The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes are designated groups of people in India. The terms are recognised in the Constitution of India and the groups are designated in one or other of the categories. For much of the period of British rule in the Indian subcontinent, they were known as the Depressed Classes. In modern literature, the Scheduled Castes are sometimes referred to as Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit, having been popularised by B. R. Ambedkar, the economist, member of the Constitution assembly of India, Dalit leader during the independence struggle, himself a Dalit. Ambedkar preferred the term Dalit to Gandhi's term, meaning "person of Hari/Vishnu". In September 2018, the government "issued an advisory to all private satellite channels asking them to'refrain' from using the nomenclature'Dalit'", though "rights groups and intellectuals have come out against any shift from'Dalit' in popular usage"; the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes comprise about 16.6% and 8.6% of India's population.
The Constitution Order, 1950 lists 1,108 castes across 29 states in its First Schedule, the Constitution Order, 1950 lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its First Schedule. Since the independence of India, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were given Reservation status, guaranteeing political representation; the Constitution lays down the general principles of positive discrimination for STs. The evolution of low castes to modern-day Scheduled Castes is complex; the caste system as a stratification of classes in India originated about 2,000 years ago, has been influenced by dynasties and ruling elites including the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. The Hindu concept of Varna incorporated occupation based communities; some low-caste groups, such as those called "untouchables" who constitute modern-day Scheduled Castes, were considered outside the Varna system. It has been argued that, under the Mughal Empire, persecution by Muslims reduced settled agriculturists and feudal lords to the conditions of nomads and forest-dwellers, they formed the origins of people who would become categorized as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the modern period.
Since the 1850s these communities were loosely referred to as Depressed Classes, with the Schedule Caste and Scheduled Tribes. The early 20th century saw a flurry of activity in the British authorities assessing the feasibility of responsible self-government for India; the Morley–Minto Reforms Report, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms Report and the Simon Commission were several initiatives in this context. A contested issue in the proposed reforms was the reservation of seats for representation of the Depressed Classes in provincial and central legislatures. In 1935, Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1935, designed to give Indian provinces greater self-rule and set up a national federal structure; the reservation of seats for the Depressed Classes was incorporated into the act, which came into force in 1937. The Act introduced the term "Scheduled Castes", defining the group as "such castes, parts of groups within castes, which appear to His Majesty in Council to correspond to the classes of persons known as the'Depressed Classes', as His Majesty in Council may prefer".
This discretionary definition was clarified in The Government of India Order, 1936, which contained a list of castes throughout the British-administered provinces. After independence the Constituent Assembly continued the prevailing definition of Scheduled Castes and Tribes, giving the president of India and governors of the states a mandate to compile a full listing of castes and tribes; the complete list of castes and tribes was made via two orders: The Constitution Order, 1950 and The Constitution Order, 1950, respectively. Furthermore, independent India's quest for inclusivity was incident through the appointment of B. R. Ambedkar as the chair of the drafting committee for the Constitution. Ambedkar was a member of the low cast; the Constitution provides a three-pronged strategy to improve the situation of SCs and STs: Protective arrangements: Such measures as are required to enforce equality, to provide punitive measures for transgressions, to eliminate established practices that perpetuate inequities.
A number of laws were enacted to implement the provisions in the Constitution. Examples of such laws include the Untouchability Practices Act, 1955, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Act, 1989, The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines Act, 1993, etc. Despite legislation, social discrimination and atrocities against the backward castes continued to persist. Affirmative action: Provide positive treatment in allotment of jobs and access to higher education as a means to accelerate the integration of the SCs and STs with mainstream society. Affirmative action is popularly known as reservation. Article 16 of the Constitution states "nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provisions for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens, which, in the opinion of the state, is not adequately represented in the services under the State"; the Supreme Court upheld the legality of the Mandal Commission. However, the reservations from affirmative action were only allotted in the public
The Hellinikon Olympic Hockey Centre was the site of the field hockey events at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Located in the Hellinikon Olympic Complex, the facility consists of two hockey fields; the larger stadium seats 7,200 fans – though only 5,200 seats were made publicly available during the Games, the smaller stadium seats 2,100 spectators – though only 1,200 seats were made publicly available during the Games. The facility was completed on February 29, 2004, opened on August 11, 2004, shortly before the beginning of the Games. During the 2004 Summer Paralympics, the Olympic Hockey Centre was the venue for Football 5-a-side and Football 7-a-side competitions; the hockey centre has since fallen into disrepair. No hockey has been played at the centre since the end of the 2004 Olympic Games. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. P. 353. Olympicproperties.gr profile. The 2004 Olympic Legacy
The Nokia 8110 4G is a Nokia-branded mobile phone developed by HMD Global. It was announced on 25 February 2018 at Mobile World Congress 2018 in Barcelona, Spain, as a revival of the original Nokia 8110, popularly known as the "Matrix phone" or "banana phone", it runs on an operating system based on KaiOS. Firmware version 11 added Google services like Google Search, YouTube, Google Maps and Google Assistant; this was arranged through the company's partnership with Google. Since Firmware version 13, a Twitter app is installed by default. In Firmware version 15, the Facebook and WhatsApp apps were made available via Store
Imre Poniklo is a Hungarian indie musician, best known as the lead singer, songwriter and guitarist of the indie rock band Amber Smith. He is a solo artist under the name Poniklo; as a singer, Poniklo's voice lies in the baritone range. Poniklo was born in Hungary, he grew up in Csepel. His father was a sewing machine-engineer, he started becoming interested in pop music at the age of 12. Since 1988 he has been a big fan of the Manchester artists such as The Morrissey. However, his first vinyl record was of Pet Shop Boys' Actually. Poniklo attended the School of Journalism of Bálint György for one year. However, after one year he realized. In 1995 he became friends with József Simon, the album designer of Amber Smith, after seeing his advertisement in the Magyar Narancs. Simon was recruiting musicians. Poniklo and Simon formed the band Fanzine. Poniklo is the founding member of Amber Smith along with Péter Egyedi, Ádám Földes. Poniklo recruited Annabarbi's Bence Bátor, Időrablók's Oszkár Ács, Zoltán Kőváry, Tamás Faragó.
Poniklo's first full-length studio album, entitled Poniklo, was released by Twelvetones Records under exclusive license from EMI services in October 2009. He recruited Michael Kentish as Bence Bátor as drummer; the album was mastered by Paul Ven der Jockheyd at Foon Mastering Studios in Belgium. Poniklo asked his friend Jose Simon, who designed the covers of the Amber Smith albums, to design the cover for his solo album; the album contains the track called Tomi, written about The Moog's frontman Tamás Szabó nicknamed Tomi. The song has the line ″De miért kell dalokat írnos, ha nem szólnak semmiről?″ (in English: ″But why do you have write songs if they are about nothing?″. His second solo album, called A Föld körul was published on vinyl in October 2016; this time a piano-led record, with many lyrics co-written by Kristof Hajos of The UNbending Trees fame. As a solo artist: Poniklo A Föld körül With Amber Smith: Nincs Ránk Szükség My Little Servant rePRINT Introspective Amber Smith Modern New With The Poster Boy: Things We Had Time For Melody Bonjour, C'est pop Deux With SALT III.: SALT III.
With Yonderboi: Were You Thinking of Me? With Hámori Gabriella: Nem örmény népzene Epiphone Casino VT Fender Telecaster Classic Player Tele Deluxe Gibson ES-325 Gibson SG Pro 1971 Gibson J-15 acoustic guitar Sigma DR35 Line 6 Orange Budapest indie music scene Amber Smith The Poster Boy Amber Smith Poniklo MySpace
Maura Bhuidhe "Bwee" O'Leary was an Irish poet born in County Cork, who became a popular folk icon in the province of Munster in nineteenth century Ireland. O'Leary's work was passed on for many generations purely by oral tradition, her poetry, while it was sung or recited, is recognized as an early form of the spoken word art form. She was unknown to the English-speaking world, but a minority of Gaelic-speaking and Gaelic-reading Irish people kept her voice alive for a hundred years until it was documented. In the early 20th century, Father Donagh O'Donoghue compiled and published a book of O'Leary's poetry in Gaelic titled the "Filiocht Mhaire Bhuidhe Ni Laoghaire", it was translated into English by Fr. Sean Sweeney of the Society of African Missions and Fr. Richard P. Burke of the College of the Holy Cross, Massachusetts; the title translates to "The Poetry of Maura Bwee O'Leary" and was first published in 1931, with a second printing in 1933 and in 1950. A passage is devoted to O'Leary in Robert Welch's Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, 1996 Edition.
The O'Leary's were a sept from the region of Corca Laoighe in West Cork. The invading Normans forced them north to the River Lee where they settled on a territory known as the land of the O'Leary's. At Carrignacurra, Carrignageelagh and at Dromcarra, they built three castles. Maura O'Leary was the first of eight children born to his wide Siobhan, she was raised in Tureenanane on 50 acres of land, but eloped with Seamus Burke in 1792. Burke, from Skibbereen, was a horse dealer by trade, they married in Inchigeelagh and bought a farm in Avnagh Beg Island where they raised six sons and three daughters. The war of 1641–53 decimated Ireland's population as Protestant England broke the power of the Irish lordships in an effort to "civilize" and Anglicize Catholic Ireland. Over time it became forbidden to speak the Gaelic language but early poets such as O'Leary kept it alive. Maura was known as "Yellow Mary" because of her sallow complexion. A woman of the people, she understood the hardships around her and composed poetic songs to express the troubles and lift the spirits of her generation.
Laments, love songs, songs of devotion and mourning, ballads of drinking songs and keening verses were all within her work and vision. While O'Leary was unable to read or write, her songs were sung at markets, at fairs and around campfires; as her songs were sung only in Gaelic, she was part of a group of Irish poets in the region who kept the language alive during the period before the Great Famine of the 1840s. O'Leary died in 1848 in Gougane Barra where a stone now stands next to the church to commemorate her life and work. O'Leary used words to vent the ongoing threat of the English: "I'll cease from verse-making. "On A Sunny Hillside" To each on the road bring the news that they come! They're coming in force, powder bullets and gun! Swift doughty supporters – Louis and Spaniard as one To Banba's green shore in full hope, by the grace of God's son, her work is still taught in schools across Ireland as part of preserving the Gaelic language. "The Poor Gaels Are Tormented": When we overhaul them, let nobody talk of A pint or a quart to put on the score, But barrels, full tall ones, piled in the hallway, For thousands of callers, gallons galore!
1. The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, 1996. Clarendon Press 2. "Parish of Inchigeelagh" by John Lyons, P. P.: "Cork Historical and Archaeological Journal" vol. ii, pp. 77, 78 3. The Poetry of Maura Bwee O'Leary by Fathers O'Donoghue and Burke. 4. Songs of an Irish Poet: The Mary O'Leary Story by Brian Brennan, first published as Maire Bhui Ni Laoire: A Poet of her People by The Collins Press, Ireland 2000. ISBN 1-898256-98-5 5. Liam Milner, The River Lee and its Tributaries, Cork: Tower Books, 1975, p. 137
Drive In is an Italian television variety show, created by Antonio Ricci. The show's six seasons were broadcast by Italia 1 from 1983 to 1989, it was referred as the most popular Italian television show of the 1980s. The show revolutioned Italian TV conventions and languages, proposing a zany and fast humor imported from the model of the Saturday Night Live, it proposed a new, different image of the women, more sensual and transgressive. In reason of its high audience ratings, it has a key role in the success of Silvio Berlusconi's Fininvest; the show launched the careers of several comedians as well as of a number of showgirls. It generated a series of imitation programs, several of them created by the same Antonio Ricci. Joseph Baroni. Dizionario della Televisione. Raffaello Cortina Editore, pp. 139–142. ISBN 88-7078-972-1