout stem is extremely short, which may make the plant appear as though it is stemless.
Agave rosettes are monocarpic, though some species are polycarpic. During flowering, a tall stem or "mast" grows apically from the center of the rosette and bears a large number of short, tubular flowers and sometimes vegetatively produced bulbils. After pollination/fertilization and subsequent fruit development, in monocarpic species, the original rosette dies. However, throughout the lifetime of many Agave species, rhizomatous suckers develop above the roots at the base of the rosette; these suckers dies. It is important to note. Agaves can be confused with cacti, aloes, or stonecrops, but although these plants all share similar morphological adaptations to arid environments, each group belongs to a different plant family and experienced convergent evolution. Further and stonecrop lineages are eudicots, while aloes and agaves are monocots. Agave species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Batrachedra striolata, recorded on A. shawii. The agave root system, consisting of a network of shallow rhizomes, is designed to help the agave efficiently capture moisture from rain and dew.
In addition to growing from seeds, most agaves produce'pups' – young plants from runners. Agave vilmoriniana produces hundreds of pups on its bloom stalk. Agave leaves are crucial to its continued existence; the coated leaf surface prevents evaporation. The leaves have sharp, spiked edges; the spikes discourage predators from eating the plant or using it as a source of water and are so tough that ancient peoples used them for sewing needles. The sap is acidic; some agaves bloom at a height up to 30 ft so that they are far out of reach to animals that might attack them. Smaller species, such as Agave lechuguilla, have smaller bloom stalks. In the APG III system, the genus Agave is placed in the subfamily Agavoideae of the broadly circumscribed family Asparagaceae; some authors prefer to place it in the segregate family Agavaceae. According to the most recent phylogenetic analyses, the genus Agave is shown to be paraphyletic with the embedded genera Manfreda and Prochnyanthes; these genera are now combined with Agave to form the group described as Agave sensu lato, which contains about 252 species total.
Traditionally, the genus Agave was circumscribed to be composed of about 166 species. In the Cronquist system and others, Agave was placed in the family Liliaceae, but phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences showed it did not belong there. In the APG II system, Agave was placed in the family Agavaceae; when this system was superseded by the APG III system in 2009, the Agavaceae were subsumed into the expanded family Asparagaceae, Agave was treated as one of 18 genera in the subfamily Agavoideae. In some of the older classifications, Agave was divided into two subgenera and Littaea, based on the form of the inflorescence; these two subgenera are not monophyletic. Agaves and close relatives have long presented significant difficulties to the biological field of taxonomy; these difficulties could be due to the young evolutionary age of the group, ease of hybridization between species, incomplete lineage sorting, long generation times. Within a species, morphological variations can be considerable in cultivation.
Some grown species include Agave americana, Agave angustifolia, Agave tequilana, Agave attenuata, Agave parviflora, Agave murpheyi, Agave vilmoriniana, Agave palmeri, Agave parryi and Agave victoriae-reginae. One of the most familiar species is a native of tropical America. Common names include maguey, or American aloe; the name "century plant" refers to the long time. The number of years before flowering occurs depends on the vigor of the individual plant, the richness of th
Amaryllis belladonna, is a plant species native to Cape Province in South Africa but cultivated as an ornamental. It is naturalized in many places: Corsica, the Azores, the Canary Islands, Ascension Island, New Zealand, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, California, Texas and the Juan Fernández Islands. Perennial bulbous geophyte with one to two erect solid stems; the inflorescence bears 2–12 showy fragrant funnel-shaped flowers on a'naked' stem, which gives it the common name of naked-lady-lily. The pink flowers which may be up to 10 cm in length, appear in the autumn before the leaves which are narrow and strap shaped. Amaryllis belladonna is one of the two species in the genus Amaryllis as circumscribed. Belladonna is a Latin epithet meaning beautiful lady. There are many common names around the world, for instance in the Azores, Portugal one name is Meninas Para Escola referring to the flowers blooming when the girls in their pink uniforms are starting the new school year. In South Africa the plants are found growing among rocks.
The bulbs are best planted just below the surface of the soil, with the neck of the bulb level with the surface. In colder climates mulching or lifting and overwintering is required; the bulbs may be propagated from offsets. Amaryllis bulbs require little watering and are drought tolerant
Allium tuberosum is a species of onion native to southwestern parts of the Chinese province of Shanxi, cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in Asia and around the world. Allium tuberosum is a rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial plant growing from a small, elongated bulb, tough and fibrous. Unlike either onion or garlic, it has strap-shaped leaves with triangular bases, about 1.5 to 8 mm wide. It produces many white flowers in a round cluster on stalks 25 to 60 cm tall, it grows in expanding perennial clumps, but readily sprouts from seed. In warmer areas, garlic chives may remain green all year round. In cold areas and stalks die back to the ground, resprout from roots or rhizomes in the spring; the flavor is more like garlic than chives. Described by Johan Peter Rottler, the species name was validly published by Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel in 1825. A. tuberosum is classified within Allium in subgenus Butomissa N. Friesen, section Butomissa Kamelin, a group consisting of only A. tuberosum and A. ramosum L. which have been variously regarded as either one or two genetic entities.
A. tuberosum originated in the Siberian–Mongolian–North Chinese steppes, but is cultivated and naturalised,'It has been reported as growing wild in scattered locations in the United States. However, it is believed to be more widespread in North America because of the availability of seeds and seedlings of this species as an exotic herb and because of its high aggressiveness; this species is widespread across much of mainland Europe and invasive in other areas of the world. A late summer- to autumn-blooming plant, A. tuberosum is one of several Allium species known as wild onion and/or wild garlic that, in various parts of the world, such as Australia, are listed as noxious weeds or as invasive "serious high impact environmental and/or agricultural weeds that spread and create monocultures". Grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, several cultivars are available. A. tuberosum is distinctive by blooming than most native or naturalised species of Allium. It is cold-hardy to USDA zones 4–10. Garlic chives are regarded as easy to grow in many conditions and may spread by seeds or can be intentionally propagated by dividing their clumps.
A number of varieties have been developed for either improved flower stem production. While the emphasis in Asia has been culinary, in North America, the interest has been more as an ornamental.'Monstrosum' is a giant ornamental cultivar. Uses have included as ornamental plants, including cut and dried flowers, culinary herbs, traditional medicine. Garlic chives have been cultivated for centuries in East Asia for their culinary value; the flat leaves, the stalks, immature, unopened flower buds are used as flavouring. Another form is "blanched" by regrowing after cutting under cover to produce white-yellow leaves and a subtler flavor. Pronunciation of the Chinese names for A. tuberosum, 韭菜, vary between Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese, as well as other dialects. For instance, the green leaves are jiu cai, the flower stem jiu cai hua, blanched leaves jiu huang in Mandarin, but gau tsoi, gau tsoi fa, gau wong in Cantonese, respectively. Other renderings include cuchay, kuchay, or kutsay; the leaves are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, scallions, or garlic, are included as a stir fry ingredient.
In China, they are used to make dumplings with a combination of egg and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiǎozi dumplings and the Korean equivalents. A Chinese flatbread similar to the scallion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions. Garlic chives are one of the main ingredients used with yi mein dishes. In Manipur and other northeastern states of India, it is grown and used as a substitute for garlic and onion in cooking and is known as maroi nakuppi in Manipuri. In Japan, where the plant is known as nira, it is used for both garlic and sweet flavours, in soups and salads, Japanese Chinese dishes such as gyōza dumplings. Known as buchu, garlic chives are used in Korean cuisine, they can be eaten fresh as namul, pickled as kimchi and jangajji, pan-fried in buchimgae. They are one of the most common herbs served with gukbap, as well as a common ingredient in mandu. In Nepal, cooks fry a curried vegetable dish of potatoes and A. tuberosum known as dunduko sag. In Thailand, they are known as gui chai.
In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives, known as hẹ, are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys. In Kazakhstan, where the plant has been introduced through cultivation by Dungan farmers and ties with neighboring China, garlic chives are known by a transliteration of their Mandarin Chinese name, djutsey. Used in cooking, it is sometimes added as a filling to manty, samsa and other typical dishes. Media related to Allium tuberosum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Allium tuberosum at Wikispecies
Droseraceae is a family of flowering plants. The family is known as the sundew family, it is a small family of carnivorous plants, which consist of 180 species in three extant genera: Most of the members of Droseraceae are contained in Drosera, the true sundews. Both Dionaea and Aldrovanda have only one extant species. Droseras secrete a sticky substance from their leaves. Dionaea and Aldrovanda both use snap-traps that close when the leaves are disturbed, Dionaea is terrestrial, while Aldrovanda is aquatic. Like carnivorous plants of other families, the Droseraceae are able to supplement their nutrient intake that of nitrogen, by capturing and digesting small animals such as insects. In this way, these plants are able to thrive in nutrient-deficient areas, such as sphagnum bogs. Drosera is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, individual species vary extensively in their specific morphology. Common to all members of Drosera are modified leaves lined with tentacle-like glandular trichomes.
At the end of each trichome, a bead of viscous mucilage is secreted, which resembles a drop of dew. The mucilage is a pure aqueous solution of acidic polysaccharides with high molecular weights, which makes the mucilage not only viscous, but very sticky, so much so, a single drop of mucilage may be stretched to lengths of up to a meter and cover one million times its original surface area. Insects and other prey animals are become stuck in it; such snares are termed “flypaper traps”, but the trapping mechanism of sundews is erroneously described as “passive”. In fact, sundew traps are quite active and sensitive, the disturbance of one or a few trichomes triggers an action potential that stimulates the rapid movement of other trichomes toward the prey; the leaf curls in on itself, enveloping the prey for digestion. Dionaea muscipula, better known as the Venus flytrap, is a globally famous carnivorous plant and according to Charles Darwin, “one of the most wonderful in the world.” The leaves of Dionaea are highly modified and form a “snap-trap” that shuts when a stimulus is detected.
Three large trichomes extend outward on the inner surface of the trap. Two of these three hairs must be stimulated within a certain amount of time to trigger the trap; the trap closes as the result of a flipping of the trap lobes from a position where the exterior of the trap is concave to one where the exterior is convex. This movement can begin as soon as 0.4 seconds after stimulation and can be completed after one second. Aldrovanda vesiculosa called the waterwheel plant, is less well-known than its relative Dionaea muscipula, but the two have similar trap structures; the trap of Aldrovanda is smaller and faster than that of Dionaea. In addition, while two stimuli are required to close a trap in Dionaea, only one is required in Aldrovanda; the trap of Aldrovanda closes about ten times faster than that of Dionaea. Despite some debate, taxonomists have tended to include at least two of the three genera, and, in general, all three, in this family since at least 1906. Separate families for Dionaea and Aldrovanda have been proposed in the past.
These were Dionaecae, proposed in 1933, Aldrovandaceae, proposed in 1949. Molecular and morphological evidence support the inclusion of all three, shows the two genera with traps that snap shut are more related to each other than to Drosera, suggesting snap traps evolved only once; the family Droseraceae is part of the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots. The family totals nearly 200 species. Caryophyllales are divided into two major suborders: Caryophyllineae, which contains the “core” Caryophyllales, such as Cactaceae and Amaranthaceae and is sister to the Polygonineae – the “non-core” Caryophyllales; this non-core clade is. In the past, Drosophyllum lusitanicum has been included in this family. Drosophyllum, another monotypic genus, exhibits a flypaper-type trap similar to those of Drosera, but Drosophyllum does not curl its leaves to envelop captured prey animals; this important morphological distinction led researchers to question the validity of this taxon’s placement in Droseraceae.
Other significant trait differences in Drosophyllum include pollen structure, trichome anatomy, a woody stem with a deep taproot. Drosophyllum was shown to be more related to the carnivorous liana Triphyophyllum and the noncarnivorous liana Ancistrocladus, is, classified elsewhere. Recent molecular and biochemical evidence suggests the carnivorous taxa in the order Caryophyllales all belong to the same clade, which does not consist only of carnivorous plants, but of some noncarnivorous plants such as those in the family Ancistrocladaceae; the fossil record of Droseraceae is the richest of any carnivorous plant family. Fossil pollen has been attributed to several extant, as well as extinct, although some are of questionable validity. Links at CSDL, Texas
The Balsaminaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants, comprising two genera: Impatiens, which consists of 1000+ species, Hydrocera, consisting of 1 species. The flowering plants may be perennial, they are found throughout temperate and tropical regions in Asia and Africa, but North America and Europe. Notable members of the family include busy Lizzie. Impatiens Hydrocera Balsaminaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF Balsaminaceae in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database Media related to Balsaminaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Balsaminaceae at Wikispecies
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is divided into nodes and internodes: The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches. Adventitious roots may be produced from the nodes; the internodes distance one node from another. The term "shoots" is confused with "stems". In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. Stems have four main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves and fruits; the stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem Storage of nutrients Production of new living tissue; the normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. Stems have cells called meristems. Stems are specialized for storage, asexual reproduction, protection or photosynthesis, including the following: Acaulescent – used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless.
These stems are just short, the leaves appearing to rise directly out of the ground, e.g. some Viola species. Arborescent – tree like with woody stems with a single trunk. Axillary bud – a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem, it gives rise to a shoot. Branched – aerial stems are described as being branched or unbranched Bud – an embryonic shoot with immature stem tip. Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, tulip. Bulbs function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part. Caespitose – when stems grow in a tangled mass or clump or in low growing mats. Cladode – a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, e.g. cactus pads. Climbing -- stems that wrap around other plants or structures. Corm – a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. taro, gladiolus.
Decumbent -- stems that lie flat on the turn upwards at the ends. Fruticose -- stems. Herbaceous – non woody, they die at the end of the growing season. Internode – an interval between two successive nodes, it possesses the ability to elongate, either from its base or from its extremity depending on the species. Node – a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig on the stem in seed plants. A node is a small growth zone. Pedicel – stems that serve as the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or infrutescence. Peduncle – a stem that supports an inflorescence Prickle – a sharpened extension of the stem's outer layers, e.g. roses. Pseudostem – a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 or 3 m tall as in banana Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions in reproduction but in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris Runner – a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. E.g. garden strawberry, Chlorophytum comosum.
Scape – a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Iris, Garlic. Stolon – a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground. Thorn – a modified stem with a sharpened point. Tuber – a swollen, underground storage stem adapted for storage and reproduction, e.g. potato. Woody – hard textured stems with secondary xylem. Stem consist of three tissues, dermal tissue, ground tissue and vascular tissue; the dermal tissue covers the outer surface of the stem and functions to waterproof and control gas exchange. The ground tissue consists of parenchyma cells and fills in around the vascular tissue, it sometimes functions in photosynthesis. Vascular tissue provides structural support. Most or all ground tissue may be lost in woody stems; the dermal tissue of aquatic plants stems. The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies among plant species. Dicot stems with primary growth have pith in the center, with vascular bundles forming a distinct ring visible when the stem is viewed in cross section.
The outside of the stem is covered with an epidermis, covered by a waterproof cuticle. The epidermis may contain stomata for gas exchange and multicellular stem hairs called trichomes. A cortex consisting of hypodermis and endodermis is present above the pericycle and vascular bundles. Woody dicots and many nonwoody dicots have secondary growth originating from their lateral or secondary meristems: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium or phellogen; the vascular cambium forms between the xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles and connects to form a continuous cylinder. The vascular cambium cells divide to produce secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside; as the stem increases in diameter due to production of secondary xylem and secondary phloem, the cortex and epidermis are destroyed. Before the cortex is destroyed, a cork cambium develops there; the cork cambium divides to produce waterproof cork cells externally and sometimes phelloderm cells internally. Those three tissues form the periderm.
Areas of loosely pack