Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German painter and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, is considered one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He produced religious art and Reformation propaganda, he made a significant contribution to the history of book design, he is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school. Holbein was born in Augsburg, but he worked in Basel as a young artist. At first, he painted murals and religious works, designed stained glass windows, printed books, he painted an occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons, his Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own.
Holbein travelled to England in 1526 with a recommendation from Erasmus. He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he built a high reputation, he returned to Basel for four years resumed his career in England in 1532 under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was King's Painter to Henry VIII of England. In this role, he produced portraits and festive decorations, as well as designs for jewellery and other precious objects, his portraits of the royal family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the Church of England. Holbein's art was prized from early in his career. French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him "the Apelles of our time," a typical accolade at the time. Holbein has been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school; some of his work was lost after his death, but much was collected, he was recognised among the great portrait masters by the 19th century.
Recent exhibitions have highlighted his versatility. He created designs ranging from intricate jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbein's art has sometimes been painted with a rare precision, his portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, it is through his eyes that many famous figures of his day are pictured today, such as Erasmus and More. He was never content with outward appearance, however. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture "remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, a combined richness and purity of style". Holbein was born in the free imperial city of Augsburg during the winter of 1497–98, he was a son of the painter and draughtsman Hans Holbein the Elder, whose trade he and his older brother, followed. Holbein the Elder ran a large and busy workshop in Augsburg, sometimes assisted by his brother Sigmund a painter. By 1515, Hans and Ambrosius had moved as journeymen painters to the city of Basel, a centre of learning and the printing trade.
There they were apprenticed to Basel's leading painter. The brothers found work in Basel as designers of metalcuts for printers. In 1515, the preacher and theologian Oswald Myconius invited them to add pen drawings to the margin of a copy of The Praise of Folly by the humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam; the sketches provide early evidence of Holbein's humanistic leaning. His other early works, including the double portrait of Basel's mayor Jakob Meyer zum Hasen and his wife Dorothea, follow his father's style; the young Holbein, alongside his brother and his father, is pictured in the left-hand panel of Holbein the Elder's 1504 altar-piece triptych the Basilica of St. Paul, displayed at the Staatsgalerie in Augsburg. In 1517, father and son began a project in Lucerne, painting internal and external murals for the merchant Jakob von Hertenstein. While in Lucerne Holbein designed cartoons for stained glass; the city's records show that on 10 December 1517, he was fined five livres for fighting in the street with a goldsmith called Caspar, fined the same amount.
That winter, Holbein visited northern Italy, though no record of the trip survives. Many scholars believe he studied the work of Italian masters of fresco, such as Andrea Mantegna, before returning to Lucerne, he filled two series of panels at Hertenstein's house with copies of works by Mantegna, including The Triumphs of Caesar. In 1519, Holbein moved back to Basel, his brother fades from the record at about this time, it is presumed that he died. Holbein re-established himself in the city, running a busy workshop, he took out Basel citizenship. He married Elsbeth Schmid, a widow a few years older than he was, who had an infant son and was running her late husband's tanning business, she bore Holbein a son of his own, Philipp, in their first year of marriage. Holbein was prolific during this period in Basel, which coincided with the arrival of Lutheranism in the city, he undertook a number of major projects, such as external murals for The House of the Dance and internal murals for the Council Chamber of the Town Hall.
The former are known from preparatory drawings. The Council Chamber murals survive in a few poorly preserved fragments. Holbein produced a series of religious paintings and designed cartoons for stained glass windows. In a period of revolution in book design, he illustrated for
Jeffrey Wall, OC, RSA is a Canadian artist best known for his large-scale back-lit cibachrome photographs and art history writing. Wall has been a key figure in Vancouver's art scene since the early-1970s. Early in his career, he helped define the Vancouver School and he has published essays on the work of his colleagues and fellow Vancouverites Rodney Graham, Ken Lum, Ian Wallace, his photographic tableaux take Vancouver's mixture of natural beauty, urban decay and postmodern and industrial featurelessness as their backdrop. Wall received his MA from the University of British Columbia in 1970, with a thesis titled Berlin Dada and the Notion of Context; that same year, Wall stopped making art. With his English wife, whom he had met as a student in Vancouver, their two young sons, he moved to London to do postgraduate work at the Courtauld Institute from 1970–73, where he studied with Manet expert T. J. Clark. Wall was assistant professor at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, associate professor at Simon Fraser University, taught for many years at the University of British Columbia and lectured at European Graduate School.
He has published essays on Dan Graham, Rodney Graham, Roy Arden, Ken Lum, Stephan Balkenhol, On Kawara, other contemporary artists. Wall experimented with conceptual art while an undergraduate at UBC, he made no art until 1977, when he produced his first backlit phototransparencies. Many of these are staged and refer to the history of art and philosophical problems of representation, their compositions allude to artists like Diego Velázquez, Édouard Manet, or to writers such as Franz Kafka, Yukio Mishima, Ralph Ellison. Presenting his first gallery exhibition in 1978 as an "installation" rather than as a photography show, Wall placed The Destroyed Room in the storefront window of the Nova Gallery, enclosing it in a plasterboard wall. Mimic typifies Wall's cinematographic style and according to art historian Michael Fried "characteristic of Wall's engagement in his art of the 1980s with social issues". A 198 × 226 cm. colour transparency, it shows a white couple and an Asian man walking towards the camera.
The sidewalk, flanked by parked cars and residential and light-industrial buildings, suggests a North American industrial suburb. The woman is wearing a white top displaying her midriff; the Asian man is casual but well-dressed in a collared shirt and slacks. As the couple overtake the man, the boyfriend makes an ambiguous but obscene and racist gesture, holding his upraised middle finger close to the corner of his eye, "slanting" his eye in mockery of the Asian man's eyes; the picture resembles a candid shot that captures the moment and its implicit social tensions, but is a recreation of an exchange witnessed by the artist. First shown at documenta 11, After "Invisible Man" by Ralph Ellison, the Preface represents a well-known scene from Ellison’s classic novel. Wall’s version shows us the cellar room, "warm and full of light," in which Ellison’s narrator lives, complete with its 1,369 lightbulbs. Picture for Women is a 142.5 × 204.5 cm cibachrome transparency mounted on a lightbox. Along with The Destroyed Room, Wall considers Picture for Women to be his first success in challenging photographic tradition.
According to Tate Modern, this success allows Wall to reference "both popular culture and the sense of scale he admires in classical painting. As three-dimensional objects, the lightboxes take on a sculptural presence, impacting on the viewer’s physical sense of orientation in relationship to the work."There are two figures in the scene, Wall himself, a woman looking into the camera. In a profile of Wall in The New Republic, art critic Jed Perl describes Picture for Women as Wall's signature piece, "since it doubles as a portrait of the late-twentieth-century artist in his studio." Art historian David Campany calls Picture for Women an important early work for Wall as it establishes central themes and motifs found in much of his work. A response to Manet's Un bar aux Folies Bergère, the Tate Modern wall text for Picture of Women, from the 2005–2006 exhibition Jeff Wall Photographs 1978–2004, outlines the influence of Manet's painting: In Manet’s painting, a barmaid gazes out of frame, observed by a shadowy male figure.
The whole scene appears to be reflected in the mirror behind the bar, creating a complex web of viewpoints. Wall borrows the internal structure of the painting, motifs such as the light bulbs that give it spatial depth; the figures are reflected in a mirror, the woman has the absorbed gaze and posture of Manet’s barmaid, while the man is the artist himself. Though issues of the male gaze the power relationship between male artist and female model, the viewer’s role as onlooker, are implicit in Manet’s painting, Wall updates the theme by positioning the camera at the centre of the work, so that it captures the act of making the image and, at the same time, looks straight out at us. Wall's work advances an argument for the need for pictorial art; some of Wall's photographs are complicated productions involving cast, sets and digital postproduction. They have been characterized as one-frame cinematic productions. Susan Sontag ended her last book, Regarding the Pain of Others, with a long, laudatory discussion of one of them, Dead Troops Talk, calling Wall's Goya-influenced depiction of a made-up event "exemplary in its thoughtfulness and power."
While Wall is known for large-scale pho
Robert Gober is an American sculptor. His work is related to domestic and familiar objects such as sinks and legs. Gober was born in Wallingford and studied literature and fine art at Middlebury College and the Tyler School of Art in Rome. Gober settled in New York in 1976 and earned his living as a carpenter, crafting stretchers for artists and renovating lofts, he worked as an assistant to the painter Elizabeth Murray for five years. During Gober's initial years in the art world he first focused on painting, he decided to do sculptures and to broaden his scope of art in the 1980s. Gober's work is related to domestic and familiar objects such as sinks and legs, has themes of nature, sexuality and politics; the sculptures are meticulously handcrafted when they appear to just be a re-creation of a common sink. While he is best known for his sculptures, he has made photographs, prints and has curated exhibitions. In 1982-83, Gober created Slides of a Changing Painting, consisting of 89 images of paintings made on a small piece of plywood in his storefront studio in the East Village.
One of his most well known series of more than 50 eccentric sinks – made of plaster, wire lath, coated in layers of semi-gloss enamel – which he produced in the mid-1980s. By 1989, Gober was casting beeswax into sculptures of men's legs, completed not only with shoes and trouser legs but human hair, inserted into the beeswax. In the Whitney Biennial 2012, Gober curated a room of Forrest Bess's paintings and archival materials dealing with the artist's exploration into hermaphrodism, he curated "Heat Waves in a Swamp: The Paintings of Charles Burchfield" at the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles in 2009. During the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, Robert Gober, along with other artists, used art to support the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power. ACT UP was a large group of people that were infuriated by the lack of action from the government and scientists to stop the spread of AIDS and find a cure. A few artists, including Gober, organized an art auction to help raise funds to donate to ACT UP. Gober's Untitled,1989-90, alone was sold at a high price, which helped prove to the public that art can be used to make the voices of the people be heard, to fight for a cause, important to the communities, that art is not just a commodity,nor is art just for pleasure.
Robert Gober's sculptures portrayed a different aspect to the way art had been seen, he used his sculptures to send a strong message to the viewers. In 1984, the Paula Cooper Gallery in New York hosted Gober's first solo exhibition; the Art Institute of Chicago presented the artist's first museum exhibition in 1988. Gober has since had exhibitions of his work in North America and Japan, he represented the United States at the 2001 Venice Biennale and has had several one-person museum exhibitions including at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, the Jeu de Paume and Dia Art Foundation, New York. His work has been included in five Whitney Biennials, including the 2000 Whitney Biennial with Sarah Sze, Doug Aitken, Cai Guo-Qiang, Louise Lawler and Richard Tuttle. In 2007 there was a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Schaulager in Basel; the exhibition was accompanied by a comprehensive book of his sculptures entitled Robert Gober. Sculptures and Installations 1979-2007. Gober participated in the group show Lifelike that originated at the Walker Art Center in 2012.
From October 2014 to January 2015, The Museum of Modern Art, New York presented "Robert Gober: The Heart Is Not a Metaphor", a 40-year retrospective of his work including 130 sculptures, drawings and photographs. This exhibition was the first large-scale display in the United States, it was accompanied by a catalogue of the same name including essays by Hilton Als, Ann Temkin and Christian Scheidemann, plus a chronology by Claudia Carson and Paulina Pobocha with Robert Gober. Gober created a three-story permanent installation in the Haunted House at the Fondazione Prada, Milan which opened in May 2015. In autumn 2016, two new sculptures by Gober were included in the Artangel exhibition at Reading Prison in England. Gober's work is in the following public collections: Whitney Museum of American Art, Glenstone In 2013, the Hammer Museum honored Gober along with playwright Tony Kushner at its 11th Annual Gala in the Garden, with Gober being introduced by fellow artist Charles Ray. Traditionally the poetics associated with Rober Gober’s artworks are focused on two fields: The surreal and the spiritual: "The devotional artisanship imbues common objects with an uncommon gravity, along with the sense of energy and vulnerability that defines real bodies."
Roberta Smith. “He plays with the tension between the neutered forms and the strong emotional and physical connotations we attach to them.” Craig Gholson. His artworks represent "The daily human war on dirt " Peter Schjeldahl, it works both and symbolically. "To be cleansed is to become pure and spiritually." David Carrier. “A good way to make lighter the weight of our thoughts is to sink them in water. Luis Alberto Mejia Clavijo. In some cases the lavatories represent both the cyclical approach to be cleaner but the impossibility to be pure: "The sink still has no water, the past will never wash off." Jason Farago. Gober lives with his partner Donald Moffett, they reside in New
Bruce Nauman is an American artist. His practice spans a broad range of media including sculpture, neon, drawing and performance. Nauman lives near New Mexico. Nauman was born in Fort Wayne, but his father's work as an engineer for General Electric meant that the family moved often, he studied mathematics and physics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, art with William T. Wiley and Robert Arneson at the University of California, Davis. In 1964 he gave up painting to dedicate himself to sculpture and cinema collaborations with William Allan and Robert Nelson, he worked as an assistant to Wayne Thiebaud. Upon graduation, he taught at the San Francisco Art Institute from 1966 to 1968, at the University of California at Irvine in 1970. In 1968 he met the singer and performance artist Meredith Monk and signed with the dealer Leo Castelli. Nauman moved from Northern California to Pasadena in 1969. In 1979, Nauman further moved to New Mexico. In 1989, he established a home and studio in Galisteo, New Mexico, where he continues to work and live along with his second wife, the painter Susan Rothenberg.
Nauman has two children, Erik and Zoë, with his first wife, Judy Govan, he has two grandchildren. Confronted with "What to do?" in his studio soon after graduating, Nauman had the simple but profound realization that “If I was an artist and I was in the studio whatever I was doing in the studio must be art. At this point art became more of an activity and less of a product.” Nauman set up a studio in a former grocery shop in the Mission district of San Francisco and in a sublet from his university tutor in Mill Valley. These two locations provided the setting for a series of performed actions which he captured in real time, on a fixed camera, over the 10-minute duration of a 16mm film reel. Between 1966 and 1970 he made several videos, in which he used his body to explore the potentials of art and the role of the artist, to investigate psychological states and behavioural codes. Much of his work is characterized by an interest in language manifesting itself in a playful, mischievous manner, he has a strong interest in setting the metaphoric and descriptive functions of language against each other.
For example, the neon Run From Fear – Fun From Rear, or the photograph Bound To Fail, which literalizes the title phrase and shows the artist's arms tied behind his back. He seems to be fascinated by the nature of communication and language's inherent problems, as well as the role of the artist as supposed communicator and manipulator of visual symbols. Nauman began in the 1960s with exhibitions at Nick Wilder's gallery in Los Angeles and in New York at Leo Castelli in 1968 along with early solo shows at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum in 1972. Nauman's use of neon as a medium was recurrent in his works, he uses neon in irony by making allusions to the numinous connotations of light to Mario Merz, who used neon to bring new life to assemblages of mundane objects. Neon connotes the public atmosphere by the means of advertising, in his works he uses it with private, erotic imagery as seen in his Hanged Man, his Self Portrait as a Fountain shows the artist spouting a stream of water from his mouth.
At the end of the 1960s, Nauman began constructing claustrophobic and enclosed corridors and rooms that could be entered by visitors and which evoked the experience of being locked in and of being abandoned. A series of works inspired by one of the artist's dreams was brought together under the title of Dream Passage and created in 1983, 1984, 1988. In his installation Changing Light Corridor with Rooms, a long corridor is shrouded in darkness, whilst two rooms on either side are illuminated by bulbs that are timed to flash at different rates. Since the mid-1980s working with sculpture and video, Nauman developed disturbing psychological and physical themes incorporating images of animal and human body parts, depicting sadistic allusions to games and torture together with themes of surveillance. In 1988, after a hiatus of nearly two decades focused on time-based media, he resumed his work with cast objects; some of Nauman's best-known works include: A Rose Has No Teeth - Lead, 7.5 x 8 x 2.25 in.
Eleven Color Photographs - Portfolio of eleven color photographs, various sizes, all approx. 19.75 x 23 in. Edition of 8 Published by Leo Castelli Gallery, New York Art Make-Up - video in which Nauman covers his face and upper torso with white pink green black makeup, until by the end he looks like a negative image Initially the films were intended to be projected on four walls of a room. Although this form of installation was never realized for this piece, Nauman employed the method for subsequent film and video installations; the True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths – a spiraling neon sign with this slogan. Flesh to White to Black to Flesh 51 minutes b&w, sound. Nauman puts on white makeup black makeup returns to his ordinary skin color. Burning Small Fires - artist's book for which Nauman burned Ed Ruscha's book Various Small Fires and Milk, photographed it, edited a book of his own. Wall-Floor Positions - Videotape and white, sound, 60 mins. to be repeated continuously. Pacing Upside Down 60 minutes b&w.
With his arms held over his head, hands crossed, Nauman is moving jerkily around a perimeter defined by a square drawn on the studio floor, filmed by a fixed camera, placed upside down. Audio Video Piece for London, Ontario - Nauman uses a closed-circuit television, a camera, an audio
Paul Chan (artist)
Paul Chan is an American artist and publisher. His single channel videos, projections and multimedia projects are influenced by outsider artists and philosophers such as Henry Darger, Samuel Beckett, Theodor W. Adorno, Marquis de Sade. Chan's work concerns topics including geopolitics and their responding political climates, war documentation, violence and pornography, new media. Chan has exhibited his work at the Venice Biennale, the Whitney Biennial, the Serpentine Gallery, the Museum of Modern Art, the New Museum, other institutions. Chan has engaged in a variety of publishing projects, and, in 2010, founded the art and ebook publishing company Badlands Unlimited, based in New York. Chan's essays and interviews have appeared in Artforum, Flash Art, Tate, Texte Zur Kunst and other magazines and journals. Chan was born in Hong Kong in 1973. Hong Kong's air quality had a deleterious effect on Chan's health, so in 1980, his family relocated to Sioux Falls, to Omaha, Nebraska. Chan attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago from 1992-1996, receiving a BFA in Video/Digital Arts.
Chan served as editor of the school newspaper F for three years. Chan attended Bard's MFA program beginning in 2000 and graduating in 2002. In 1999, Chan launched his personal website www.nationalphilistine.com. The website would become the platform from which he distributed videos, animations and other works for free. One such project was Alternumerics, a series of fonts available for use on Macs and PCs that transform what the user types into both legible and illegible blocks of text that explore both the "relationship between language and interactivity" and the "fissure between what we write and what we mean." Another was Now Let Us Praise American Leftists, a 3-minute 35 second experimental animation that sought to "eulogize and ridicule the American leftist movement of the past century. Chan completed his 18-minute animation Happiness After 35,000 Years of Civilization in 2002. In 2003, the animation became the first of Chan's works to be shown in an art gallery; when it was shown, the animation was played in a loop and projected on a "floating screen shaped and textured like a torn scroll."
The characters and events in the animation are influenced by Henry Darger's novel The Story of the Vivian Girls. Happiness received a warm critical reception. Following a 2002 trip to Iraq with the anti-war activists Voices in the Wilderness, Chan's work became concerned with war and politics. Re: The Operation is Chan's interpretation of what he imagined members of the Bush administration would look like were they fighting and being wounded in Afghanistan; the video consists of still images of Chan's drawings overlaid with text. Baghdad in no Particular Order was created with footage Chan took of Baghdad while on his trip to Iraq; the video was composed of shots of ordinary life in Baghdad. Chan's third video in the same vein was Now Promise Now Threat, a video consisting of clips of interviews of residents of Omaha, Nebraska; the interviews focused on the political climate of Nebraska, a Republican state. Chan gathered Re: The Operation, Baghdad in no Particular Order, Now Promise Now Threat into a single collection he named The Tin Drum Trilogy.
Despite major differences in the "form, philosophy" and "spirit" of the three videos, Chan put them together as a trilogy connected by what he felt was "the room temperature of the times," as was the form expressed in Gunter Grass' novel The Tin Drum. In October 2004 Chan had his solo exhibition debut at Greene Naftali Gallery, it was there that he premiered My Birds... Trash... The Future, a 17-minute two-channel animation featuring characters based on murder victims Pier Paolo Pasolini and Biggie Smalls adrift in a bleak landscape populated by a lone tree, birds from the Biblical book of Leviticus and paparazzi in yellow Hummers; the animation was projected on both sides of a fourteen-foot long screen. The audio for the animation was broadcast from the muzzle of a toy gun that required viewers to lift it to one of their ears in order to hear it; the animation was accompanied by charcoal prints of birds. In 2005, Chan began 7 Lights a series of large-scale projected animations based on the Biblical seven days of Creation.
In a formal break with his previous animations, Chan designed7 Lights to be projected on the walls and floor of its venue, instead of on a rectangular screen. The animations forgo the hard-edged color and line of the previous animated works and are instead composed of light and moving shadows in the shapes of humans and consumer goods. In 2007, Chan debuted all seven of the projections of the 7 Lights series at the Serpentine Gallery in 2007; the projections were accompanied by charcoal drawings and collages of the projections of the series re-imagined as musical scores. Chan's first trip to New Orleans was in a year after Hurricane Katrina. Having witnessed desolate neighborhoods and city residents still waiting for help, Chan was inspired to stage a production of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot on the city streets themselves. While he organized the production with Creative Time and the Classical Theater of Harlem, Chan began living in New Orleans and teaching for free at Xavier University and the University of New Orleans.
He started a "shadow fund" with Creative Time that matched the production cost of the play and was donated to organizations in New Orleans involved in post-Katrina recovery. Godot premiered in the Lower Ninth Ward on Friday, November 2, 2007. Chan's second solo show at Green
Matthew Barney is an American contemporary artist who works in the fields of sculpture, film and drawing, whose works explore intertwining connections between geography, biology and mythology, as well as themes of conflict and failure. His early pieces were sculptural installations combined with video. Between 1994 and 2002, he created The Cremaster Cycle, a series of five films described by Jonathan Jones in The Guardian as "one of the most imaginative and brilliant achievements in the history of avant-garde cinema." He is known for Drawing Restraint 9 and River of Fundament, as well as his past relationship with Icelandic musician Björk. Matthew Barney was born March 25, 1967, as the younger of two children in San Francisco, where he lived until he was 7, he lived in Boise, Idaho from 1973 to 1985, where his father got a job administering a catering service at Boise State University and where he attended elementary and high school. His parents divorced and his mother, an abstract painter, moved to New York City, where he would visit.
It was there. Barney was recruited by Yale University in 1985 to play football and planned to go into pre-med, but he intended to study art. In 1989, he graduated from Yale, his earliest works, created at Yale, were staged at the university’s Payne Whitney Gymnasium. In the 1990s Barney moved to New York, where he worked as a catalog model, a career that helped him finance his early work as an artist. In 2002, Barney had a daughter with his partner, the singer Björk, with whom he lived in a penthouse co-op in Brooklyn Heights. By September 2013, Barney and Björk were no longer a couple; as of 2014, Barney maintained a studio in Queens. The ongoing Drawing Restraint series began in 1987 as a series of studio experiments, drawing upon an athletic model of development in which growth occurs only through restraint: the muscle encounters resistance, becomes engorged and is broken down, in healing becomes stronger. In restraining the body while attempting to make a drawing, Drawing Restraint 1–6 were documentations made using video and photography.
Drawing Restraint 7 marks the influx of narrative and characterization, resulting in a three channel video and a series of drawings and photographs, for which Barney was awarded the Aperto Prize in the 1993 Venice Biennale. A series of ten vitrines containing drawings, Drawing Restraint 8 was included in the 2003 Venice Biennale and prefigured the narrative development for Drawing Restraint 9. A major project consisting of a feature-length film and soundtrack composed by Björk, large-scale sculptures and drawings, Drawing Restraint 9 was built upon themes such as the Shinto religion, the tea ceremony, the history of whaling, the supplantation of blubber with refined petroleum for oil. A full-scale survey of Barney's work through Drawing Restraint 9 was held at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2006 and included over 150 objects of varying media. Drawing Restraint 10 -- 16 are site-specific performances. Drawing Restraint 17 and 18 were performed at the Schaulager in Basel in 2010 in conjunction with the exhibition "Prayer Sheet with the Wound and the Nail," a survey of the Drawing Restraint series through Drawing Restraint 18.
Drawing Restraint 19 employs a skateboard as a drawing tool. A block of graphite is mounted beneath the skateboard deck on the front end of the board. A skater performs a nose manual across a smooth surface, tipping the nose of the board forward and leaving behind a drawn graphite line; the piece was part of a benefit art show and auction titled "Good Wood", raising awareness and funds for Power House Productions' Ride It Sculpture Park in Detroit, Michigan. The riding was performed on site by skateboarder Lance Mountain, documented by photographer Joe Brook and published by Juxtapoz Magazine in their February 2013 issue; the board was purchased by People Skate and Snowboard and it is displayed at their only location in Keego Harbor, Michigan. Barney's epic The Cremaster Cycle is a project consisting of five feature-length films that explore processes of creation, his concentration in sculpture is accentuated by his use of video. Barney uses video to perfect his sculpture by evaluating positioning, lighting and shape, using video as a means to his end product of sculpture.
Barney’s long-time collaborator Jonathan Bepler composed and arranged the films’ soundtracks. The cycle unfolds not just cinematically, but through the photographs, drawings and installations the artist produces in conjunction with each episode, its conceptual departure point is the male cremaster muscle, which controls testicular contractions in response to external stimuli. The project is rife with anatomical allusions to the position of the reproductive organs during the embryonic process of sexual differentiation: Cremaster 1 represents the most "ascended" or undifferentiated state, Cremaster 5 the most "descended" or differentiated; the cycle returns to those moments during early sexual development in which the outcome of the process is still unknown. In Barney's metaphoric universe, these moments represent a condition of pure potentiality; as the cycle evolved over eight years, Barney looked beyond biology as a way to explore the creation of form, employing narrative models from other realms, such as biography and geology.
The photographs and sculptures radiate outward from the narrative core of each film installment. Barney's photographs—
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone