Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Erbach im Odenwald
Erbach is a town and the district seat of the Odenwaldkreis in Hesse, Germany. It has a population of around 13,000; the town lies in the Mittelgebirge Odenwald at elevations between 200 and 560 m in the valley of the Mümling. One geological peculiarity is the creek Erdbach’s complete disappearance within Dorf-Erbach’s community area; the Erdbach reappears near Stockheim. There are several places. Erbach borders in the north on the town of Michelstadt, in the east on the market town of Kirchzell, in the south on the community of Hesseneck and the town of Beerfelden and in the west on the community of Mossautal. A planned merger with the neighbouring town of Michelstadt was blocked in November 2007 by a referendum. For the time being, ways are being sought to deepen the two towns’ cooperation, consider a merger once again in a few years’ time. Since the amalgamations within the framework of municipal reform in 1972, the district seat of Erbach has been made up of twelve Stadtteile: The municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: Buschmann was re-elected in 2012 with 52.7 % of the votes.
The town’s arms might heraldically be described thus: Gules a bend wavy azure, thereon three mullets of six gules. The wavy bend is taken to be a brook, the mullets of six were inspired by the arms borne by the princely Counts of Erbach, who were lords of the Odenwald until 1806. Erbach has partnerships with four towns in Europe: Ansião, Portugal Jičín, Czech Republic Königsee, Thuringia Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin, Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin, France Erbach Palace, the castle of the princely Counts of Erbach was built into a residence in the style of the times in the 18th century. Since the noble house did not have the needed materials on hand, only the middle wing of the planned three-winged building was built; the façade is to a great extent built out of not sandstone, but rather sheeting or wood coloured to look like it. The antique collections at the castle have remained unchanged since Count Franz I’s time. In 2005, the state of Hesse bought the castle for €13,000,000. Within the castle complex is the Late Baroque orangery with the castle garden.
In the area of the orangery and the castle garden, a citizens' initiative in the 1970s managed to thwart plans to tear down the orangery and build a highrise hotel on the site The memorial on the castle square to Count Franz I – the last ruling count –, knocked off its pedestal and thereby broken was repaired and set back in place with support from two Darmstadt artists and some Erbach citizens. The work was financed through grants from the Landesamt für Denkmalpflege as well as donations; the Erbacher Wiesenmarkt was called the Eulbacher Markt or Eulbacher Wiesenmarkt. Eulbach is an outlying centre of the neighbouring town of Michelstadt, it was once a regionally important livestock and farm market. The livestock and farm market was only moved to Erbach sometime in the late 19th or early 20th century by the Counts of Eulbach; until about 1960, the livestock and horse market with its associated horseracing and other horse sports was the main part of the Eulbacher Markt. The Schützenhaus standing on the way into the Wiesenmarkt, suggests that the Eulbacher Markt, at least in part, must have been held in Erbach as early as the mid 19th century: it was here that the Democratic Revolutionaries met in 1848 and on what is now the market grounds beside the Schützenhaus that the Odenwald “Moot” was held under the Michelstadt revolutionary and lawyer Ludwig Bogen’s leadership.
The Deutsches Elfenbeinmuseum Erbach is unique in Europe. Its exhibits are exclusively ivory. Visitors can watch the resident carvers as they go about their artistic work. Franz I, the last ruling count, introduced ivory carving in 1783, thus giving the town the nickname Elfenbeinstadt. Many artists made their homes here and today their works and activities can still be admired at the town’s Deutsches Elfenbeinmuseum Erbach. Owing to widespread bans since 1989, aimed at protecting animals, on dealing in ivory, nowadays comparable materials such as animal horns are used. Popular as a material is prehistoric mammoth tusk, still found from time to time in Siberia. Besides the different colour, this is comparable to elephant tusk ivory. Bosch Rexroth AG, Erbach works, Electric Drives and Controls division Rowenta, Erbach works Koziol GmbH, plastic articles Erbach lies on Bundesstraßen 45 and 47, on the Odenwald Railway. A planned Bundesstraße 45 bypass proposed since the 1970s has once again been included in Hesse state planning.
Schule am Treppenweg Astrid-Lindgren-Schule Schule am Sportpark Schule am Drachenfeld Norbert Busè, filmmaker and film producer Oka Nikolov, Macedonian football goalkeeper Jessica Schwarz, German actress and presenter Timo Boll, professional table tennis player Meike Weber, footballer Heinrich List, farmer from Ernsbach, hid Ferdinand Strauss, a Jew, during the Nazi dictatorship, was betrayed and died in 1942 at Dachau. He and his wife have been recognized as being among the Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem. Serap Çileli, aut
Wallonia is a region of Belgium. As the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is French-speaking, accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory and a third of its population; the Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium, the political entity responsible for matters related to culture and education, because the French Community of Belgium encompasses both Wallonia and the majority French-Speaking Brussels-Capital Region. The German-speaking minority in eastern Wallonia results from WWI and the subsequent annexation of three cantons that were part of the former German empire; this community represents less than 1% of the Belgian population. It forms the German-speaking Community of Belgium, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues. During the industrial revolution, Wallonia was second only to the United Kingdom in industrialization, capitalizing on its extensive deposits of coal and iron; this brought the region wealth, from the beginning of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century, Wallonia was the more prosperous half of Belgium.
Since World War II, the importance of heavy industry has diminished, the Flemish Region surpassed Wallonia in wealth, as Wallonia declined economically. Wallonia now suffers from high unemployment and has a lower GDP per capita than Flanders; the economic inequalities and linguistic divide between the two are major sources of political conflicts in Belgium and a major factor in Flemish separatism. The capital of Wallonia is Namur, the most populous city is Charleroi. Most of Wallonia's major cities and two-thirds of its population lie along the Sambre and Meuse valley, the former industrial backbone of Belgium. To the north lies the Central Belgian Plateau, like Flanders, is flat and agriculturally fertile. In the southeast lie the Ardennes and sparsely populated. Wallonia borders Flanders and the Netherlands in the north, France to the south and west, Germany and Luxembourg to the east. Wallonia has been a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 1980; the term "Wallonia" can mean different things in different contexts.
One of the three federal regions of Belgium is still constitutionally defined as the Walloon Region, but the region's government has renamed it Wallonia, it is called Wallonia. Preceding 1 April 2010, when the renaming came into effect, Wallonia would sometimes refer to the territory governed by the Walloon Region, whereas Walloon Region referred to the government. In practice, the difference between the two terms is small and what is meant is clear, based on context; the root of the word Wallonia, like the words Wales and Wallachia, is the Germanic word Walha, meaning the strangers. Wallonia is named after the Walloons, the population of the Burgundian Netherlands speaking Romance languages. In Middle Dutch, the term Walloons included the French-speaking population of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège or the whole population of the Romanic sprachraum within the medieval Low Countries. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul in 57 BC; the Low Countries became part of the larger Gallia Belgica province which stretched from southwestern Germany to Normandy and the southern part of the Netherlands.
The population of this territory was Celtic with a Germanic influence, stronger in the north than in the south of the province. Gallia Belgica became progressively romanized; the ancestors of the Walloons became Gallo-Romans and were called the "Walha" by their Germanic neighbours. The "Walha" started to speak Vulgar Latin; the Merovingian Franks gained control of the region during the 5th century, under Clovis. Due to the fragmentation of the former Roman Empire, Vulgar Latin regionally developed along different lines and evolved into several langue d'oïl dialects, which in Wallonia became Picard and Lorrain; the oldest surviving text written in a langue d'oïl, the Sequence of Saint Eulalia, has characteristics of these three languages and was written in or near to what is now Wallonia around 880 AD. From the 4th to the 7th century, the Franks established several settlements mostly in the north of the province where the romanization was less advanced and some Germanic trace was still present.
The language border began to crystallize between 700 under the reign of the Merovingians and Carolingians and around 1000 after the Ottonian Renaissance. French-speaking cities, with Liège as the largest one, appeared along the Meuse river and Gallo-Roman cities such as Tongeren and Aachen became Germanized; the Carolingian dynasty dethroned the Merovingians in the 8th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun gave the territory of present-day Wallonia to Middle Francia, which would shortly fragment, with the region passing to Lotharingia. On Lotharingia's breakup in 959, the present-day territory of Belgium became part of Lower Lotharingia, which fragmented into rival principalities and duchies by 1190. Literary Latin, taught in schools, lost its hegemony during the 13th century and was replaced by Old French. In the 15th century, the Dukes of Burgundy took over the Low Countries; the death of Charles the Bold in 1477 raised the issue of succession, the Liégeois took advantage of this to regain some of their autonomy.
From the 16th to the 18th century, the Low Countries wer
Rupert II, Elector Palatine
Rupert II, Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1390–1398, he was Count Palatine of the Rhine and Countess Irmengard of Oettingen. On 13 February 1338 the Palatinate was divided between Rupert II and his uncle Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria. After the death of his other uncle, the Elector Rupert I, on 16 February 1390 he was proclaimed Elector Palatine with the consent of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans. In 1391 he banished Jews and prostitutes from the Palatinate, confiscated their property, bequeathed it to the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. In 1395 he promulgated the so-called Rupertinische Konstitution, intended to provide for unity of the Palatinate. Among other provisions, he incorporated to his realm the former Imperial Free City Neckargemünd, he was buried in Schönau Abbey a Cistercian monastery in Heidelberg. He was married in daughter of King Peter II of Sicily, they had the following children: Anna, married in 1363 to William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg.
Friedrich. Johann. Mechthild, married to Landgrave Sigost of Leuchtenberg. Elisabeth. King Rupert of Germany. Adolf
Schönau Abbey (Nassau)
Schönau Abbey is a monastery in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg on the outskirts of the municipality of Strüth in the Rhein-Lahn district, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is referred to as Schönau Abbey of Nassau or Schönau Abbey in Taunus, in order to differentiate it from the other Schönau Abbey in Baden-Württemberg; this Schönau Abbey is most well known as the convent of St. Elizabeth of Schönau. Schönau Abbey was founded in 1126 as a Benedictine abbey by Rupert I, Count of Laurenburg, the Vogt of Lipporn; the property on which the monastery was built had been donated in 1117 by Dudo of Laurenburg, Rupert’s father and predecessor, to Schaffhausen Abbey for establishment of the monastery. Its Romanesque buildings were constructed between 1126 and 1145 with a three-nave basilica. At the same time, a nuns' convent was founded next to the monks' monastery. St. Elizabeth of Schönau worked there from 1141 until her death in 1164, her brother Eckbert of Schönau entered the men’s monastery at Schönau in 1155 or 1156.
Schönau Abbey had grown strong enough economically by 1340 that the city of Frankfurt am Main could promise support through arms and wagons. A Gothic chancel and a chapel dedicated to St. Elizabeth were added between 1420 and 1430 on the north side of the nave. During the Protestant Reformation, the surrounding communities of Strüth, Lipporn became Protestant between 1541 and 1544, but Schönau Abbey remained Catholic. In 1606, the convent was dissolved because only a few sisters still lived in Schönau under loose religious rule. During the Thirty Years War and Hessian soldiers attacked Schönau Abbey between 1631 and 1635; the Swedes drove off the monks, plundered the monastery, broke into the grave of St. Elizabeth and scattered her bones. Only the skull was rescued, it is now preserved in a reliquary on the right-side altar of the church. A major fire in 1723 destroyed the church and convent, only the Gothic chancel remains extant today from the original buildings; the abbey received its present shape in reconstruction over the following years.
The chapel to Elizabeth, was not rebuilt. In the course of secularization in 1802 and 1803, the monks' community was dissolved and the monastery became the property of the state of Nassau; some of the buildings were sold to private individuals. The parish affiliated with Schönau Abbey became part of the Vicariate General of Limburg an der Lahn, which would become the Diocese of Limburg in 1827. In 1904, the Dernbacher Sisters moved into the monastery. From 1947 to 1975, displaced Premonstratensians from Teplá Abbey in Czechoslovakia lived there; the last Dernbacher sisters left the monastery in 1986. Since the buildings have been used by the local Catholic parish of St. Florin. In 1994, the parish established the Schönauer Book Corner as a public library. Three years the former work buildings became "One World House, Schönau Abbey" a learning and meeting place for groups. In the rooms of the One World House, a computer training facility and an Internet café were opened in 2001. Schönau AbbeyThis article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article, as of 2009-01-25
Schönau is a city with 4400 inhabitants in the district of Rhein-Neckar-Kreis, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated in the Odenwald 10 km northeast of Heidelberg. Schönau Abbey is located here. Schönau lies on the southern slope of the Odenwald hills, in the valley of the River Steinach, a tributary of the Neckar River; the city is bordered to the north by Heiligkreuzsteinach, by Heddesbach to the northeast, by Hirschhorn to the east and Neckargemünd to the south, Wilhelmsfeld and Heidelberg to the west. The city Schönau belongs to the former municipality Altneudorf, created by the conglomeration of the villages Oberdorf and Unterdorf. On 8th of May 1975 when municipal reform updated the city's zoning, Schönau's borders came to include Bei Altneudorf, Landheim Lessingschule and the houses of Hasselbacherhof. Additionally, the deserted village Bauerländerhof lies within its designated limits. Schönau was first documented with the founding of the Schönau Abbey by the Prince-Bishopric of Worms in 1142.
The monastery came under the patronage of the Electoral Palatinate in the 12th century and became a House monastery and burial place of the ]. In the Reformation, the Palatinate converted to Protestantism, until 1558 when Elector Palatine Otto Henry was succeeded by a secular caretaker and the monks were expelled. In 1562 with the arrival of 35 Calvinism refugee families from Wallonia, the dwelling rights were passed on to Die Evangelische Stiftung Pflege Schonau and the monastery grounds were converted to residential purposes; the immigrants brought their craft weaving and dyeing, into the rural environment. Schönau was first designated a city in 1600. At the beginning of the 19th century, Schönau was part of Baden. In 1900, the city had 2000 inhabitants. In 1935 Schönau's city designation was revoked, but reissued in 1956. After World War II the city took in 553 refugees, increasing the population to 3035 in 1947; the first mention of Altneudorf appears in 1316 as "Nuendorf". The settlement was created by the Strahlenberg dynasty from Waldeck in the 13th century.
From 1357 it was associated with their castle's domain, until 1803 when the settlement was allocated to Baden upon dissolution. Beginning in the 18th century, the name "Neudorf" came into usage in order to differentiate the area as a separate entity to Wilhelmsfeld. Although the region had its own district and assets, it belonged politically to Heiligkreuzsteinach until independence in 1844; the city in its present form was created as part of municipal reform in Baden-Württemberg through the unification of Schönau and Altneudorf on 9th of May 1975