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In medicine and biology, scatology or coprology is the study of feces. Scatological studies allow one to determine a wide range of biological information about a creature, including its diet and diseases such as tapeworms. A comprehensive study of scatology was documented by John Gregory Bourke under the title Scatalogic Rites of All Nations. An abbreviated version of the work, was published as The Portable Scatalog in 1994; the word derives from the Greek σκῶρ meaning "dung, feces". In psychology, a scatology is an obsession with excretion or excrement, or the study of such obsessions. In sexual fetishism, scatology refers to coprophilia, when a person is sexually aroused by fecal matter, whether in the use of feces in various sexual acts, watching someone defecating, or seeing the feces. Entire subcultures in sexuality are devoted to this fetish. In literature, "scatological" is a term to denote the literary trope of the grotesque body, it is used to describe works that make particular reference to excretion or excrement, as well as to toilet humor.

Well known for his scatological tropes is the late medieval fictional character of Till Eulenspiegel. Another common example is John Dryden's Mac Flecknoe, a poem that employs extensive scatological imagery to ridicule Dryden's contemporary Thomas Shadwell. In German literature in particular is a wealth of scatological texts and references, which includes such books as Collofino's Non Olet. A case which has provoked an unusual amount of comment in the academic literature is Mozart's scatological humour. Smith, in his review of English literature's representations of scatology from the Middle Ages to the 18th century, notes two attitudes towards scatology. One of these emphasises the carnivalesque; this is found in Shakespeare. The other attitude is one of misanthropy; this is found in the works of the Earl of Jonathan Swift. Coprolite Coprophilia Urolagniaurination fetish Bakhtin, Mikhail and His World. Lewin, Merde: excursions in scientific and socio-historical coprology. Random House, 1999. ISBN 0-375-50198-3.

Susan Gubar, "The Female Monster in Augustan Satire." Signs 3.2: 380–394. Jae Num Lee and Scatological Satire. University of New Mexico Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8263-0196-7. Smith, Peter J. Between Two Stools: Scatology and its Representation in English Literature, Chaucer to Swift, Manchester University Press Henderson, Jeffrey; the Maculate Muse: Obscene Language in Attic Comedy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506685-5

Department of Health (1921–87)

The Department of Health was an Australian government department that existed between March 1921 and July 1987. In 1987, the Department of Health was merged with the Department of Community Services to form the Department of Community Services and Health. Information about the department's functions and/or government funding allocation could be found in the Administrative Arrangements Orders, the annual Portfolio Budget Statements and in the Department's annual reports. According to the 1921 Order of Council, reproduced by the National Archives of Australia, the Department was responsible for: The Administration of the Quarantine Act; the investigation of the causes of disease and death. The control of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories and the commercial distribution of the products manufactured in these Laboratories; the methods of prevention of disease. The collection of sanitary data and the investigation of all factors affecting health in industries; the education of the public in matters of public health.

The administration of any subsidy made by the Commonwealth with the object of assisting any effort made by any State Government or public authority directed towards the eradication, prevention or control of any disease. The conducting of campaigns of prevention of disease in which more than one State is interested; the administrative control of the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine. The administrative control of infectious disease amongst discharged members of the Australian Imperial Force. To inspire and co-ordinate public health measures. Any other functions which may be assigned to it The Department was an Australian Public Service department, staffed by officials who were responsible to the Minister for Health

Rainwater tank

A rainwater tank is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff from rooftops via pipes. Rainwater tanks are devices for maintaining harvested rain. A rainwater catchment or collection system can yield 2,358 litres of water from 2.54 cm of rain on a 92.9 m2 roof. Rainwater tanks are installed to make use of rain water for use, reduce mains water use for economic or environmental reasons, aid self-sufficiency. Stored water may be used for watering gardens, flushing toilets, in washing machines, washing cars, for drinking when other water supplies are unavailable, expensive, or of poor quality, when adequate care is taken that the water is not contaminated and is adequately filtered. Underground rainwater tanks can be used for retention of stormwater for release at a time and offer a variety of benefits described in more detail below. In arid climates, rain barrels are used to store water during the rainy season for use during dryer periods. Rainwater tanks may have a high initial cost.

However, many homes use small scale rain barrels to harvest minute quantities of water for landscaping/gardening applications rather than as a potable water surrogate. These small rain barrels recycled from food storage and transport barrels or, in some cases and wine aging barrels, are inexpensive. There are many low cost designs that use locally available materials and village level technologies for applications in developing countries where there are limited alternatives for potable drinking water. While most are properly engineered to screen out mosquitoes, the lack of proper filtering or closed loop systems may create breeding grounds for larvae. With tanks used for drinking water, the user runs a health risk. If rainwater is used for drinking, it is filtered first. Filtration may remove pathogens. While rain water is pure it may become contaminated during collection or by collection of particulate matter in the air as it falls. While rain water does not contain chlorine, contamination from airborne pollutants, which settles onto rooftops, may be a risk in urban or industrial areas.

Many water suppliers and health authorities, such as the New South Wales Department of Health, do not advise using rainwater for drinking when there is an alternative mains water supply available. However, reports of illness associated with rainwater tanks are infrequent, public health studies in South Australia have not identified a correlation. Rainwater is considered fit to drink if it smells and looks fine. Australian standards may differ from other places in the world where rainwater is used for drinking water. In the United States, rainwater is being used throughout the country for various purposes. In the semi-arid western state of New Mexico, for instance, many residents in the Taos and Santa Fe areas in particular use rainwater either for landscaping purposes or all household uses; the "smells and looks fine" standard used in the above paragraph is not an absolute indicator of rainwater safety. Most people who are rainwater users for potable purposes in the USA make certain that their water is safe through filtration, ultraviolet sterilization, testing.

Certain paints and roofing materials may cause contamination. In particular, a Melbourne Water publication advises. Tar-based coatings are not recommended, as they affect the taste of the water. Zinc can be a source of contamination in some paints, as well as galvanized iron or zincalume roofs when new, should not collect water for potable use. Roofs painted with acrylic paints may have other chemicals dissolve in the runoff. Runoff from fibrous cement roofs should be discarded for an entire winter, due to leaching of lime. Chemically treated timbers and lead flashing should not be used in roof catchments. Rainwater should not be collected from parts of the roof incorporating flues from wood burners without a high degree of filtration. Overflows or discharge pipes from roof-mounted appliances such as air-conditioners or hot-water systems should not have their discharge feed into a rainwater tank. "Copper Poisoning", a 2010 news article, linked copper poisoning to plastic tanks. The article indicated that rainwater was collected and stored in plastic tanks and that the tank did nothing to mitigate the low pH.

The water was brought into homes by copper piping. The copper caused poisoning in humans, it is important to note that, while the plastic tank is an inert container, the collected acid rain could and should be analysed and pH adjusted before being brought into a domestic water supply system. The solution is to monitor stored rainwater with swimming pool strips and available at swimming pool supply outlets. If the water is too acidic, the state, county or local health officials may be contacted to obtain advice, precise solutions and pH limits, guidelines as to what should be used to treat rainwater to be used as domestic drinking water. Maintenance includes checking roofs and rain gutters for vegetation and debris, maintaining screens around the tank, desl

Christiane Fellbaum

Christiane D. Fellbaum is a Lecturer with Rank of Professor in the Program in Linguistics and the Computer Science Department at Princeton University, she received a Ph. D. from Princeton University in linguistics and joined Princeton's Cognitive Science Laboratory working with George Armitage Miller. Together with Miller and his team, she was a creator of WordNet, a large lexical database that serves as a used resource in computational linguistics and natural language processing. Many researchers have since built upon her work, including AI researcher Fei-Fei Li, the inventor of ImageNet, was inspired by a 2006 conversation with Fellbaum as well as by the name and design of the original WordNet. In 2001, she received the Wolfgang-Paul Prize of the Humboldt-Foundation and started the'Kollokationen im Wörterbuch' project at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, she is a founder and president of the Global WordNet Association, which guides the construction of lexical databases in many languages.

Together with G. A. Miller, she received the 2006 Antonio Zampolli Prize of the European Lexical Resource Association, her research focuses on lexical semantics, the syntax-semantics interface, computational linguistics. She is a site coordinator of the North American Computational Linguistics Open competition. Biography of Christiane Fellbaum Global WordNet Association Webpage at Princeton

Jim's Journal

Jim's Journal is a comic strip written and drawn by Scott Dikkers, co-founder of The Onion. The strip first appeared in the University of Wisconsin–Madison The Daily Cardinal newspaper in 1988. Since April 25, 2011, Jim's Journal has run on "GoComics" featuring both classic comics. On the flyleaf of the first Jim's Journal collection is a felt-pen drawing of a nondescript young man sitting at a desk and writing in a notebook. Above him are the words, "I'm Jim; this is the journal of my day-to-day life." And that's just what the strip is: nuggets of experience, not processed by Jim, but recorded as he moves passively through his world. No context is provided, though anyone who's been to college, worked a minimum-wage job, or lived in a rundown apartment building can supply it. Jim and his friends muddle through school and a series of dead-end jobs, have vague dreams of working in the entertainment business or the space program, share thoughts such as "I don't think life is absurd or meaningless.

I think it's funny." In Jim's world, it is enough to exist, order a pizza once in a while. Dikkers' purpose was to parody the typical four-panel comic strip, creating a character-driven strip with a main character who had no discernible personality, observational humor that provided no insights, no comic timing, just strips that ended without a gag, or sometimes without a conclusion. Dikkers calls this style anti-humor, "creating humor by poking fun at other humor", he is an completely passive person, speaking little and never initiating conversation, content to go to school or work, come home, venture out in the company of his few friends. He is a keen observer. Jim's college roommate, off-campus apartmentmate. Tony is impulsive trying out new lifestyles and hobbies, but his short attention span and low threshold of disappointment prevent him from making any major changes, he loves practical jokes, but lacks the knowhow for them to succeed, appoints himself expert on many subjects, though his attention span for other peoples' interests is slight.

Tony was the typical college student: drinking and partying, trying to cram an entire semester's worth of work into a week, hopelessly pursuing girls who dismissed him as immature. After college, he was unable to find a job. After a long tenure at his older brother's shoe store, he moved "up" to selling cable TV subscriptions over the phone. Jim met Ruth while working at McDonald's, she is cheerful and kind, if a bit overbearing, the most mature and responsible character in the strip. She was made crew chief at McDonald's, after graduation, found a job in her chosen field as a dental assistant. Late in the strip and Jim were married, though Jim never documented any change in their relationship before the wedding. Since she has devoted herself to the roles of wife, wage-earner and homemaker, has been trying to influence Jim to be more ambitious. Steve was brought into the strip as a third roommate when Jim and Tony moved into their off-campus apartment, he attended the same high school as a year behind him.

Steve was intimidated by the college experience at first. His fondness for junk food and junk TV led to an iconic strip panel, in which he sat in front of the TV eating cereal right out of the box. Steve strives to be intellectual and creative, without much success, but his native intelligence puts him ahead of Tony, who once tried to play a practical joke on him that fell utterly flat. At times, he exhibits some whimsy, climbing a tree "because it would be fun", or cracking jokes that no one gets except him. Jim's cat. Steve returned from his hometown with a kitten; when he attempted to have the cat neutered, Mr. Peterson was revealed to be a female, but her name was not changed; when the three roommates took separate apartments, she became Jim's cat by default. Jim's college classmate, co-worker at McDonald's. Mark is a typical 1990s pseudointellectual; when they met, Jim noted that Mark "always points out the dreary, hopeless aspect of everything." Jim thought Mark might be trying to be funny, but observes that in four years at McDonald's, Mark had never gotten a raise, which might be a source of his bitterness.

He and Jim take a creative writing course in college. When Mark is absent one day, Jim observes that "the class was quiet without him." Despite sounding off Mark objects to criticism of his own work, claiming that artistic expression should not be graded. Another McDonald's co-worker. Cheerful and gifted with a genuine flair for comedy, he leaves McDonald's to do stand-up; when he breaks his leg, he welcomes the chance to incorporate it into his act, so he can "stop doing the fat-guy schtick." Jim's co-worker at the copy store. Dan is a quirky geek, more concerned with larger concepts such as time travel, which he thinks would be "neat", than with his own shortcomings, he brings burnt cookies claiming that he likes them that way because it adds flavor. He welcomes guests to his squalid apartment and clears mounds of junk off the couch so they can sit to watch his videos, he stands up to Joel, another co-worker, the dispute ends with Joel's firing, prompting Dan to observe that "there is justice in the galaxy."

Copy store co-worker. The source of his feud with Dan is never disclosed, although Joel's abrasive personality might have something to do with it. Copy store co-worker. Depressed to be working so far below her potential, Julie takes

Cashton, Wisconsin

Cashton is a village in Monroe County, United States. The population was 1,102 at the 2010 census. Cashton is located at 43°44′35″N 90°46′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.32 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,102 people, 448 households, 292 families living in the village; the population density was 834.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 497 housing units at an average density of 376.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.5% White, 0.9% African American, 2.9% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.4% of the population. There were 448 households of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the village was 34.7 years. 28.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,005 people, 415 households, 271 families living in the village; the population density was 973.3 people per square mile. There were 463 housing units at an average density of 448.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.00% White, 0.10% African American, 0.40% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.59% of the population. There were 415 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the village, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,938, the median income for a family was $37,917. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $18,274 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,425. About 10.2% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.1% of those under age 18 and 12.6% of those age 65 or over. Leif Erickson, Justice of the Montana Supreme Court, was born in Cashton. Frank King, cartoonist of Gasoline Alley, was born in Cashton. Otto M. Peterson, Minnesota State Representative, was born in Cashton. Cashton, Wisconsin Cashton Public Library