Dobbm or Tappen is a card game played in the Stubaital valley in Austria which, like Brixental Bauerntarock, Bavarian Tarock and Württemberg Tarock, is not a true Tarock game. The ranking and point value of the cards in Dobbm is identical with those of the other variants mentioned. In Dobbm as well, one player always plays as a soloist against all the others, it most resembles the Brixental variant: Dobbm is played by four players, each player is dealt eight cards, four cards go to the talon and Hearts are the permanent trump suit. Although not one of the true tarot games, it has adopted rules from Tapp Tarock; the fundamental difference between these games and true tarot games is in the use of German or French decks instead of true Tarot playing cards. The aim of the soloist is to score more than 60 card points in tricks, unless he has announced a higher target; the opposing team only needs to score 60 points to win. There are 4 active players. Five can play. Dobbm is played with a deck of 36 cards of the William Tell or Hungarian pattern, the so-called Tell cards.
The cards’ trick-taking power broadly corresponds to their card point value. Thus the Sow or Deuce is the highest-ranking card. Follow the: Ten > King > Ober > Unter > Nine > Eight > Seven > Six. This ranking is valid within the trump suit as well as the plain suits. Hearts are permanent trumps in the normal game. Solo games may have different trump suits; the card values are the related games of Bauerntarock, Bavarian Tarock. The ten, with 10 points, is just below the Sow in value, but well above the King and Unter; the so-called Spatzen only play a role during the game based on their trick-taking ability, but do not score points at the end of the hand. There are 120 card points in the deck; the 6 of bells has no significance in this game. The first dealer is chosen by lot; the dealer shuffles the player on the dealer's right cuts. The dealer deals 2 packets of four cards to each player in clockwise order; the last four cards are placed face down on the table to form the Dobb. The role of dealer does not rotate.
There are two types of contract: Dobbm: A form of Exchange contract. The soloist discards four cards of his choice; because the points of the discarded cards count as part of the declarer's tricks, a Sow may only be discarded if it is accompanied by a trump card. If two Sows are discarded, two trump cards must be discarded. Solo: the soloist turns down the option of exchanging cards with the talon. If none of the players announces a contract, i.e. they all say "pass", the cards are thrown in and the same dealer deals a new hand. In Dobbm the declarer picks up the Dobb without revealing its cards and discards four cards face down. Sows may only be discarded; the resulting discard pile counts towards his points. In Solo the Dobb still counts towards the declarer's points, it may not be looked at until the end of the game. After exchanging with the Dobb, the declarer says "done"; the defenders may double the stake. This starts with the player to the dealer's left who says "good" or "play on" if happy to continue, or "Schwacher" to double the stakes.
If he wants to play on, the other defenders in turn may opt to double the stakes. If one of the defenders says Schwacher, the declare may either accept it by saying "good" or double the stake again by saying "Retour"; the defenders may say "Retour" in response. Play is clockwise and the declarer leads to the first trick; each player must follow suit. If a player is unable to follow suit, he must trump; the winner of the trick leads to the next trick. The defenders keep their tricks in a common area. After the last trick has been taken the sides count their card points, the declarer remembering to including the Dobb. There are 120 card points in toto; the winning side claims the amount of money, chips or game points based on the number of card points above 60 that they have scored. If both sides score 60 it is a draw; the stakes a doubled for a Solo, a Schwacher and each Retour. Revoking is called verleugnen or laungen and is penalised with half the value of the game being played. A session of Dobbm ends with a Mußrunde, where each player in turn must be declarer and choose to play either a Dobbm or a Solo.
It ends. Michael Dummett, Sylvia Mann: The game of Tarot. From Ferrara to Salt Lake City. Duckworth, London 1980, ISBN 0-7156-1014-7. Dobbm at www.pagat.com. More comprehensive rules for Stubaital Dobbm
Skat (card game)
Skat is a 3-player trick-taking card game of the Ace-Ten family, devised around 1810 in Altenburg in the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. It is the national game of Germany and, along with Doppelkopf, it is the most popular card game in Germany and Silesia, it is considered one of the best and most interesting card games for 3 players and has been described as "the king of German card games." Skat was developed by the members of the Brommesche Tarok-Gesellschaft between 1810 and 1817 in Altenburg, in what is now the State of Thuringia, based on the three-player game of Tarock known as Tarot, the four-player game of Schafkopf. It has become the most loved and played German card game in German-speaking regions. In the earliest known form of the game, the player in the first seat was dealt twelve cards and the other two players ten each, he made two discards, constituting the Skat, announced a contract. But the main innovation of this new game was that of the bidding process; the first book on the rules of Skat was published in 1848 by a secondary school teacher J. F. L. Hempel.
The rules continued to differ from one region to another until the first attempt to set them in order was made by a congress of Skat players on 7 August 1886 in Altenburg. These were the first official rules published in a book form in 1888 by Theodor Thomas of Leipzig; the current rules, followed by both the ISPA and the German Skat Federation, date from Jan. 1, 1999. The word Skat is a Tarok term derived from the Latin word scarto, which means to discard or reject, its derivative scatola, a box or a place for safe-keeping; the word scarto is still used in some other Italian card games to this day, is not to be confused with the American game called scat Note: Because of the many variations in the rules of Skat, the rules below are general, although rules not found in official German tournament play are marked as such. Skat is a game for three players. At the beginning of each round or'deal', one player becomes declarer and the other two players become the defending team; the two defenders are not allowed to communicate in any way except by their choice of cards to play.
The game can be played by four players. In this case, the dealer will sit out the round, dealt. Players may agree at the outset. A central aspect of the game are the three coexisting varieties called "suit", "grand" and "null" games, that differ in suit order and overall goal to achieve; each round of the game starts with a bidding phase to determine declarer and the required minimum game value. Ten tricks are played, allowing players to take trick points; each card is worth that number of points for the player winning the trick. The total face value of all cards is 120 points. Declarer's goal is to take at least 61 points in tricks in order to win that round of the game. Otherwise, the defending team wins the round. Points from tricks are not directly added to the players' overall score, they are used only to determine the outcome of the game, although winning by certain margins may increase the score for that round. After each round a score is awarded in accordance with the game value. If declarer wins he is awarded a positive score, if he loses the score is doubled and subtracted from the declarer's tally.
The deck consists of 32 cards. Many modern decks use the French deck consisting of an ace, queen, jack, 10, 9, 8 and 7 in all four suits; some players in Eastern and Southern Germany and Austria prefer traditional German decks with suits of acorns, leaves and bells, card values of deuce, Ober, Unter, 10, 9, 8, 7 in all four suits. Until in Saxony and Thuringia, for example, German-suited decks were used exclusively. By contrast, regions of the former West Germany had adopted a French-suited deck. Since German reunification, a compromise Turnierbild deck is used in tournaments that uses the shapes of the French suits but with corresponding German suit colors, green spades ♠ imitating leaves and gold diamonds ♦ imitating bells; the choice of deck does not affect the rules. At the beginning of each round each player is dealt ten cards, with the two remaining cards being put face down in the middle of the table. Dealing follows this pattern: deal three cards each deal the Skat four cards each three cards again.
In four-player rounds, the dealer skips actual play of the round. He or she may peek into the hand of one other player but never into the Skat. Dealing rotates clockwise around the table, so that the player sitting to the left of the dealer will be dealer for the next round. After the cards have been dealt, before the deal is played out, a bidding or auction is held to decide: Who will be declare' for the round, thus eligible for picking up the Skat The minimum game value needed in order for declarer to winThe goal for each player during the bidding is to bid a game value as high as their card holding would allow, but never higher than necessary to win the auction. How the actual game value is determined is explained in detail below and is necessary to understand in order to know how high one can safely bid, it is possible for a player to overbid. This does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat, or not before the end of the gam
A trick-taking game is a card or tile-based game in which play of a hand centers on a series of finite rounds or units of play, called tricks, which are each evaluated to determine a winner or taker of that trick. The object of such games may be tied to the number of tricks taken, as in plain-trick games such as Whist, Contract bridge, Napoleon, Rowboat and Spoil Five, or to the value of the cards contained in taken tricks, as in point-trick games such as Pinochle, the Tarot family, Rook, All Fours, Manille and most evasion games like Hearts; the domino game Texas 42 is an example of a trick-taking game, not a card game. Trick-and-draw games are trick-taking games in which the players can fill up their hands after each trick. In most variants, players are free to play any card into a trick in the first phase of the game, but must follow suit as soon as the stock is depleted. Trick-avoidance games like Reversis or Polignac are those in which the aim is to is avoid taking some or all tricks; the earliest card games were trick-taking games originating from China and spreading westwards during the early part of the second millennium.
Michael Dummett noted. They were played without trumps, following suit was not required but only the highest card of the suit led wins, rotation was counter-clockwise, they were plain-trick games, that the pip cards of one or more suit are in reverse order so that the lower cards beat the higher ones. Two revolutions occurred in European trick-taking games that would lead to the development of more sophisticated card games; the first is the invention of trumps in the 15th century. The second was bidding in the 17th century. According to card game researcher David Parlett, the oldest known European trick-taking game, Karnöffel, was mentioned in 1426 in the Bavarian town Nördlingen – half a century after the introduction of playing cards to Europe, which were first mentioned in Spain in 1371; the oldest known "trumps" appear in Karnöffel, where specific ranks of one suit were named Karnöffel, Pope etc. and subject to an elaborate system of trumping powers. Around 1440 in Italy, special cards called.
These special cards are now known as tarots, a deck augmented by tarots as a tarot deck. The trionfi/tarots formed a fifth suit without the ordinary ranks but consisting of trumps in a fixed hierarchy, but one can get a similar effect by declaring all cards of a fixed or randomly determined suit to be trumps. This method, originating with Triomphe, is still followed by a number of modern trick-taking games that do not involve an auction. Trumps were retroactively added to some games, such as Trappola, it is much rarer for trumps to be removed. The invention of trumps became so popular that few European trick-taking games exist without them; this did not stop the two-handed Piquet from becoming the most popular card game in Europe during the 16th century. Parlett suggests the invention of trumps let players in games involving more than two a greater chance of heading a trick; the invention of bidding for a trump suit is credited to Ombre, the most popular card game of the 17th century. Rather than having a randomly selected trump suit, players can now hold an auction for it.
The most popular games of the 18th-century was tarot. During this time, many tarot games borrowed bidding over the stock. In the 20th century, Whist developed into the last global trick-taking game, it is possible that the origin of the practice of counting tricks was the counting of cards won in tricks. It was therefore a logical development to accord some cards a higher counting-value, some cards no value at all, leading to point-trick games. Point-trick games are at least as old as tarot decks and may predate the invention of trumps. Elfern and Fünfzehnern are possible candidates although the earliest references date to the 19th century. Nearly all point-trick games are played with tarot decks or stripped decks, which in many countries became standard before 1600, neither point-trick games nor stripped decks have a tradition in England. While there are a number of games with unusual card-point values, such as Trappola and All Fours, most point-trick games are in the huge family of Ace–Ten card games beginning with Brusquembille.
Pinochle is a representative of this family, popular in the United States. Other examples include Skat. In contrast to Europe, Chinese trick-taking games did not develop trumps or bidding, they diverged into multi-trick games where melds can only be beaten by other melds provided they have the same number of cards. During the Qing dynasty, these multi-trick games evolved into the earliest draw-and-discard games where the players' objective is to form melds and "go out" rather than capturing the opponents' cards. Khanhoo is an example of a multi-trick game. Multi-trick games are probably the source for climbing games like Winner and Dou Dizhu which first appeared during the Cultural Revolution. Certain actions in trick-taking games with three or more players always proceed in the same direction. In games originating in North and West Europe, including England and the United States and Canada, the rotation is clockwise; when games move from one region to another, they tend to preserve their original sense of rotation
Drinking games are games which involve the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Evidence of the existence of drinking games dates back to antiquity. Drinking games have been banned at some institutions colleges and universities. Kottabos is one of the earliest known drinking games from ancient Greece, dated to the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Players would use dregs to hit targets across the room with their wine. There were special prizes and penalties for one's performance in the game. Drinking games were enjoyed in ancient China incorporating the use of dice or verbal exchange of riddles. During the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese used a silver canister where written lots could be drawn that designated which player had to drink and how much. There were drinking game referee officials, including a'registrar of the rules' who knew all the rules to the game, a'registrar of the horn' who tossed a silver flag down on calling out second offenses, a'governor' who decided one's third call of offense; these referees were used for maintaining order and for reviewing faults that could be punished with a player drinking a penalty cup.
If a guest was considered a'coward' for dropping out of the game, he could be branded as a'deserter' and not invited back to further drinking bouts. There was another game where little puppets and dolls dressed as western foreigners with blue eyes were set up and when one fell over, the person it pointed to had to empty his cup of wine. Drinking games in 19th century Germany included Bierskat, Elfern and Quodlibet, as well as Schlauch and Laubober which may well be the same game as Grasobern, but the "crown of all drinking games" was one with distinctive name: Cerevis. One feature of the game was. So the cards were called'spoons', the Sevens were'Septembers' and the Aces were the'Juveniles'. A player who used the normal names was penalised. Everytime a card was played, it was supposed to be accompanied by humorous words, so if a Jack or Unter was played, the player might say something like "my merry Unterkasser" or "long live my Unterkasser". If his opponent beat it, he might say "hang the Unterkasser".
The loser had to chalk up a figure such as a swallow, a wheel or a pair of scissors depending on the number of minus points gained and was only allowed to erase them once he had drunk the associated amount of beer. The simplest drinking games are endurance games. Players take turns taking shots, the last person standing is the winner; some games have rules involving the "cascade", "fountain" or "waterfall", which encourages each player to drink from their cup so long as the player before him does not stop drinking. Such games can favor speed over quantity, in which players race to drink a case of beer the fastest. Drinking large amounts will be combined with a stylistic element or an abnormal method of drinking, as with the boot of beer, yard of ale or a keg stand. Tolerance games are about seeing which player can last the longest, it can be as simple as two people matching each other drink for drink until one of the participants "passes out". Power hour and its variant, fall under this category.
Many pub or bar games involve competitive drinking for speed. Examples of such drinking games are Edward Fortyhands, boat races, beer bonging, flippy cup, yard; some say that the most important skill to improving speed is to relax and take fewer but larger gulps. There are a variety of individual tactics to accomplishing this, such as bending the knees in anticipation, or when drinking from a plastic cup, squeezing the sides of the cup to form a more perfect funnel. Athletic races involving alcohol including the beer mile, which consists of a mile run with a can of beer consumed before each of the four laps. A variant is known in German speaking countries as Bierkastenlauf where a team of two carries a crate of beer along a route of several kilometers and must consume all of the bottles prior to crossing the finish line; some party and pub games focus on the performance of a particular act of skill, rather than on either the amount a participant drinks or the speed with which they do so. Examples include beer pong, chandeliers, polish horseshoes and beer darts.
Pub Golf involves pub crawling together. Thinking games rely on the players' powers of observation, recollection and articulation. Numerous types of thinking games exist, including Think or Drink, 21, beer checkers, bizz buzz, saved by the bell, tourettes, never have I roman numerals, fuzzy duck, wine games, Zoom Schwartz Profigliano. Trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit, are sometimes played as drinking games. Drinking games involving cards are president, Kings, liar's poker, Ring of Fire, ride the bus and Black or Red. Dice games include beer die, kinito, liar's dice, mia, 15, pounce!, ship and crew, three man. Movie drinking games are played while watching a movie and have a set of rules for who drinks when and how much based on on-screen even
Industrie und Glück
Industrie und Glück is a pattern of French suited playing cards used to play tarock. The name originates from an inscription found on the second trump card; this deck was developed during the nineteenth century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The earliest known examples were made in Vienna in 1815. After the collapse of the empire in World War I, it remained the most used tarot deck in Central Europe and can be found throughout the former parts of the empire. Though Industrie und Glück packs were not designed for cartomancy, their imagery was incorporated into Argentine fortune telling decks produced in the mid-20th century and misleadingly presented as an ancient gypsy oracle. In the Industrie und Glück deck, each suit contains four face cards; the 5s through 10s in red suits and the 1s through 6s in the black suits are removed and 22 trumps are added for a total of 54 cards. In Central European tarock games, the order of the black suits from highest to lowest goes from K, Q, C, J, 10, 9, 8, 7 but the red suits goes from K, Q, C, J, 1, 2, 3, 4.
The Sküs, named after the French Excuse, is considered the 22nd and highest trump and no longer has its excusing power despite its name. The lowest trump is called the pagat after il bagatto. Unlike the Italian tarocco decks which depict Renaissance allegorical motifs or the French Tarot Nouveau which added modern themes, all Industrie und Glück trumps illustrate genre scenes of rural life with no themes. All trumps except the unnumbered Excuse use Roman numerals unlike the Tarot Cego decks; the pip cards and face cards lack corner indices. Around seven versions of this deck were once made but only two survive; the older of the two surviving versions is found in the southern half of the former empire and the other in the northern half. The southern version can be found where the northern version is sold but is not as widespread. Both share many pictures in the trump suit but some are arranged differently. In the northern version, the 21st trump is nicknamed mond; this was a result of a mistranslation of the French monde for The World tarot card.
The southern version, now manufactured only by Modiano and Piatnik, lacks the moon. The Czechs use the northern version but since receiving their independence at end of the First World War, the second trump has lacked the Industrie und Glück inscription. A 78-card version by Piatnik was once made to play the Austrian game of Droggn although players used only 66 of them. There was a mysterious 73-card version from the 1930s by Piatnik, composed like the 54-card deck but with 19 more trumps, it is believed to have been used for a lost version of Minchiate
French playing cards
French playing cards are cards that use the French suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques. Each suit contains three face cards. Aside from these aspects, decks can include a wide variety of regional and national patterns which have different deck sizes. In comparison to Spanish, Italian and Swiss playing cards, French cards are the most widespread due to the geopolitical and cultural influence of France and the United Kingdom in the past two centuries. Other reasons for their popularity were the simplicity of the suit insignia, which simplifies mass production, the popularity of whist and contract bridge. Playing cards arrived in Europe from Mamluk Egypt around 1370 and were reported in France in 1377; the French suit insignia was derived from German suits around 1480. Between the transition from the suit of bells to tiles there was a suit of crescents. One of the most distinguishing features of the French cards is the queen. Mamluk cards and their derivatives, the Latin suited and German suited cards, all have three male face cards.
Queens began appearing in Italian tarot decks in the mid-15th century and some German decks replaced two kings with queens. While other decks abandoned the queen in non-tarot decks, the French kept them and dropped the knight as the middle face card. Face card design was influenced by Spanish cards that used to circulate in France. One of the most obvious traits inherited from Spain are the standing kings. Spanish-suited cards are still used in France in Northern Catalonia, Brittany and the Vendée with the latter two using the archaic Aluette cards. In the 19th century, corner indices and rounded corners were added and cards became reversible, relieving players from having to flip face cards right side up; the index for aces and face cards follow the local language but many decks of the Paris pattern use the numeral "1" for aces. The French suited deck has spawned many regional variations known as standard patterns based on their artwork and deck size; the Paris pattern was exported throughout continental Europe, why most French-suited patterns share a similar appearance.
The English pattern, based on the extinct Rouennais pattern, is the most well known pattern in the world. Note that patterns do not factor in Jokers as they are a recent addition which leads to every manufacturer making their own trademarked depiction of this card. All 52-card packs produced in the present will contain at least two jokers unless otherwise noted; the Paris pattern became known as the portrait officiel. From the 19th century to 1945, the appearance of the cards used for domestic consumption was regulated by the French government. All cards were produced on watermarked paper made by the state to show payment of the stamp tax; the most common deck sold in France is the 32-card deck with the 2 to 6 removed and 1s as the index for aces. 52-card decks are popular. The French have a unique habit of associating their face cards with historic or mythical personages which survives only in the portrait officiel; the Belgian-Genoese pattern is similar to its Parisian parent and is an export version not subject to France's domestic stamp tax.
The jack of clubs has a triangular shield bearing the coat of arms of the former Spanish Netherlands, face cards are unnamed, blue is replaced with green in the portraits. The diagonal dividing line lacks the beads; when the Ottoman Empire relaxed the ban against playing cards, Belgian type cards flooded their territory and is now found throughout the Balkans, North Africa, the Middle East. They are commonly found in France's former colonies. Within Belgium, the Francophone Walloons are the primary users of this pattern, the Flemish prefer the Dutch pattern; this is the second most common pattern in the world after the English pattern. Belgian decks come in either 52 cards like in France. Genoese type cards lack corner indices, they come in 40, or 52 card decks. The Piedmontese pattern is similar to the Genoese packs but its face cards have a horizontal instead of diagonal dividing line and the aces are found in a decorative garland, they come in the same number of cards as Genoese ones. The Piedmontese pattern was once used in neighboring Savoy as both were united until France annexed the latter in 1860.
A 78 card tarot version of the Piedmontese pattern, complete with knights, the fool, a suit of trumps depicting flowers, corner indices, was printed in 1902 for Savoyard players. It was discontinued some time after 1910 but reproductions have been in print since 1984; the Chambéry rules that come with the deck are similar to Piedmontese tarot games but the ace ranked between the jack and the 10 like in Triomphe. It should not be confused with the Italian-suited Piedmontese tarot. A Parisian variant appeared in Bavaria in the mid-18th century where the king of diamonds wore a turban; this originates from the German-suited Old Bavarian pattern. The king of spades, who used to represent David, no longer holds a harp; this group is associated with animal tarots. The Russian pattern created during the early 19th-century is based on a Baltic version of a Bavarian derivative; the current appearance was finalized by Adolf Charlemagne. It contains 52 or 36 cards, the latter lacking ranks 2 to 5; the stripped deck is used to play Durak.
They can be found in many countries that were once part of the Russian Soviet Union. Adler-Ceg
German playing cards
German playing cards are a style of playing cards used in many parts of Central Europe. Playing cards entered German-speaking lands around the late 1370s; the earliest cards were Latin-suited like in Italy and Spain. After much experimentation, the cards settled into new suits of Acorns, Leaves and Bells around 1450. Related Swiss playing cards are used in German-speaking Switzerland; the French suit symbols were derived from the German ones around 1480. German-suited cards spread throughout Central Europe into areas that were once under German or Austrian control, they were produced and used as far east as Russia until the early 20th century. German-suited decks are not well known all over these countries including parts of Germany itself as they have been undergoing strong competition from French playing cards since the late 17th-century. Traditional card games in which the German suits are used include Skat, Schafkopf and Watten. German suited decks tend to have fewer cards than either Italian sets.
The typical northern German pack has 32 cards ranking from 7, 8, 9, 10, Under Knave, Over Knave and Ace for a total of 32 cards. The "Ace" is a Deuce as indicated by its two pips. Southern patterns have 36 cards by including the 6. In Bavaria and South Tyrol, the 6 of Bells is known as the Weli or Belle, used as a wild card; the Weli first appeared around 1855 in the discontinued Tyrolean pattern and the Salzburg and William Tell patterns. The 7 of Bells is sometimes known as the Belli and the 7 of Acorns as the Spitz or Soacher and they are of comparable use, with the Weli being the higher card. For instance, in the Bavarian Watten game the top three cards following the respective trump ace are - in descending order: Maxi and Spitz. With the exception of the New Altenburg pattern, all cards with the rank of 10 include the Roman numeral X at the top centre of the card; the ace in German and Swiss German sets have a peculiar history. Aces disappeared from German decks during the 15th century; when the Ace was promoted above the King in French packs during the 16th century, the deuce did so as well in Germany leading to the conflation of the Ace and Deuce.
This is why in some sets the ace depicts two pips and is called a Daus. Confusion is avoided when the 7 or 6 became the lowest card in most packs during the 17th and 18th centuries. Players avoid confusion by alternatively calling the Ace/Deuce a Sau. Many regions have their own pattern which features number of cards; some patterns are descended from much earlier ones like the Saxon pattern which can trace their ancestry to the 15th-century Stukeley type cards named after their identifier, William Stukeley, in 1763. Northern patterns are used to play Skat. In northern patterns, the acorns are red; the only traditional northern pattern still in production is the Saxon pattern where only pip cards have corner indices. It is a product of a long evolution from the primitive Stukeley type cards imported from Nuremberg, they have been marginalized by the New Altenburg or German pattern, created by Walter Krauss in the former East Germany, which added corner indices to every card but the Aces. The 36 card Bavarian and Salzburg patterns are descended from the Old Bavarian pattern which itself goes back to the 15th-century Augsburg pattern.
Their most notable feature are that the Obers and Unters are engaged in combat except in the suit of leaves where they accompany their fighting comrades by playing musical instruments. Since the 1980s, Italian manufacturers have included 5s into their Salzburg decks to allow the German speaking South Tyroleans to play Italian card games that require 40 cards with suits they are more familiar with. Salzburg decks inherited the "Weli" from its extinct sibling, the Tyrolean pattern; the Bohemian pattern is descended from the Old Bavarian but has only 32 cards like the northern ones. The Salzburg and Bohemian patterns are not reversible and lack corner indices. Most games require only 32 cards by excluding the 6s such as Schafkopf. Games that require the full deck include Tarock; the Bavarian pattern developed into various different types. In all variants the Obers and Unters are portrayed as fighters, with the Ober and Unter of Leaves carrying a drum and fife respectively. Bavarian cards have an aspect ratio of 2:1.
In the non-reversible pattern which used to be commonplace, various pictorial designs were used on the pip cards. These individual scenes are now only found on the Deuces; the usual variants found today are the: Bavarian-Swabian pattern Bavarian Doppelbild, Munich type Bavarian Doppelbild, Stralsund type Non-reversible images of the nowadays common reversible cards Franconian reversible pattern Bohemian pattern Salzburg pattern Variants no longer common today: Old Bavarian pattern with variants in Poland and Russia Isarkreis pattern Nuremberg Eagle cards Regensburg pattern Tyrolean pattern The Augsburg pattern was on