Liberal arts education
Liberal arts education can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history. It has its origin in the attempt to discover first principles –'those universal principles which are the condition of the possibility of the existence of anything and everything'; the liberal arts known as the seven liberal arts, are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person to know in order to take an active part in civic life, something that included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, most military service. Grammar and rhetoric were the core liberal arts, while arithmetic, the theory of music, astronomy were the following stage of education. Liberal arts today can refer to academic subjects such as literature, philosophy and social and physical sciences. For both interpretations, the term refers to matters not relating to the professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. Rooted in the basic curriculum – the enkuklios paideia or "education in a circle" – of late Classical and Hellenistic Greece, the "liberal arts" or "liberal pursuits" were so called in formal education during the Roman Empire.
The first recorded use of the term "liberal arts" occurs in De Inventione by Marcus Tullius Cicero, but it is unclear if he created the term. Seneca the Younger discusses liberal arts in education from a critical Stoic point of view in Moral Epistles; the exact classification of the liberal arts varied however in Roman times, it was only after Martianus Capella in the 5th century AD influentially brought the seven liberal arts as bridesmaids to the Marriage of Mercury and Philology, that they took on canonical form. The four'scientific' artes – music, arithmetic and astronomy – were known from the time of Boethius onwards as the quadrivium. After the 9th century, the remaining three arts of the'humanities' – grammar and rhetoric – were grouped as the trivium, it was in that two-fold form that the seven liberal arts were studied in the medieval Western university. During the Middle Ages, logic came to take predominance over the other parts of the trivium. In the Renaissance, the Italian humanists and their Northern counterparts, despite in many respects continuing the traditions of the Middle Ages, reversed that process.
Re-christening the old trivium with a new and more ambitious name: Studia humanitatis, increasing its scope, they downplayed logic as opposed to the traditional Latin grammar and rhetoric, added to them history and moral philosophy, with a new emphasis on poetry as well. The educational curriculum of humanism spread throughout Europe during the sixteenth century and became the educational foundation for the schooling of European elites, the functionaries of political administration, the clergy of the various recognized churches, the learned professions of law and medicine; the ideal of a liberal arts, or humanistic education grounded in classical languages and literature, persisted until the middle of the twentieth century. Some subsections of the liberal arts are in the trivium – the verbal arts of grammar and rhetoric – and other parts are in the quadrivium – the numerical arts of music and arithmetic, the graphical and mathematical art of Geometry; each subsection includes the interpretation of information.
Academic areas that are associated with the term liberal arts include: Arts Philosophy Religious studies Social science Mathematics Natural Sciences For example, the core courses for Georgetown University's Doctor of Liberal Studies program cover philosophy, history, art and the social sciences. Wesleyan University's Master of Arts in Liberal Studies program includes courses in visual arts, art history and professional writing, history, film, education, biology and astronomy; the liberal arts education at the secondary school level prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a liberal arts education study Latin and Ancient Greek; some liberal arts education provide general education, others have a specific focus. The four traditional branches are: humanities education modern languages lower level mathematical-scientific education economical and social-scientific education Curricula differ from school to school, but include language, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics / citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages.
Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separ
In religion, a prophet is an individual, regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy. Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures throughout history, including Judaism, Islam, in ancient Greek religion, Zoroastrianism and many others; the English word prophet is a compound Greek word, from the verb phesein. In Hebrew, the word נָבִיא, "spokesperson", traditionally translates as "prophet"; the second subdivision of the Hebrew Bible, TaNaKh, is devoted to the Hebrew prophets. The meaning of navi is described in Deuteronomy 18:18, where God said, "...and I will put My words in his mouth, he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Thus, the navi was thought to be the "mouth" of God. The root nun-bet-alef is based on the two-letter root nun-bet. Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7.
In addition to writing and speaking messages from God, Israelite or Jewish nevi'im acted out prophetic parables in their life. For example, in order to contrast the people’s disobedience with the obedience of the Rechabites, God has Jeremiah invite the Rechabites to drink wine, in disobedience to their ancestor’s command; the Rechabites refuse, wherefore God commends them. Other prophetic parables acted out by Jeremiah include burying a linen belt so that it gets ruined to illustrate how God intends to ruin Judah's pride. Jeremiah buys a clay jar and smashes it in the Valley of Ben Hinnom in front of elders and priests to illustrate that God will smash the nation of Judah and the city of Judah beyond repair. God instructs Jeremiah to make a yoke from wood and leather straps and to put it on his own neck to demonstrate how God will put the nation under the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In a similar way, the prophet Isaiah had to walk stripped and barefoot for three years to illustrate the coming captivity, the prophet Ezekiel had to lie on his side for 390 days and eat measured food to illustrate the coming siege.
The prophetic assignment is not always portrayed as positive in the Hebrew Bible, prophets were the target of persecution and opposition. God’s personal prediction for Jeremiah, "Attack you they will, overcome you they can't," was performed many times in the biblical narrative as Jeremiah warned of destruction of those who continued to refuse repentance and accept more moderate consequences. In return for his adherence to God’s discipline and speaking God’s words, Jeremiah was attacked by his own brothers and put into the stocks by a priest and false prophet, imprisoned by the king, threatened with death, thrown into a cistern by Judah’s officials, opposed by a false prophet. Isaiah was told by his hearers who rejected his message, "Leave the way! Get off the path! Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel!" The life of Moses being threatened by Pharaoh is another example. According to I Samuel 9:9, the old name for navi is ro'eh, רֹאֶה, which means "Seer"; that could document an ancient shift, from viewing prophets as seers for hire to viewing them as moral teachers.
Allen comments that in the First Temple Era, there were seer-priests, who formed a guild, performed rituals and sacrifices, were scribes, there were canonical prophets, who did none of these and had instead a message to deliver. The seer-priests were attached to a local shrine or temple, such as Shiloh, initiated others as priests in that priesthood: it was a mystical craft-guild with apprentices and recruitment. Canonical prophets were not organised this way; some examples of prophets in the Tanakh include Abraham, Miriam, Samuel, Ezekiel and Job. In Jewish tradition Daniel is not counted in the list of prophets. A Jewish tradition suggests that there were twice as many prophets as the number which left Egypt, which would make 1,200,000 prophets; the Talmud recognizes the existence of 48 male prophets who bequeathed permanent messages to mankind. According to the Talmud there were seven women who are counted as prophetesses whose message bears relevance for all generations: Sarah, Devorah, Abigail and Esther.
The Talmudic and Biblical commentator Rashi points out that Rebecca and Leah were prophets. Isaiah 8:3-4refers he married "the prophetess", which conceived and gave to him a son, named by God Mahèr-salàl-cash-baz, her name isn't elsewhere specified. Prophets in Tanakh are not always Jews; the story of Balaam in Numbers 22 describes a non-Jewish prophet. According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism; the last nevi'im mentioned in the Jewish Bible are Haggai and Malachi, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. The Talmud states that Haggai and Malachi were the last prophets, nowadays only the "Bath Kol" exists. In Christianity, a prophet is one inspired by God through the Holy Spirit to deliver a message; some Christian denominations limit a prophet's message to words int
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew. The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories in the same sequence. While the periods to which the gospels are dated suggest otherwise, convention traditionally holds that the authors were two of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus and Matthew, as well as two "apostolic men," Mark and Luke: Matthew – a former tax collector, called by Jesus to be one of the Twelve Apostles, Mark – a follower of Peter and so an "apostolic man," Luke – a doctor who wrote what is now the book of Luke to Theophilus. Known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a close friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus and the youngest of his Twelve Apostles, they are called evangelists, a word meaning "people who proclaim good news," because their books aim to tell the "good news" of Jesus.
In iconography, the evangelists appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, are frequently represented by the symbols which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel reflected in the Book of Revelation, though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. Images but not invariably, appear with wings like angels; when the symbols of the Four Evangelists appear together, it is called a Tetramorph, is common in the Romanesque art of Europe, in church frescoes or mural paintings, for instance. English trans. of 3rd edn, The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, with an early formulation by Jerome, were expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation: These animals may have been seen as representing the highest forms of the various types of animals, i.e. man, the king of creation as the image of the creator.
Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, or angel. Matthew's gospel starts with Joseph's genealogy from Abraham; this signifies. Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy; the lion represents Jesus' resurrection, Christ as king. This signifies. Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice and strength. Luke's account begins with the duties of Zechariah in the temple; the ox signifies. John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky, believed by Christian scholars to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" christology than the other three gospels; this symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.
Each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, in Revelation. The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelation, they were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the underneath the lion is the eagle; this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1:10. From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, came into use. Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is cited as the "first Gospel account," not only owing to its place in the canon, but in view of the patristic witness to this effect.
Most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and John's gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of "the Gospel of Matthew"... "the Gospel of John", not least because it is shorter and rolls much more smoothly off the tongue.
Jeremiah called the "weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. Greater detail is known about Jeremiah's life than for that of any other prophet. However, no biography of him can be written. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Christianity regards Jeremiah as a prophet, he is quoted in the New Testament. Islam considers Jeremiah a prophet, his narrative is given in Islamic tradition. Jeremiah's ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah, until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 587 BC; this period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoiakim and Zedekiah. Jeremiah was the son of a kohen from the Benjamite village of Anathoth.
The difficulties he encountered, as described in the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations, have prompted scholars to refer to him as "the weeping prophet". Jeremiah was called to prophetic ministry c. 626 BC by YHWH to give prophecy of Jerusalem's destruction that would occur by invaders from the north. This was because Israel had been unfaithful to the laws of the covenant and had forsaken God by worshiping Baal. Jeremiah condemned people burning their children as offerings to Moloch; this nation had deviated so far from God that they had broken the covenant, causing God to withdraw his blessings. Jeremiah was guided by God to proclaim that the nation of Judah would be faced with famine and taken captive by foreigners who would exile them to a foreign land; the prophetess Huldah was a relative and contemporary of Jeremiah while the prophets Zephaniah and Isaiah were his mentors. According to Jeremiah 1:2–3, Yahweh called Jeremiah to prophetic ministry in about 626 BC, about five years before Josiah king of Judah turned the nation toward repentance from idolatrous practices.
According to the Books of Kings, Jeremiah, Josiah's reforms were insufficient to save Judah and Jerusalem from destruction, because of the sins of Manasseh, Josiah's grandfather, Judah's return to Idolatry. Such was the lust of the nation for false gods that after Josiah's death, the nation would return to the gods of the surrounding nations. Jeremiah was said to have been appointed to reveal the sins of the people and the coming consequences. Jeremiah did not know how to speak. However, the Lord insisted that Jeremiah go and speak, he touched Jeremiah's mouth to place the word of the Lord there. God told Jeremiah to "Get yourself ready!" The character traits and practices Jeremiah was to acquire are specified in Jeremiah 1 and include not being afraid, standing up to speak, speaking as told, going where sent. Since Jeremiah is described as emerging well trained and literate from his earliest preaching, the relationship between him and the Shaphan family has been used to suggest that he may have trained at the scribal school in Jerusalem over which Shaphan presided.
In his early ministry, Jeremiah was a preaching prophet, preaching throughout Israel. He condemned idolatry, the greed of priests, false prophets. Many years God instructed Jeremiah to write down these early oracles and his other messages. Jeremiah's ministry prompted plots against him. Unhappy with Jeremiah's message for concern that it would shut down the Anathoth sanctuary, his priestly kin and the men of Anathoth conspired to kill him. However, the Lord revealed the conspiracy to Jeremiah, protected his life, declared disaster for the men of Anathoth; when Jeremiah complains to the Lord about this persecution, he is told that the attacks on him will become worse. A priest Pashur the son of ben Immer, a temple official in Jerusalem, had Jeremiah beaten and put in the stocks at the Upper Gate of Benjamin for a day. After this, Jeremiah expresses lament over the difficulty that speaking God's word has caused him and regrets becoming a laughingstock and the target of mockery, he recounts how if he tries to shut the word of the Lord inside and not mention God's name, the word becomes like fire in his heart and he is unable to hold it in.
Whilst Jeremiah was prophesying the coming destruction, a number of other prophets were prophesying peace. Jeremiah spoke against these other prophets. According to the book of Jeremiah, during the reign of King Zedekiah, The Lord instructed Jeremiah to make a yoke of the message that the nation would be subject to the king of Babylon; the prophet Hananiah opposed Jeremiah's message. He took the yoke off of Jeremiah's neck, broke it, prophesied to the priests and all the people that within two years the Lord would break the yoke of the king of Babylon, but the Lord spoke to Jeremiah saying "Go and speak to Hananiah saying, you have broken the yoke of wood, but you have made instead a yoke of iron." Jeremiah was sympathetic to as well as descended from the Northern Kingdom. Many of his first reported oracles are about, addressed to, the Israelites at Samaria, he resembles the northern prophet Hosea, in his use of language, examples of God's relationship to Israel. Hosea seems to have been the first prophet to describe the desired relationship as an example of ancient Israelite marriage, where a man might be polygynous, while a woman was only permitted one husband.
Jeremiah repeats Hosea's marital imagery (Jeremiah 2:2b–2:3.
Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism and Islam, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet. In Judaism and Christianity, he is viewed as the 6th-century BCE author of the Book of Ezekiel, which reveals prophecies regarding the destruction of Jerusalem, the restoration to the land of Israel, what some call the Millennial Temple visions; the name Ezekiel means'God strengthens'. The author of the Book of Ezekiel presents himself as Ezekiel, the son of Buzzi, born into a priestly lineage. Apart from identifying himself, the author gives a date for the first divine encounter which he presents: "in the thirtieth year". If this is a reference to Ezekiel's age at the time, he was born around 622 BCE, about the time of Josiah's reforms, his "thirtieth year" is given as five years after the exile of Judah's king Jehoiachin by the Babylonians. Josephus claims that Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia's armies exiled three thousand Jews from Judah, after deposing King Jehoiakim in 598 BCE.
According to the Bible and his wife lived during the Babylonian captivity on the banks of the Chebar River, in Tel Abib, with other exiles from Judah. There is no mention of him having any offspring. Ezekiel describes his calling to be a prophet by going into great detail about his encounter with God and four "living creatures" with four wheels that stayed beside the creatures. For the next five years he incessantly prophesied and acted out the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, met with some opposition; however and his contemporaries like Jeremiah, another prophet, living in Jerusalem at that time, witnessed the fulfillment of their prophecies with the siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. On the hypothesis that the "thirtieth year" of Ezekiel 1:1 refers to Ezekiel's age, Ezekiel was fifty years old when he had his final vision. On the basis of dates given in the Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel's span of prophecies can be calculated to have occurred over the course of about 22 years; the last dated words of Ezekiel date to April 570 BCE.
Ezekiel, like Jeremiah, is said by Talmud and Midrash to have been a descendant of Joshua by his marriage with the proselyte and former prostitute Rahab. Some statements found in rabbinic literature posit that Ezekiel was the son of Jeremiah, called "Buzi" because he was despised by the Jews. Ezekiel was said to be active as a prophet while in the Land of Israel, he retained this gift when he was exiled with Jehoiachin and the nobles of the country to Babylon. Rava states in the Babylonian Talmud that although Ezekiel describes the appearance of the throne of God, this is not because he had seen more than the prophet Isaiah, but rather because the latter was more accustomed to such visions. Ezekiel, like all the other prophets, has beheld only a blurred reflection of the divine majesty, just as a poor mirror reflects objects only imperfectly. According to the midrash Canticles Rabbah, it was Ezekiel whom the three pious men, Hananiah and Azariah asked for advice as to whether they should resist Nebuchadnezzar's command and choose death by fire rather than worship his idol.
At first God revealed to the prophet. But after they had left the house of the prophet determined to sacrifice their lives to God, Ezekiel received this revelation: "Thou dost believe indeed that I will abandon them; that shall not happen. Ezekiel is commemorated as a saint in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church—and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite—on July 23. Ezekiel is commemorated on August 28 on the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, on April 10 in the Roman Martyrology. Certain Lutheran churches celebrate his commemoration on July 20. Saint Bonaventure interpreted Ezekiel's statement about the "closed gate" as a prophecy of the Incarnation: the "gate" signifying the Virgin Mary and the "prince" referring to Jesus; this is one of the readings at Vespers on Great Feasts of the Theotokos in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches. This imagery is found in the traditional Catholic Christmas hymn "Gaudete" and in a saying by Bonaventure, quoted by Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori: "No one can enter Heaven unless by Mary, as though through a door."
The imagery provides the basis for the concept that God gave Mary to humanity as the "Gate of Heaven", an idea laid out in the Salve Regina prayer. The Story of Gog and Magog is mentioned in the 18th Surah of Al Kahf. Ezekiel is recognized as a prophet in Islamic tradition. Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical and modern have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam; the Qur ` an mentions. This prophet is sometimes identified with Ezekiel. Carsten Niebuhr, in his Reisebeschreibung nach Arabian, says he visited Al Kifl in Iraq, midway between Najaf and Hilla and said Kifl was the Arabic form of Ezekiel, he further
In the Hebrew Bible, son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name. He is one of the Twelve Prophets of the Jewish Hebrew Bible known as the Minor Prophets of the Christian Old Testament. Hosea is seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration; the Talmud claims. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy; the name "Hosea", meaning "salvation", or "He saves", or "He helps", seems to have been not uncommon, being derived from the auspicious verb from which we have the recurring word "salvation". It may be a contraction of a larger form of which the divine name or its abbreviation formed a part, so as to signify "YHWH helps". According to the Bible Numbers 13:8, 13:16, the original name of Joshua, son of Nun, until Moses gave him the longer, theophoric name Yehoshua, "YHWH is salvation". Although it is not expressly stated in the Book of Hosea, it is apparent from the level of detail and familiarity focused on northern geography, that Hosea conducted his prophetic ministries in the Northern Israel of which he was a native.
In Hosea 5:8 ff. There seems to be a reference to the Syro-Ephraimite War which led to the capture of the kingdom by the Assyrians. Hosea’s long ministry seems to have ended before the fall of Samaria in 722/721. Little is known about the life or social status of Hosea. According to the Book of Hosea, he married Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, but she proved to be unfaithful. Hosea knew she would be unfaithful, as God says this to him in the opening statements of the book; this marriage was arranged in order to serve to the prophet as a symbol of Israel's unfaithfulness to the Lord. His marriage will dramatize the breakdown in His people Israel. Hosea's family life reflected the "adulterous" relationship which Israel had built with polytheistic gods, his children's names represent God’s estrangement from Israel. They are prophetic of the fall of the ruling dynasty and the severed covenant with God – much like the prophet Isaiah a generation later; the name of Hosea's daughter, Lo-ruhamah, which translates as "not pitied", is chosen as a sign of displeasure with the people of Israel for following false gods.
The name of Hosea's son, Lo-ammi, which translates as "not my people", is chosen as a sign of the Lord's displeasure with the people of Israel for following those false gods. One of the early writing prophets, Hosea used his own experience as a symbolic representation of God and Israel; the relationship between Hosea and Gomer parallels the relationship between Israel. Though Gomer runs away from Hosea and sleeps with another man, he loves her anyway and forgives her. Though the people of Israel worshipped false gods, God continued to love them and did not abandon his covenant with them; the Book of Hosea was a severe warning to the northern kingdom against the growing idolatry being practiced there. Christians extend the analogy of Hosea to Christ and the church: Christ the husband, his church the bride. Christians see in this book a comparable call to the church not to forsake the Lord Jesus Christ. Christians take the buying back of Gomer as the redemptive qualities of Jesus Christ's sacrifice on the cross.
Other preachers, like Charles Spurgeon, saw Hosea as a striking presentation of the mercy of God in his sermon on Hosea 1:7 titled The LORD's Own Salvation. “But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, will save them by the Lord their God, will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.” – Hosea 1:7 in his sermon NO. 2057, December 16TH, 1888. The Qur'an mentions only some prophets by name, but makes it clear that many were sent who are not mentioned. Therefore, many Muslim scholars, such as, speak of Hosea as one of the true Hebrew prophets of Israel; the Book of Hosea has been used in Qur'anic exegesis by Abdullah Yusuf Ali in reference to Qur'anic verses which speak of the backsliding of Israel. He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31, he is commemorated on the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, with a feast day on October 17. He is commemorated on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers.
Jewish tradition holds that the tomb of Hosea is a structure located in the Jewish cemetery of Safed, Emil G. Hirsch and Victor Ryssel, writing in the Jewish Encyclopedia, say that this tradition is "historically worthless". Prophet Hosea Orthodox icon and synaxarion
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro