Bosch was a West Frisian island in the Wadden Sea. It was situated off the coast of present-day Groningen in the Netherlands, between the islands of Schiermonnikoog and Rottumeroog. Between 1400 and 1570 CE, the island Monnikenlangenoog had split into the islands Bosch and Rottumeroog. Bosch disappeared in the Christmas Flood of 1717
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The Scharhörnbake was the most important daymark on the German North Sea coast for a long time. First erected in 1661 by the City of Hamburg on the sandbank Scharhörn and south side of the Elbe estuary, it was rebuilt over centuries and taken down in 1979. Equipped with a room, it functioned as a refuge beacon for shipwreck survivors from 1840 to 1965; the only remains today is the boulder stone foundation near Nigehörn. With height of 29.10 meter, it was the highest daymark from 1898 until December 23, 1914 on the North Sea coast. Destroyed by storms, it was taken down at war time to make navigation harder for enemy ships; the main function of the daymark was to aid navigation for ships around the feared Scharhörn Reef into the Elbe coming from the North Sea. Many ships wrecked at this dangerous passage; as Hamburg depended most on this, it maintained sea marks around the reefs and the routes via the Südergatt und Nordergatt starting 1440. Coming from the sea the first and most important on starboard was the Rothe Ton.
The bearing to the Great Tower Neuwerk via the Scharhörnbake was essential to spot. Further bearings using the Great Tower Neuwerk were the Nordbake to obscure the Blüse Neuwerk and the Lighthouse Neuwerk to spot the Scharton and the Werkbalger Bake to spot the Butterton. Considering the cost and effort to build and maintain the Scharhörnbake as the highest daymark and the Great Tower Neuwerk as the oldest "sea tower" underlines the importance of the Elbe estuary to the city and state of Hamburg; the room for refugees was added around 1840. The emergency provisions were refreshed; as the sandbank Scharhön grew into an island by plantations, this function was made obsolete by the first shacks starting 1929. Form and position varied with each reconstruction. At first it was a wodden structure combining a square, it was not until the mid 19th century that it appeared in its striking form consisting of two diamonds above each other. "Scharhörn Bake". Baken-net.de. Retrieved 2017-04-17
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas designated under the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive; the network includes both marine sites. In May 1992, the governments of the European Communities adopted legislation designed to protect the most threatened habitats and species across Europe; the Habitats Directive complements the Birds Directive adopted earlier in 1979 and together they make up the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. The Birds Directive requires the establishment of Special Protection Areas for birds; the Habitats Directive requires Sites of Community Importance which upon the agreement of the European Commission become Special Areas of Conservation to be designated for species other than birds, for habitat types. Together, SPAs and SACs form the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Furthermore, the Natura 2000 network is the EU contribution to the "Emerald network" of Areas of Special Conservation Interest set up under the Bern Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats.
Natura 2000 is a key contribution to the Program of Work of Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As prerequisite for becoming EU Member, accession states have to submit proposals for Natura 2000 sites meeting the same criteria as EU Member States; some new member states have large areas which qualify to be protected under the directives and implementation has not always been simple. The Natura 2000 sites are selected by Member States and the European Commission following scientific criteria according to the two directives mentioned above; the SPAs are designated directly by each EU Member State, while the SACs follow a more elaborated process: each EU Member State must compile a list of the best wildlife areas containing the habitats and species listed in the Habitats Directive. The Habitats Directive divides the EU territory into nine biogeographic regions each with its own ecological coherence. Natura 2000 sites are selected according to the conditions in each biogeographical region, thus selected sites represent species and habitat types under similar natural conditions across a suite of countries.
Each Natura 2000 site has a unique identification form called Standard Data Form. This form is used as a legal reference when assessing the management of the species and habitats through the concept of favourable conservation status; the Natura 2000 Viewer is a tool to explore the network and gives access to every SDF. Natura 2000 protects 27,312 sites with terrestrial area 787,606 km2 and marine area 360,350 km2 in 2017, is considered complete in the EU terrestrial environment; the process of designation has not always been smooth as the infringement procedures against Member States show. While designation of sites may be near complete, the management and enforcement of protection on sites is less advanced and many sites lack management plans. Natura 2000 faced criticism from developers and politicians who fear that the conservation of habitats and species places a brake on development.251,564 km squared had been designated as Natura 2000 in the marine environment in 2013. The network in marine areas is not considered complete and acknowledged by the Commission as a “key challenge for EU biodiversity policy in the coming years”.
Natura 2000 sites can vary in character. They are not protected in terms of how they are allowed to be used by people. Many sites are farmed and some are in urban areas. Other areas are much wilder; the European Commission developed guidelines on the relation between Natura 2000 and wild areas which are thought to make up around 13% of the network. This was in response to a report by Members of the European Parliament in 2009 which called for further protection of Europe's wilderness; the Natura 2000 network is not well known among European Union citizens. As part of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, the European Commission committed to raise awareness about the network and biodiversity in general with the public. In general, Natura 2000 Sites are seen like an interdiction for developing for most of the citizens. Since appeared in some area, the citizens saw only limitations and interdictions without any local advantages for the specific area; the confusion is greater since in the designation process as a Natura 2000 Site, the local communities were not involved.
The documentations for different areas were done by different NGO not belonging to specific areas without out knowing the areas, with limited studies and ignoring the local communities interests. Due to this lack of awareness, most citizens do not know the consequence of belonging to a Natura 2000 Site. In order to raise awareness about the Natura 2000 network, 21 May has been designated “Natura 2000 Day”; this precedes “International Day for Biological Diversity” on 22 May. The initiative came from SEO/BirdLife who sought and received funding from the EU LIFE+ programme in order to improve the knowledge of this network. In 2013, the first Natura 2000 day took place with the aim to raise awareness of citizens about the importance of Natura 2000 network in their lives. Since every May 21 and the weeks before, awareness actions take place all over Europe. For example, in 2014, school children and pol
Nigehörn is an uninhabited artificial island in the North Sea belonging to the German city of Hamburg. Located by the mouth of the Elbe, Nigehörn lies on the same sandbank as Scharhörn, about 4 km northwest of Neuwerk and 15 km northwest from Cuxhaven on the mainland; the island is a part of Zone 1 of the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park. Rising about 5 m above sea level, it is not protected from storm surges, is at risk of coastal erosion on the western side; the sandbank on which Scharhörn and Nigehörn lie is a European Union Natura 2000-designated bird sanctuary, tended to by the environmental group Verein Jordsand. The area, known as Scharhörnplate, is around 2.8 km long and 1.5 km wide with an area of 500 hectares. Unlike Scharhörn, where visitors may obtain official permission to visit, public access to Nigehörn is forbidden. Nigehörn was constructed in 1989 to compensate for ongoing land loss on nearby Scharhörn, which threatened to deprive shorebirds of important breeding grounds. 1.2 million cubic metres of sand were deposited on the sandbank by hydraulic fill to create the core of the new island.
In order to catch and hold down flying sand, barriers made from brushwood were arranged in a double-circle around the core, with "rays" extending outward from the circles. Three eastward-pointing double-bows of similar construction were built across the core to trap and retain sand in the heart of the island. Traces of these patterns can still be seen on aerial photographs of the island today, though they are by now weathered, sand-covered, eroded; the newly constructed island measured 30 hectares in total area. As pioneer flora began to colonise the island, helping the pre-existing structures to hold down sediments, Nigehörn began to grow into the surrounding tidal mudflats. In this manner, the area of the island has increased over time to 50 hectares
Neuwerk is a 3 km2 tidal island in the Wadden Sea on the German North Sea coast, with a population of 32. Neuwerk is located 13 km northwest between the Weser and Elbe estuaries; the distance to the centre of Hamburg is about 120 km. Archaic English names for the island are New Newark. Administratively, Neuwerk forms a homonymous quarter of the city and state of Hamburg, is part of the borough Hamburg-Mitte; this quarter includes the islands of Scharhörn and Nigehörn, which are bird sanctuaries and closed to the public. All three islands and the Wadden Sea around them form the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park. Dikes encircle the island, about 3 square kilometres, one can walk around it in an hour. Salt marshes, lie outside the dikes and provide a hatchery for birds such as oystercatchers, sandwich terns, black-headed gulls, herring gulls, others. During the summer farmers may pasture horses on the northern Outland. At low tide one can reach the island on foot or on a Wattwagen, a horse-drawn mud flat coach, from Cuxhaven.
A row of poles on the mud flats marks the way. The path includes some elevated cages; these are rescue pods. Should high tide catch a walker far from shore, the walker can climb into the pod and wait for the tide to recede, or trigger a flare. Triggering the flare summons a rescue boat. During the summer the vessel MS Flipper makes a daily trip at high tide from the "Alte Liebe" port in Cuxhaven to the island; because departure times depend on the tides, the times are variable. The trip takes about a half one-way. One may, for a small fee and ascend the lighthouse to a viewing platform; this provides a view of the entire island. There is a small hotel with seven guest rooms inside the lighthouse, a hostel in a building next to the tower. Near the lighthouse there is the "graveyard of the nameless"; this is a resting place for the dead bodies. Today, bodies washed ashore are transferred to the continent; because the Elbe was vital to Hamburg, a member of the Hanseatic League, the city's merchants with those from Bremen and Stade obtained the permission from Albert II, Duke of Saxony and his minor nephews Albert III, Eric I and John II, altogether co-ruling feudal lords of the Land of Hadeln of which Neuwerk formed a part to maintain a permanent fire on a mud flat island named O or Nige O, in the mouth of the Elbe.
On 1 November 1299 Albert III and John II allowed the Hamburg and other seafaring merchants to build a fortified tower, named the new work. Right after work commenced on a 35-metre-high watchtower that could act as a daymark. After its completion, an alderman and ten men-at-arms seized the tower; the oldest existing document that mentions Neuwerk is a Frisian contract of 1316. This document uses the island's old name of Nige O; the current tower dates to 1369, or 1377, built after a fire destroyed its wooden predecessor. The tower is Hamburg's oldest existing building as well as the last remainder of Hamburg's fortifications. In 1648 the tower received a beacon fire, lit at night; the tower was converted into a lighthouse in 1814. Still, the island was the site of numerous shipwrecks. During World War I, a shell destroyed its signalling apparatus. On 3 September 1915 lightning struck the Zeppelin LZ 40, causing it to crash into the North Sea near Neuwerk, with the loss of the entire 20-man crew. Due to the Greater Hamburg Law Neuwerk became part of Prussia in 1937, thus after World War II it became part of the new state of Lower Saxony.
In 1946 an 18 kW wind turbine, 15 metres in diameter, installed to economize on diesel fuel, helped power the lighthouse and residences on the island. This installation ran for around 20 years. In 1969 Hamburg waived older rights on harbour estate in Cuxhaven in favour of Neuwerk and Scharhörn. On 31 December 2007, Neuwerk quarter had 26 female and 13 males. 11 were resident aliens. Media related to Neuwerk at Wikimedia Commons