Tubeway Army were a London-based new wave and electronic band led by lead singer Gary Numan. They were the first band of the electronic era to have a synthesiser-based number-one hit, with their single "Are'Friends' Electric?" and its parent album Replicas both topping the UK charts in mid-1979. After its release, Numan opted to drop the Tubeway Army name and release music under his own name as he was the sole songwriter and public face of the band, but he retained the musicians from Tubeway Army as his backing band. Aged 18 years, Gary Webb had fronted London band Mean Street in 1976. After leaving this band, he auditioned as lead guitarist for another band called The Lasers, where he met bass-player Paul Gardiner; the pair left The Lasers soon after and formed Tubeway Army with Webb's uncle Jess Lidyard on drums. Webb rechristened himself "Valerian", Gardiner "Scarlett" and Lidyard "Rael". Webb was a prolific songwriter; the band began playing gigs on the punk scene in London and managed to secure a record deal with the independent Beggars Banquet label.
They released two guitar-heavy, punk-style singles in the first half of 1978. These failed to chart. Soon afterwards, the Tubeway Army album was released on blue vinyl, at which point Webb adopted the name "Gary Numan". Numan took his new pseudonym from a local Yellow Pages where a plumber called "Arthur Neumann" was listed, the singer abandoning the German spelling, to become Numan. Whilst still guitar/bass/drums-based, the album saw his first tentative use of the Minimoog synthesizer, which he had come across by accident in the recording studio during the album sessions. Lyrically the record touched on dystopian and sci-fi themes similar to those employed by authors J. G. Ballard and Philip K. Dick, of whom Numan was a fan. Whilst the album's modest initial pressing sold out, it did not enter the album charts at that time, no singles were lifted from it. By this time Tubeway Army had decided to abandon live shows – Numan was unhappy with pub-venue gigs on the violent London punk scene. Following swiftly on in early 1979, Numan took Tubeway Army back into the studio to record demos for John Peel and for their follow-up album, Replicas.
The result was more science fiction oriented than the last album. The first single from the album, the bleak, slow-paced keyboard-driven song "Down in the Park", failed to chart, although it would prove an enduring cult track in the years to come, covered by Marilyn Manson, Foo Fighters and Flight; the next single, "Are'Friends' Electric?" was more successful, reaching the No. 1 spot. The underlying context of this song was a reference to another Philip K. Dick novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? A special picture-disc helped boost sales but what grabbed the British public's imagination was Tubeway Army's appearance on the BBC show The Old Grey Whistle Test, followed soon after by a slot on Top of the Pops on 24 May 1979; the band appeared all dressed in black and near-motionless, Numan in particular giving a performance referred to as being "like an android". The single remained at number one in the UK charts for four weeks, with Replicas following suit in the album charts. With Tubeway Army still avoiding live shows, Numan recruited some additional musicians to make these television appearances.
Gary Numan – guitar, lead vocals, keyboards Paul Gardiner – bass, backing vocals Jess Lidyard – drums Bob Simmonds – drums Barry Benn – drums Sean Burke – guitar Billy Currie – keyboards Trevor Grant – guitar Chris Payne – keyboards Cedric Sharpley – drums † The album Tubeway Army did not chart upon its first release in 1978, but following the success of Replicas, it charted in August 1979 and reached No. 14. 1 The demos were recorded in 1978 but not released until 1984. Beggars Banquet have re-mastered these recordings numerous times. Current CD editions supplement the original album tracks with all single A- and B-sides, 12" bonus tracks, studio out-takes, recovered bootleg live material. * Charted in 1983. Goodwin, Paul Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide To Gary Numan
The Plan (Tubeway Army album)
The Plan is an archival compilation album of early demo recordings by British new wave band Tubeway Army, released in 1984. While the demos on The Plan were recorded in 1977 and 1978, they remained unreleased until September 1984 when Numan's former label, Beggars Banquet Records, issued them a year after Numan left the label. In the intervening seven years since recording the demos, Numan's career had scaled great heights of commercial success and waned, his most successful material had been similar in basic form and structure to the demos on The Plan, but had showcased a new synthesizer-based instrumentation instead of his previous punk rock sound. In the album's liner notes, Numan states that these songs were deliberately written and recorded in the then-popular punk rock style with the express aim of securing a record deal; some of the songs on the album formed the basis for songs that would be released on Tubeway Army's debut album in 1978, subsequently rearranged and augmented with the synthesizer-based rock sound which would become the Tubeway Army/Numan trademark.
The Plan went on reaching # 29 on the UK album chart. Two months after The Plan's release, Numan issued Berserker, his first album through his own record label, Numa Records. Chart-wise, The Plan outperformed the latter reaching # 45 on the UK album chart. All CD releases of The Plan include a wealth of bonus tracks, such as Tubeway Army's debut single "That's Too Bad" and an early version of the Tubeway Army album track "The Life Machine." All tracks written by Gary Numan. In 1993, Beggars Banquet issued a digitally remastered version of the album on CD, featuring 10 bonus tracks and a different running order; this release was packaged with Tubeway Army's 1979 album Replicas and was part of a series of double CDs, each of which paired two of Numan's albums together, with bonus tracks and new liner notes. In 1999, Beggars Banquet reissued the CD as a stand-alone release, newly remastered, with the further addition of two bonus tracks. Allmusic Paul Goodwin. Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide To Gary Numan
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
The Fury (album)
The Fury is the seventh solo studio album by English musician Gary Numan released in September 1985, it was Numan's second release on his self-owned Numa Records label. It saw him continuing to explore the sample-heavy industrial sound that he had developed for his previous album Berserker in 1984. Although Numan's previous album Berserker had failed to make a notable commercial impact, Numan decided to continue with a similar sound for his next album. For the second time in his career he decided to team up with other people to produce his album, recruiting the Wave Team as his co-producers. Colin Thurston assisted on the production of one track; the Fury continued with the sampled, industrial sound heard on Berserker but added layers of electro-funk that he had experimented with on I, Assassin and Warriors. The style would become a crucial part of his music; as on Berserker, the rhythm section is dominated by aggressive electronic percussion and usage of samples, but the fretless bass, an important element on the previous album disappeared completely, with only three tracks on the new album featuring a bass.
The rhythm elements were balanced with the usage of a PPG Wave synthesiser, saxophonist Dick Morrissey again provided the more melodic elements, while guitars were non-existent. Tessa Niles and Tracy Ackerman contributed female backing vocals, similar to those heard on Berserker, which would be another continuing theme in Numan's work until the early 1990s. Of the album, Numan recalled: The usage of sampling on the album is prominent on the album's anthemic opening track, "Call Out the Dogs", which uses several recognisable samples taken from the 1982 neo-noir science fiction film Blade Runner; this marked the beginning of Numan's fascination with the film that would resurface on his next three studio albums, Strange Charm in 1986, Metal Rhythm in 1988, Outland in 1990. Numan supported The Fury with a 17-date live UK tour in September and October 1985. No live albums or videos have been released from the tour; the original album cover artwork was much at odds with the music, featuring an oddly Bryan Ferry-esque Numan dressed in a white suit with a red bow-tie, posing in a tilted photograph against a white-dominant background, with the album name written on a typeface reminding the viewer of 1950s futurism.
Numan admitted that the cover was "completely inappropriate," "probably did the album a great disservice" and made him look like "the man who lost it all at Monte Carlo". "Your Fascination", "Call Out the Dogs", "Miracles" were released as singles in rapid-fire succession in August and November 1985, charting at No. 46, No. 49, No. 49, respectively. This was quite a poor turn-around compared to Numan's previous success. Numan blamed the singles' poor chart positions on the total lack of radio airplay that they had received. In November 1986 a version of "I Still Remember" was released as a charity single, with all of the proceeds going to the RSPCA. Numan wrote and sung new lyrics for this version, changing the personal anguish theme of the original for a story of a dog mistreated by its owners and dying at the end of the song. Despite the lack of successful singles, The Fury peaked at No. 24 on the UK Albums Chart, higher than both Berserker and the White Noise live album released earlier the same year.
The Fury remains the highest-charting album released by Numa Records, was the last of Numan's albums to reach the UK Top 30 until 2013 with the release of Splinter reaching No. 20 on the UK Album Chart. The album was released in the UK on both LP, CD and cassette. A second cassette version was available containing extended mixes of all nine tracks. In 1998 the album was issued on CD for the first time in the United States by Cleopatra Records; this release added five bonus tracks, including three alternate versions of songs on the album, a cover photograph different from the UK release. The following year, the album was reissued on CD in the UK by Eagle Records; this issue featured five bonus tracks, but dropped the alternate versions in favour of three additional out-takes. This reissue used a cover artwork similar but not identical to the original UK cover, with Numan's red bow-tie re-coloured white, amongst other changes. All tracks written by Gary Numan, except "This Disease" and "Tricks", which were co-written by Numan with Andy Coughlan.
All timings are approximate and will vary with different equipment. "Call Out the Dogs" – 4:42 "This Disease" – 4:04 "Your Fascination" – 4:46 "Miracles" – 3:40 "The Pleasure Skin" – 4:10 "Creatures" – 5:10 "Tricks" – 5:43 "God Only Knows" – 5:26 "I Still Remember" – 4:04 "Call Out the Dogs" – 4:42 "This Disease" – 4:04 "Your Fascination" – 4:46 "Miracles" – 3:40 "The Pleasure Skin" – 4:10 "Creatures" – 5:10 "Tricks" – 5:43 "God Only Knows" – 5:26 "I Still Remember" – 4:04 "Call Out the Dogs" – 6:47 "This Disease" – 5:19 "Your Fascination" – 5:14 "Miracles" – 4:22 "The Pleasure Skin" – 5:03 "Creatures" – 6:40 "Tricks" – 6:21 "God Only Knows" – 6:38 "I Still Remember" – 5:24All of the tracks on this version of the album feature extended running times. "Call Out the Dogs" – 4:42 "This Disease" – 4:04 "Your Fascination" – 4:46 "Miracles" – 3:40 "The Pleasure Skin" – 4:10 "Creatures" – 5:10 "Tricks" – 5:43 "God Only Knows" – 5:26 "I Still Remember" – 4:04 "Call Out the Dogs" – 6:47 "I Still Remember – 5:22 "Anthem" – 3:29 "Tribal" – 5:5
Down in the Park
"Down in the Park" is a 1979 song by the English band Tubeway Army, featuring lead vocals by Gary Numan. It was released as the first single from the band's second album Replicas; the song was written and produced by the band's frontman Gary Numan, despite its lack of commercial success, has been performed by Numan in his live shows throughout the years. Like the Replicas album as a whole, "Down in the Park" marked a major shift from Tubeway Army's previous output; the band's early releases, the 1978 singles "That's Too Bad" and "Bombers" plus the self-titled debut album, contained elements of punk, hard rock, heavy metal and new wave but were guitar driven with only occasional use of primitive synthesizer effects. "Down in the Park", on the other hand, was Numan's first composition on keyboards and his first release to feature the predominantly electronic sound that became his trademark. Musically, it pared down still further the guitar power chord and bass root note style arrangements he had used reducing the harmony to bare unisons of layered bass guitar, Fender Rhodes electric piano, Polymoog synthesizer.
The semitone key changes and chromatic melodic riffs between the song's verses are somewhat unusual in the context of traditional Western music theory, although they are less unusual in rock music. Lyrically the song crystallized the dystopian science fiction concept, the basis of the Replicas album. Influenced by such writers as J. G. Ballard and Philip K. Dick, it tells the story of a futuristic park in which Machmen and machines rape and kill human beings to entertain spectators who, along with their numerically-named robotic "friends", view the carnage from a nearby club; the piece was typical of Numan's themes at the time, both fearing technology. In contrast to much contemporary post-punk music, his own earlier releases, Numan's vocals were deliberately underplayed, leaving the slow and stately synthesizer work to evoke the song's melancholy atmosphere. In what would become Numan's normal practice, the B-side was a non-album track, in this case "Do You Need the Service?". The 12" single included the same tracks as the 7" along with "I Nearly Married A Human", a different mix from the version on Replicas this time featuring drum machine throughout and Numan's recitation of the song's title, the only words heard.
"Down in the Park" has been covered by a number of artists, notably Marilyn Manson on the "Lunchbox" and "Sweet Dreams" singles, Foo Fighters on The X-Files Songs in the Key of X soundtrack album, DJ Hell, Christian Death, Girls Under Glass, Jimi Tenor on the Numan tribute album Random. Terre Thaemlitz recorded two instrumental versions of "Down in the Park" on the tribute album Replicas Rubato, one on piano and the other on synthesizer. Other tribute acts to have recorded the song include Bytet and Reload, on the albums Ghost of a White Face Clown and Tubeway Navy respectively. Bytet covered Cars on "Ghost of a White Face Clown" not Down in the Park. On various dates of the 2009 Nine Inch Nails Wave Goodbye Tour, Trent Reznor and his band performed a version featuring Gary Numan on vocals and David Bowie collaborator, Mike Garson, on grand piano. "Down in the Park" has been a mainstay of Numan's concerts since his 1979 tour, appears on all of his live albums. An arrangement with solo piano introduction appeared on the Living Ornaments'80 LP, in the movie Urgh!
A Music War, in the Micromusic video concert from Wembley Arena. A version for piano alone was the flip side of Numan's single "I Die: You Die" in 1980; the original song was remixed twice for the 2003 collection Hybrid, a demo version of the song was included on the soundtrack of the movie Times Square. 7" version: "Down in the Park" - 4:22 "Do You Need the Service?" - 3:3912" version: "Down in the Park" - 4:22 "Do You Need the Service?" - 3:39 "I Nearly Married a Human" - 6:38 Gary Numan - Minimoog synthesizer, Polymoog synthesizer, Fender Rhodes electric piano, production Paul Gardiner - Bass guitar Jess Lidyard - Drums Paul Goodwin. Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide to Gary Numan. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate