Courchelettes is a commune of the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
The Freycinet gauge is a standard governing the dimensions of the locks of some canals, put in place as a result of a law passed during the tenure of Charles de Freycinet as minister of public works of France, dating from 5 August 1879. The law required the size of lock chambers to be increased to a length of 39 metres, a width of 5.2 metres and a minimum water depth of 2.2 metres, thus allowing 300 to 350 tonne barges to pass through. Boats and barges, such as the péniche, built to the Freycinet gauge could not exceed 38.5 metres in length, 5.05 metres in breadth and a draught of 1.8 metres. Bridges and other structures built across the canals are required to provide 3.7 metres of clearance. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries many French canals were modernised to conform to the Freycinet standard. By 2001, 5,800 km of navigable waterways in France corresponded to the Freycinet gauge, accounting for 23% of waterborne traffic; the Freycinet gauge corresponds to the Classification of European Inland Waterways class I gauge.
The French article from which this article was translated
Douai is a commune in the Nord département in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Located on the river Scarpe some 40 kilometres from Lille and 25 km from Arras, Douai is home to one of the region's most impressive belfries; the population of the metropolitan area, including Lens, was 552,682 in 1999. The main industries in the town are in the metal engineering sectors. Renault has a large vehicle assembly plant near the town, which has produced many well known Renault vehicles, such as the R14, R11, R19, the Megane and Scenic of today; the Gare de Douai railway station is served by regional trains towards Lille, Lens, Saint-Quentin and Valenciennes. It is connected to the TGV network, with high speed trains to Paris, Lyon and other cities, its site corresponds to that of a 4th-century Roman fortress known as Duacum. From the 10th century the town was a romance fiefdom of the counts of Flanders; the town became a flourishing textile market centre during the Middle Ages known as Douay or Doway in English.
In 1384, the county of Flanders passed into the domains of the Dukes of Burgundy and thence in 1477 into Habsburg possessions. In 1667, Douai was taken by the troops of Louis XIV of France, by the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the town was ceded to France. During successive sieges from 1710 to 1712, Douai was completely destroyed by the British Army. By 1713, the town was integrated into France. Douai became the seat of the Parliament of Flanders. Apart from the ferment of the French Revolution, it was again caught up in hostilities in World War I, in 1918, the town was burned and liberated by the British Army after the Battle of Courtrai. World War II brought considerable damage to Douai; the town is still a transportation and commercial center for the area, known up to the Sixties for its coalfield, the richest in northern France. Douai's ornate Gothic style belfry was begun on the site of an earlier tower; the 80 m high structure includes an impressive carillon. The originals, some dating from 1391 were removed in 1917 during World War I by the occupying German forces, who intended to melt them down for the metal.
They were reinstalled after repairs in 1924, but 47 of them were replaced in 1954 to obtain a better sound. An additional larger bell in the summit, a La called "Joyeuse", dates from 1471 and weighs 5.5 tonnes. The chimes are rung by a mechanism every quarter-hour, but are played via a keyboard on Saturday mornings and at certain other times. In 2005 the belfry was included in a list of world heritage sites as a part of object The Belfries of Belgium and France by UNESCO; the substantial Porte de Valenciennes town gate, a reminder of the town's past military importance, was built in 1453. One face is built in Gothic style; the University of Douai was founded under the patronage of Phillip II, when Douai belonged to the Spanish Netherlands. It was prominent, from the 1560s until the French Revolution, as a centre for the education of English Catholics escaping the persecution in England. Connected with the University were not only the English College, founded by William Allen, but the Irish and Scottish colleges and the Benedictine and Jesuit houses.
The Benedictine priory of St Gregory the Great was founded by Saint John Roberts at Douai in 1605, with a handful of exiled English Benedictines who had entered various monasteries in Spain, as the first house after the Reformation to begin conventual life. The community was established within the English Benedictine Congregation and started a college for English Catholic boys who were unable to find a Catholic education at home, pursued studies in the University of Douai. However, the community was expelled at the time of the French Revolution in 1793 and, after some years of wandering settled at Downside Abbey, Somerset, in 1814. Another English Benedictine community, the Priory of St. Edmund, formed in Paris in 1615 by Dom Gabriel Gifford Archbishop of Rheims and primate of France, was expelled from Paris during the Revolution, took over the vacant buildings of the community of St Gregory's in 1818. Following Waldeck-Rousseau's Law of Associations, this community returned to England in 1903, where it was established at Douai Abbey, near Reading.
Douai School continued as an educational establishment for boys until 1999. In 1609 the English College published a translation of the Old Testament, together with the New Testament published at Rheims 27 years earlier, was the Douay-Rheims Bible used by Anglophone Roman Catholics exclusively for more than 300 years. For a time there was a Carthusian monastery in Douai, now the Musée de la Chartreuse de Douai. Founded as University of Douai in 1562, the state university in Northern France was renamed Université impériale de Douai-Lille in 1808 as Université de Lille with faculty expansion from Douai to Lille from mid-19th century onwards. Université Lille Nord de France-Artois University Douai Business School, established in 1991 École des Mines de Douai Nurse School Douai was the birthplace of: Jehan Bellegambe early Flemish painter François Cosserat and engineer Henri-Edmond Cross, painter Gaston Crunelle, classical flautist Charles Alexandre de Calonne, statesman Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, poet Henri-Joseph Dulaurens, novelist Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, sculptor Jacky Henin and Member of the European Parliament Corinne Masiero, actress André Obey, playwright M
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Mortagne-du-Nord is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Berles-Monchel is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region in northern France. A village located 11 miles northwest of Arras on the D82 junction with the N39 road, in the valley, the source of the river Scarpe; the eighteenth-century château. The Wandelicourt chapel; the church of Saint-Pierre, dating from the sixteenth century. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Berles-Monchel on the Quid website
Aubigny-en-Artois is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A town located 8 miles northwest of Arras at the junction of the D73, D74, D75 and D49 roads, just by the N39 Arras-Le Touquet road; the church of St. Kilien, dating from the eighteenth century The World War I cemetery The World War II memorial Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Commonwealth war graves - Aubigny Aubigny-en-Artois on the Quid website Football Site Web Football Facebook