Alfa Romeo in Formula One
Italian motor manufacturer Alfa Romeo has participated many times in Formula One. It participates as Alfa Romeo Racing while being operated by Sauber Motorsport AG; the brand has competed in motor racing as both a constructor and engine supplier sporadically between 1950 and 1987, as a commercial partner since 2015. The company's works drivers won the first two World Drivers' Championships in the pre-war Alfetta: Nino Farina in 1950. Following these successes Alfa Romeo withdrew from Formula One. During the 1960s, although the company had no official presence in the top tier of motorsport a number of Formula One teams used independently developed Alfa Romeo engines to power their cars. In the early 1970s, Alfa provided Formula One support for their works driver Andrea de Adamich, supplying adapted versions of their 3-litre V8 engine from the Alfa Romeo Tipo 33/3 sports car to power Adamich's McLaren and March entries. None of these engine combinations scored championship points. In the mid-1970s, Alfa engineer Carlo Chiti designed a flat-12 engine to replace the T33 V8, which achieved some success in taking the 1975 World Sportscar Championship.
Bernie Ecclestone owner of the Brabham Formula One team, persuaded Alfa Romeo to supply this engine free for the 1976 Formula One season. Although the Brabham-Alfa Romeo's first season was modest, during the 1977 and 1978 World Championships their cars took 14 podium finishes, including two race victories for Niki Lauda; the company's sporting department, returned as the works team in 1979. This second period as a constructor was less successful than the first. Between the company's return and its withdrawal as a constructor at the end of 1985, Alfa works drivers did not win a race and the team never finished higher than sixth in the World Constructors' Championship; the team's engines were supplied to Osella from 1983 to 1987, but they scored only two World Championship points during this period. The Alfa Romeo logo returned to Formula One in 2015. In late 2017, Alfa Romeo announced that they were to become title sponsors for Sauber from 2018, had entered into a technical and commercial partnership with the team.
Alfa Romeo returned to the sport as their own team when Sauber was renamed at the beginning of 2019. Alfa Romeo had been a force in Grand Prix racing before World War II. Cars like the P2 and the P3 were winners on a regular basis until the German Mercedes and Auto Union cars came around in 1934. From 1934 to the start of World War II in 1939, Alfa won and their cars looked rather outdated and badly built compared to the high-tech Silver Arrows of Mercedes. Alfa was able to make the 158 for the 1938 season, although this car was not competitive against the Silver Arrows; when the new Formula One World Championship had come around, Alfa had dominated post-WWII racing from 1946 to 1949 – winning every Grand Prix they entered with the exception of 3. In 1950 Nino Farina won the inaugural World Championship of Drivers in a 158 with supercharger, in 1951 Juan Manuel Fangio won while driving an Alfetta 159; the Alfetta's engines were powerful for their capacity: in 1951 the 159 engine was producing around 420 bhp but this was at the price of a fuel consumption of 125 to 175 litres per 100 km.
In 1952, facing increased competition from their former employee, Ferrari. Alfa Romeo involvement in racing was made with a thin budget, using pre-war technology and material during the two seasons. For instance the team won two championships using only nine pre-war built engine blocks. During 1977, after some persuasion by Chiti, Alfa Romeo gave Autodelta permission to start developing a Formula One car on their behalf, thus named the Alfa Romeo 177, the car made its debut at the 1979 Belgian Grand Prix. The partnership with Brabham had finished before the end of the season, with Bernie Ecclestone's outfit returning to Ford/Cosworth DFV engines; this second Alfa works Formula One project was never successful during its existence from the middle of 1979 until the end of 1985. During this period Alfa Romeo achieved two pole positions, Bruno Giacomelli led much of the 1980 United States Grand Prix before retiring with electrical trouble, three 3rd places, two 2nd places and one fastest lap, they endured tragedy when their driver Patrick Depailler was killed testing for the 1980 German Grand Prix at the Hockenheimring.
In 1981 they continued to be dogged by poor reliability. After a restructuring of Autodelta, the team operations and design of the car were outsourced to Euroracing in 1982, with the works engines still being supplied by Autodelta; the team's best season was 1983 when the team switched to the turbocharged 890T V8 engine and achieved 6th place in the Constructors' Championship thanks to two second-place finishes for Andrea de Cesaris. While the turbocharged 890T proved competitive in 1983, more powerful and fuel efficient engines from BMW, Renault, TAG-Porsche and Honda, plus the FIA imposed 220-litre fuel limit with no re-fuelling allowed during pit stops during 1984, saw the decline of the Euroracing Alfa Romeo team as a
1960 French Grand Prix
The 1960 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims-Gueux on 3 July 1960. It was race 6 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 5 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the 50-lap race was won from pole position by Australian driver Jack Brabham, driving a works Cooper-Climax. Belgian driver Olivier Gendebien finished second in a Cooper-Climax entered by the British Racing Partnership, while New Zealander Bruce McLaren was third in the other works Cooper-Climax. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Lance Graf von Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, was a British-born American entrepreneur, racing driver and heir to the Woolworth fortune. Reventlow was the only child of heiress Barbara Hutton and her second husband Count Kurt Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, his stepfathers included Prince Igor Troubetzkoy. Lance Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow was the only child of Danish nobleman Count Kurt Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow and American socialite Barbara Hutton. Hutton had inherited the Woolworth department store fortune and was one of the wealthiest women in the world. Reventlow was born at Winfield House in London, restored by his mother and named for her grandfather Frank Winfield Woolworth. Reventlow's birth was difficult and his mother died during his delivery; as a child, he was asthmatic. Reventlow's parents' marriage, Hutton's second of seven, did not last. In 1944, Reventlow's father was awarded custody until he reached school age, after which his mother would gain custody. Before his father was to relinquish custody, he sent Reventlow to Canada.
Hutton regained custody of Reventlow in 1945. Reventlow was estranged from his father until the Count's death in 1969. In 1948, at age 12, Reventlow was introduced to the world of Grand Prix motor racing when his mother married Prince Igor Troubetzkoy, who won the Targa Florio that year. In his teenage years, Reventlow's money afforded him the latest in exotic cars, which led to his involvement in motor racing. In Hollywood, Reventlow became friends with fellow auto enthusiast James Dean and competed in club events around California. On September 30, 1955, he was one of the last people to speak to Dean when they met on their way to an auto race in Salinas, California. Reventlow said he had coffee with Dean at a restaurant thirty minutes before Dean was killed in an automobile accident while driving his Porsche 550 Spyder in Cholame, California. Reventlow began his racing career in America in the mid-1950s with a Mercedes before moving to an 1100cc Cooper in 1956; the next year he went to Europe to buy a Maserati, which he crashed at Snetterton, escaping unhurt.
He briefly drove a Cooper Formula 2 car, before returning to the United States. He set up his own company in Venice, California, to construct Chevrolet-powered race cars he named Scarab with Phil Remington as chief engineer. Along with hired driver Chuck Daigh, the two were successful in racing, they won the majority of major sportscar events they entered in competition with the Cunningham team of Lister Jaguars. Reventlow thought that he could build a better car. Daigh drove a Scarab to victory in the 1958 Riverside International Grand Prix in California, beating a field of international race car teams, including the world-famous race car driver Phil Hill and the Ferrari Team. Carroll Shelby drove a Scarab to first place at Continental Divide Raceways in Castle Rock in Douglas County, where he broke a course record, his racing team was much talked about for having built the first Formula One race car in America. Shifting operations overseas to Britain, Reventlow's team had little success racing the Scarab cars in Formula One against the new rear-engine race cars.
He went back to the drawing board and built a competitive prototype Scarab rear-engined car, but had become less interested in racing before its testing was complete. In 1962, he shut down the operation, leased the California facilities to Shelby, quit auto racing altogether. Reventlow's organization constructed a total of eight Scarabs during its existence. In a 1971 interview, Reventlow confirmed that three front-engined Chevy-powered sports cars, three front-engined formula cars, one rear-engined formula car and one rear-engined sports car were built. Two of the front-engined formula cars were powered by Reventlow-commissioned engines drawn up by American racing engine designer Leo Goossen to Reventlow's specifications, while the third car was powered by a Goossen-designed and engineered Offenhauser engine; the rear-engined formula was powered by a modified Buick powerplant. At the age of 21, Reventlow was given the choice between becoming an American, Danish or British citizen, he chose American citizenship, saying, "I thought it over for a full 20 seconds."On March 24, 1960, Reventlow married actress Jill St. John in San Francisco.
They separated in October 1962. St. John filed for divorce on October 1963, citing extreme cruelty, their divorce was granted on October 30, 1963. On November 6, 1964, Reventlow married ex-Mouseketeer Cheryl Holdridge in a lavish ceremony in Hollywood before 600 guests. Reventlow's mother, Barbara Hutton, could not attend the wedding because of illness but gifted the couple with a $500,000, five-bedroom home set on 21 acres in Benedict Canyon. In 1972, Reventlow was seeking real-estate developers as partners to build a ski resort in Aspen, where he had a home, he was an experienced pilot, with thousands of hours, rated for IFR on multi-engine planes, but on July 24, 1972 Reventlow was a passenger, scouting locations for real estate in a Cessna 206. The pilot was an inexperienced 27-year-old student who flew into a blind canyon and stalled the aircraft while trying to turn around; the plane plunged to the ground. Reventlow was buried, but his rema
Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other t
1960 Indianapolis 500
The 44th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Monday, May 30, 1960. The event was part of the 1960 USAC National Championship Trail and was race 3 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers, it would be the final time World Championship points would be awarded at the Indy 500. Regarded as the greatest two-man duel in Indianapolis 500 history, the 1960 race saw a then-record 29 lead changes. Jim Rathmann and Rodger Ward battled out nearly the entire second half. Rathmann took the lead for good on lap 197. Rathmann's margin of victory of 12.75 seconds was the second-closest finish in Indy history at the time. The inaugural 500 Festival Open Invitation was held at the Speedway Golf Course in the four days leading up to the race. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 14 – Pole Day time trials Eddie Sachs set a track record of 146.592 mph to win the pole position. Sunday May 15 – Second day time trials Saturday May 21 – Third day time trials The third day of time trials was rained out.
Sunday May 22 – Fourth day time trials Jim Hurtubise nearly broke the elusive and much-anticipated 150 mph barrier. Hurtubise's four-lap qualifying average of 149.056 mph featured a new one-lap record of 149.601 mph, to establish himself as the fastest qualifier in the field. After Carburetion tests, Dempsey Wilson replaced Jimmy Daywalt as the driver for the #23 entry, the car was moved to the rear of the starting grid; the race started out with four contenders in the first half. Rodger Ward took the lead on lap 1 from the outside of the front row, but polesitter Eddie Sachs took the lead on lap 2. Two laps Ward was back in the lead, the record-setting number of lead changes was under way. Troy Ruttman and Jim Rathmann took turns at the front.. The first caution came out on lap 47, after Duane Carter spun in turn 3, he did not hit the wall, came to a rest in the infield grass continued in the race. Jim McWithey came into the pits without any brakes, he brushed the inside pit wall trying to slow the car down, but continued through the pit lane and wasn't able to stop until he reached the infield grass in turn 1.
In the race, Eddie Russo and Wayne Weiler suffer single-car crashes. Rodger Ward stalled his engine twice during his first pit stop. After getting back on the track, he started charging to catch up to the front of the field. Shortly after the halfway point, Eddie Sachs and Troy Ruttman would both drop out of the race leaving Rathmann and Ward to battle it out in front. On about lap 124, Tony Bettenhausen came in for a routine pit stop, he returned to the track. One lap he was back in the pits with a fire and a blown engine. Bettenhausen was unhurt, but hoisted himself out of the cockpit as it was coasting to stop in the pits to avoid getting burned. In the second half, Ward had caught up with Johnny Thomson close behind in third. Rathmann and Ward swapped the lead several times, but meanwhile Ward was hoping that the pace would slow down, in order to save his tires to the end. After stalling in the pits earlier, the hard charge Ward made to get back to the front was a concern, as he was afraid he had worn out his tires prematurely.
Ward was aware of Rathmann's tendencies as a driver, allowed Rathmann to pass him for the lead. Rathmann was known for charging hard to take the lead, but once he was in the lead, would back the pace down. Ward's prediction came true. Johnny Thomson was now catching up. With Thomson closing in on the leaders and Rathmann started charging again, racing each other hard, swapping the lead between themselves. Meanwhile, Thomson's engine lost power, he slowed to a 5th-place finish. Inside ten laps to go, Rodger Ward seemed to have the faster car, took the lead on lap 194. A few laps though, Ward saw the cords in his right front tire showing, he let off the pace. Jim Rathmann took the lead on lap 197, pulled away for victory. Due to Ward's experience as a tire tester, he was able to nurse his car to the finish without pitting to change the bad tire, held on to second place. Despite winning twice, Rodger Ward considered this race his personal best. Paul Goldsmith charged from 26th starting position to finish 3rd, holding off 4th place Don Branson by about a car length.
First alternate: Chuck Rodee Fastest Lead Lap: Jim Rathmann – 1:01.59 The 1960 Indianapolis 500 was the final 500 which featured a 33-car field consisting of all front-engined cars. The weather on race day would reach a high of 75 °F with wind speeds up to 15 miles per hour. Climate historians would consider this to be the "traditional" climate for an Indianapolis 500 race. Despite some published claims that it was Smokey Yunick, the race-winning chief mechanic for Rathmann was Takeo "Chickie" Hirashima. Two spectators in the infield, Fred H. Linder, 36, of Indianapolis, William C. Craig, 37, of Zionsville, were killed, as many as 82 were injured, when a homemade scaffolding collapsed. 125–130 patrons had paid a small fee to view the race from the 30-foot tall scaffolding, erected by a private individual and not the Speedway – a practice, allowed at the time. The structure was anchored to a pick-up truck, situated in the infield of turn three. Over the years, the private scaffold platforms had become a popular fixture at the Speedway, with many located around the massive infield.
They were not sponsored by the track
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. Founded by pneumatic tyre pioneer John Boyd Dunlop in Birmingham, England in 1889, it is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In India, the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd.. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. In 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company. In 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. In 1999, Sumitomo and Goodyear began a joint venture by which Sumitomo continued to manufacture all Japanese-made tyres under the Dunlop name, while Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought 75% of the European and North American tyre businesses of Sumitomo; the company has extensive manufacturing operations throughout the world.
With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car and lorry tyre production in the UK. In 2016, it was announced that Sumitomo Rubber Industries would commence the second phase of its $131 Million investment for the upgrade and expansion of its Dunlop tire manufacturing plant at Ladysmith, in South Africa; until May 2014, Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as a sales organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China and Poland; the Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, which report to Goodyear in Akron, United States. Fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014; this factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, produced about 300,000 specialised racing tyres per year. On 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK.
Dunlop Dunlop Rubber Tompkins, Eric. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre. Dunlop Archive Project. ISBN 0-903214-14-8
1960 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1960 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 19 June 1960. It was race 5 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 4 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor were injured in crashes during practice, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey were killed in accidents during the race. With the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, it is one of two occasions in which two driver fatalities have occurred at a Formula One race meeting. Practice for the event saw Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor injured in separate accidents, Taylor suffering injuries which would end his racing career, Moss injured enough to keep him out of racing for a number of months. In the race itself, the Lotus drivers Innes Ireland & Jim Clark got off to good starts before Ireland spun out with clutch trouble by lap 14, Chris Bristow, driving a year-old Cooper for the British Racing Partnership, got off line and lost control at Malmedy, crashed into a four foot high embankment and was thrown from his car whilst battling for 6th with the Ferrari of Mairesse, landed on some barbed wire which beheaded him, killing him on lap 20.
Five laps Alan Stacey was hit in the face by a bird at Masta as his car crashed somersaulted off the track and landed in a field as it went up in flames and Stacey was burned to death whilst Stacey was still in the car on lap 25. It was the only Formula One race meeting in which two drivers were killed until the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix; the race distance had been lengthened to 36 laps from 24 laps. The results highlight an unusual quirk in the rules regarding classification of non-finishers. Under modern rules, Graham Hill would have been classified third, since he completed lap 35 before the lapped Olivier Gendebien. Hill retired, in the pits, but was not classified since he did not push his car over the line after the winner took the finish. In fact the rule about crossing the finishing line was inconsistently applied – at the 1959 German Grand Prix, Harry Schell was classified seventh despite only completing 49 of the race's 60 laps.
Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings