An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group. These advantages include an ability to: hire professional investment managers, which may be able to offer better returns and more adequate risk management, it remains unclear whether professional active investment managers can reliably enhance risk adjusted returns by an amount that exceeds fees and expenses of investment management. Terminology varies with country but investment funds are referred to as investment pools, collective investment vehicles, collective investment schemes, managed funds, or funds; the regulatory term is undertaking for collective investment in transferable securities, or short collective investment undertaking. An investment fund may be held by the public, such as a mutual fund, exchange-traded fund, special-purpose acquisition company or closed-end fund, or it may be sold only in a private placement, such as a hedge fund or private equity fund.
The term includes specialized vehicles such as collective and common trust funds, which are unique bank-managed funds structured to commingle assets from qualifying pension plans or trusts. Investment funds are promoted with a wide range of investment aims either targeting specific geographic regions or specified industry sectors. Depending on the country there is a bias towards the domestic market due to familiarity, the lack of currency risk. Funds are selected on the basis of these specified investment aims, their past investment performance, other factors such as fees; the first professionally managed investment funds or collective investment schemes, such as mutual funds, were established in the Dutch Republic. Amsterdam-based businessman Abraham van Ketwich is credited as the originator of the world's first mutual fund; the term "collective investment scheme" is a legal concept deriving from a set of European Union Directives to regulate mutual fund investment and management. The Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directives 85/611/EEC, as amended by 2001/107/EC and 2001/108/EC created an EU-wide structure, so that funds fulfilling its basic regulations could be marketed in any member state.
The basic aim of collective investment scheme regulation is that the financial "products" that are sold to the public are sufficiently transparent, with full disclosure about the nature of the terms. In the United Kingdom, the primary statute is the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, where Part XVII, sections 235 to 284 deal with the requirements for a collective investment scheme to operate, it states in section 235 that a “collective investment scheme” means "any arrangements with respect to property of any description, including money, the purpose or effect of, to enable persons taking part in the arrangements to participate in or receive profits or income arising from the acquisition, management or disposal of the property or sums paid out of such profits or income." Collective investment vehicles may be formed by legal trust or by statute. The nature of the vehicle and its limitations are linked to its constitutional nature and the associated tax rules for the type of structure within a given jurisdiction.
There is: A fund manager or investment manager who manages the investment decisions. A fund administrator who manages the trading, reconciliations and unit pricing. A board of directors or trustees who safeguard the assets and ensure compliance with laws and rules; the shareholders or unitholders who own the assets and associated income. A "marketing" or "distribution" company to promote and sell shares/units of the fund. Please see below for general information on specific forms of vehicles in different jurisdictions; the net asset value or NAV is the value of its liabilities. The method for calculating this varies between vehicle types and jurisdiction and can be subject to complex regulation. An open-end fund is equitably divided into shares which vary in price in direct proportion to the variation in value of the fund's net asset value; each time money is invested, new shares or units are created to match the prevailing share price. In this way there is no supply or demand created for shares and they remain a direct reflection of the underlying assets.
A closed-end fund issues a limited number of shares in an initial public offering or through private placement. If shares are issued through an IPO, they are traded on an exchange or directly through the fund manager to create a secondary market subject to market forces. If demand for the shares is high, they may trade at a premium to net asset value. If demand is low they may trade at a discount to net asset value. Further share offerings may be made by the vehicle if demand is high although this may affect the share price. For listed funds, the added element of market forces tends to amplify the performance of the fund increasing investment risk through increased volatility; some collective investment vehicles have the power to borrow money to make further investments. If markets are growing this can allow the vehicle to take advantage of the growth to
Shining Time Station
Shining Time Station is an American children's television series jointly created by British television producer Britt Allcroft and American television producer Rick Siggelkow. The series was produced by The Britt Allcroft Company and Quality Family Entertainment in New York City for New York City's PBS station WNET, was taped in New York City during its first season and in Toronto during the rest of its run, it incorporated sequences from the British television show Thomas & Friends, in turn based on a series of books, written by the Reverend Wilbert Awdry. The series aired on PBS from January 29, 1989 until June 11, 1993, continued on the network in reruns until June 11, 1998, it aired on Fox Family from 1998 to 1999. It aired on Nick Jr. in 2000 and on Canadian television networks such as APTN and SCN. Elements from the show were incorporated into the Thomas and Friends film Thomas and the Magic Railroad. After the success of Thomas & Friends in the United Kingdom, Britt Allcroft and her production company teamed up with PBS station WNET in New York City to produce and distribute the sitcom-esque Shining Time Station, every episode of which would include a couple of episodes of Thomas & Friends.
The series starred Ringo Starr, George Carlin, Didi Conn, Brian O'Connor, The Flexitoon Puppets. Ringo Starr, providing the voice of the storyteller for the British series, agreed to extend the role to include the on-screen character called Mr. Conductor in Shining Time Station, he left the show and was replaced by George Carlin. Shining Time Station received critical acclaim. In a review for Entertainment Weekly, Ken Tucker states that, compared to the faster paced Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?, "'Shining Time Station' wants to slow things down. It's an old-fashioned show that creates a gentle, lulling atmosphere to convince children that life is fun and that trains are the way to travel." It was a ratings success as well. In its first season, the show averaged a 0.9 Nielsen rating, translating to about 1.2 million viewers on average. At the peak of its popularity, the show brought in up to 7.5 million viewers per week. The Shining Time Station is a train station on the Indian Valley Railroad in an unknown part of the United States of America.
It is managed by Stacy Jones. Its workshop is run in the first season by Harry Cupper, thereafter by Billy Twofeathers. A local named Horace Schemer referred to as Schemer, runs the station's arcade and serves as the series's comic relief; the narrative is driven by incidental visitors to the station. Mr. Conductor is a tiny man who lives in a signal house inside the station's mural and tells the stories taken from Thomas & Friends to the kids, he introduces songs to the kids in The Anything Tunnel. Sometimes, he may present a magic bubble to the kids that has the song inside as a way of introducing it. On occasion, the kids may look through a film viewer to see the film. Didi Conn – Stacy Jones Brian O'Connor – Horace Schemer Ringo Starr – Mr. Conductor Leonard Jackson – Henry "Harry" Cupper Jason Woliner – Matthew "Matt" Jones Nicole Leach – Tanya Cupper Ringo Starr – Mr. Conductor Didi Conn – Stacy Jones Brian O'Connor – Horace Schemer Jason Woliner – Matthew "Matt" Jones Nicole Leach – Tanya Cupper Ardon Bess – Tucker Cooper Lloyd Bridges – Mr. Nicholas Judy Marshak – Claire Rachel Miner – Vickie George Carlin – Mr. Conductor Erica Luttrell – Kara Cupper Ari Magder – Daniel "Dan" Jones Danielle Marcot – Becky Tom Jackson – Billy Twofeathers Jerome Dempsey - Mayor Osgood Bob Flopdinger Mart Hulswit - Mr. J.
B. King, Esq. Bobo Lewis - Midge Smoot Jason Woliner – Matthew "Matt" Jones Nicole Leach – Tanya Cupper Jonathan Shapiro – Schemee Gerard Parkes – Barton Winslow Barbara Hamilton – Ginny Johnson Aurelio Padrón – Felix Perez George Carlin – Mr. Conductor's Evil Twin George Carlin – Mr. Conductor Didi Conn – Stacy Jones Tom Jackson – Billy Twofeathers Erica Luttrell – Kara Cupper Danielle Marcot – Becky Brian Edward O'Connor – Horace Schemer Barbara Hamilton – Ginny Johnson Bobo Lewis – Midge Smoot Jerome Dempsey – Mayor Osgood Bob Flopdinger Mart Hulswit – Mr. J. B. King, Esq. Bucky Hill – Kit Twofeathers Ari Magder – Daniel "Dan" Jones Jonathan Shapiro – Schemee Aurelio Pardón – Felix Perez Leonard Jackson – Henry "Harry" Cupper Teri Garr – Sister Conductor Jeannette Charles – The Queen Jonathan Freeman – Tito Swing The Piano Man Olga Marin – Didi The Drummer Wayne White – Tex The Guitarist Alan Semok – Tex The Guitarist Craig Marin – Rex The Guitarist Peter Baird/Alan Semok/Vaneese Thomas – Grace The Bass Player Peter Baird/Kenny Miele – Grace The Bass Player Their songs were produced and arranged by Steve Horelick and co-arranged by Larry Wolf.
The intro to each episode consists of the main theme song of the show, played to various footage of Union Pacific 844 and beginning credits of the recurring characters. Only the first verse is sung for the beginning theme; the closing credits contain more shots of the 844 and the credits, in addition to the full Shining Time Station theme song. Flexitoons Puppets & Marionettes - The Jukebox Band - the show's station band that performs a song inside the jukebox, they consist of pianist Tito Swing, drummer Didi, guitarists Tex and Rex, bass guitarist Grace Bass. JJ Silvers is the manager of The Jukebox Band. Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends - Storytellers, Ringo Starr and George Carlin The Anything Tu
A council house is a form of British public housing built by local authorities. A council estate is a building complex containing a number of council houses and other amenities like schools and shops. Construction was from 1919 after the Housing Act 1919 to the 1980s, with much less council housing built in recent decades. There were local design variations. House design in the United Kingdom is defined by a series of Housing Acts, public housing house design is defined by government directives and central governments' relationship with local authorities. From the first interventions in the Public Health Act 1875, council houses could be general housing for the working class, general housing, part of slum clearance programmed or just homes provided for the most needy, they could be funded directly by local councils, through central government incentive or by revenue obtained when other houses were sold. They have been transferred through the instrument of housing associations into the private sector.
Woolwich Borough Council was responsible for the Well Hall Estate designed for workers at the munition factories at Woolwich Arsenal. The estate and the house were built to the garden suburb philosophy: houses were all different; the estate received the royal seal of approval when, on Friday 24 March 1916, Queen Mary made an unannounced visit. A programme of council house building started after the First World War following on from the David Lloyd George’s government’s Housing Act of 1919. The'Addison Act' brought in subsidies for council house building and aimed to provide 500,000 "homes fit for heroes" within a three-year period although less than half of this target was met; the housing built comprised three-bedroom dwellings with parlour and scullery: larger properties include a living room. The standards are based on the Tudor Walters Report of 1919, the Design Manual written according to the 1913 building standards. In 1923 the Chamberlain Act withdrew subsidies for council houses except for private builders and houses for sale.
Councils could undertake to build houses and offer these for sale but to sell off some of their existing properties. This was reversed by the incoming Labour government of 1924; the Wheatley Act passed by the new Labour Government introduced higher subsidies for council housing and allowed for a contribution to be made from the rates. The housing revenue account was always separated from the general account; this was a major period of council house construction. The Housing Act 1930 stimulated slum clearance, i.e. the destruction of inadequate houses in the inner cities, built before the 1875 Act. This released land for housing and the need for smaller two bedroomed houses to replace the two-up two-down houses, demolished. Smaller three bedroom properties were built; the Housing Act 1935 led to a continuation of this policy, but the war stopped all construction, enemy action reduced the usable housing stock. PrefabsThe Housing Act 1944 led to the building of prefab bungalows with a design life of ten years.
Innovative steel-framed properties were tried in an attempt to speed up construction. A number survive well into the 21st century, a testament to the durability of a series of housing designs and construction methods only envisaged to last 10 years; the Burt Committee, formed in 1942 by the wartime government of Winston Churchill, proposed to address the need for an anticipated 200,000 shortfall in post-war housing stock, by building 500,000 prefabricated houses, with a planned life of up to 10 years within five years of the end of the Second World War. The eventual bill, under the post-war Labour government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee, agreed to deliver 300,000 units within 10 years, within a budget of £150m. Of 1.2 million new houses built from 1945 to 1951 when the programme ended, 156,623 prefab houses were constructed. New Towns Act housingMainly during the immediate post-war years, well into the 1950s, council house provision was shaped by the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 of the 1945–51 Labour government.
At the same time this government introduced housing legislation that removed explicit references to housing for the working class and introduced the concept of "general needs" construction. In particular, Aneurin Bevan, the Minister for Health and Housing, promoted a vision of new estates where "the working man, the doctor and the clergyman will live in close proximity to each other"; the Addison Act 1919 houses were three-bedroom houses with lounge and scullery, sometimes with a parlour. Some had two, four, or five bedrooms, as well as generously-sized back gardens intended for vegetable growing. At most they were built at 12 houses per acre, they were built to the recommendations of the Tudor Walters Report. Examples are found in Downham, Watling Estate, Becontree; the Addison Act 1919, the severe housing shortage in the early 1920s created the first generation of houses to feature electricity, running water, indoor toilets and front/rear gardens. However, until well into the 1930s, some were built with outdoor toilets.
Some did not feature an actual bathroom. The Chamberlain Act 1923 reduced the expected standards; the Wheatley Act 1924 attempted to restore some of them. Under the Addison Act, a house would be 1,000 square feet but after 1924 it would be 620 square feet; this was a major period of council house construction. With
A contract is a legally-binding agreement which recognises and governs the rights and duties of the parties to the agreement. A contract is enforceable because it meets the requirements and approval of the law. An agreement involves the exchange of goods, money, or promises of any of those. In the event of breach of contract, the law awards the injured party access to legal remedies such as damages and cancellation. In the Anglo-American common law, formation of a contract requires an offer, consideration, a mutual intent to be bound; each party must have capacity to enter the contract. Although most oral contracts are binding, some types of contracts may require formalities such as being in writing or by deed. In the civil law tradition, contract law is a branch of the law of obligations. At common law, the elements of a contract are offer, intention to create legal relations and legality of both form and content. Not all agreements are contractual, as the parties must be deemed to have an intention to be bound.
A so-called gentlemen's agreement is one, not intended to be enforceable, "binding in honour only". In order for a contract to be formed, the parties must reach mutual assent; this is reached through offer and an acceptance which does not vary the offer's terms, known as the "mirror image rule". An offer is a definite statement of the offeror's willingness to be bound should certain conditions be met. If a purported acceptance does vary the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance but a counteroffer and, therefore a rejection of the original offer; the Uniform Commercial Code disposes of the mirror image rule in §2-207, although the UCC only governs transactions in goods in the USA. As a court cannot read minds, the intent of the parties is interpreted objectively from the perspective of a reasonable person, as determined in the early English case of Smith v Hughes, it is important to note that where an offer specifies a particular mode of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated via that method will be valid.
Contracts may be unilateral. A bilateral contract is an agreement in which each of the parties to the contract makes a promise or set of promises to each other. For example, in a contract for the sale of a home, the buyer promises to pay the seller $200,000 in exchange for the seller's promise to deliver title to the property; these common contracts take place in the daily flow of commerce transactions, in cases with sophisticated or expensive precedent requirements, which are requirements that must be met for the contract to be fulfilled. Less common are unilateral contracts in which one party makes a promise, but the other side does not promise anything. In these cases, those accepting the offer are not required to communicate their acceptance to the offeror. In a reward contract, for example, a person who has lost a dog could promise a reward if the dog is found, through publication or orally; the payment could be additionally conditioned on the dog being returned alive. Those who learn of the reward are not required to search for the dog, but if someone finds the dog and delivers it, the promisor is required to pay.
In the similar case of advertisements of deals or bargains, a general rule is that these are not contractual offers but an "invitation to treat", but the applicability of this rule is disputed and contains various exceptions. The High Court of Australia stated that the term unilateral contract is "unscientific and misleading". In certain circumstances, an implied contract may be created. A contract is implied in fact if the circumstances imply that parties have reached an agreement though they have not done so expressly. For example, John Smith, a former lawyer may implicitly enter a contract by visiting a doctor and being examined. A contract, implied in law is called a quasi-contract, because it is not in fact a contract. Quantum meruit claims are an example. Where something is advertised in a newspaper or on a poster, the advertisement will not constitute an offer but will instead be an invitation to treat, an indication that one or both parties are prepared to negotiate a deal. An exception arises if the advertisement makes a unilateral promise, such as the offer of a reward, as in the famous case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co, decided in nineteenth-century England.
The company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, advertised a smoke ball that would, if sniffed "three times daily for two weeks", prevent users from catching the'flu. If the smoke ball failed to prevent'flu, the company promised that they would pay the user £100, adding that they had "deposited £1,000 in the Alliance Bank to show our sincerity in the matter"; when Mrs Carlill sued for the money, the company argued the advert should not be taken as a serious binding offer. Although an invitation to treat cannot be accepted, it should not be ignored, for it may affect the offer. For instance, where an offer is made in response to an invitation to treat, the offer may incorporate the terms of the invitation to treat. If, as in the Boots case, the offer is made by an action without any
A Ponzi scheme is a form of fraud that lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors with funds from more recent investors. The scheme leads victims to believe that profits are coming from product sales or other means, they remain unaware that other investors are the source of funds. A Ponzi scheme can maintain the illusion of a sustainable business as long as new investors contribute new funds, as long as most of the investors do not demand full repayment and still believe in the non-existent assets they are purported to own; the scheme is named after Charles Ponzi. The idea had been carried out by Sarah Howe in Boston in the 1880s through the "Ladies' Deposit". Howe offered a female clientele an eight-percent monthly interest rate, stole the money that the women had invested, she was discovered and served three years in prison. The Ponzi scheme was previously described in novels. Ponzi carried out this scheme and became well known throughout the United States because of the huge amount of money that he took in.
His original scheme was based on the legitimate arbitrage of international reply coupons for postage stamps, but he soon began diverting new investors' money to make payments to earlier investors and to himself. Ponzi schemes require an initial investment and promise above average returns, they use vague verbal guises such as "hedge futures trading", "high-yield investment programs", or "offshore investment" to describe their income strategy. It is common for the operator to take advantage of a lack of investor knowledge or competence, or sometimes claim to use a proprietary, secret investment strategy to avoid giving information about the scheme; the basic premise of a Ponzi scheme is "To rob Peter to pay Paul". The operator pays high returns to attract investors and entice current investors to invest more money; when other investors begin to participate, a cascade effect begins. The schemer pays a "return" to initial investors from the investments of new participants, rather than from genuine profits.
High returns encourage investors to leave their money in the scheme, so that the operator does not have to pay much to investors. The operator sends statements showing how much they have earned, which maintains the deception that the scheme is an investment with high returns. Investors within a Ponzi scheme may face difficulties when trying to get their money out of the investment. Operators try to minimize withdrawals by offering new plans to investors where money cannot be withdrawn for a certain period of time in exchange for higher returns; the operator sees new cash flows. If a few investors do wish to withdraw their money in accordance with the terms allowed, their requests are promptly processed, which gives the illusion to all other investors that the fund is solvent and financially sound. Ponzi schemes sometimes begin as legitimate investment vehicles, such as hedge funds that can degenerate into a Ponzi-type scheme if they unexpectedly lose money or fail to legitimately earn the returns expected.
The operators fabricate false returns or produce fraudulent audit reports instead of admitting their failure to meet expectations, the operation is considered a Ponzi scheme. A wide variety of investment vehicles and strategies legitimate, have become the basis of Ponzi schemes. For instance, Allen Stanford used bank certificates of deposit to defraud tens of thousands of people. Certificates of deposit are low-risk and insured instruments, but the Stanford CDs were fraudulent. According to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, many Ponzi schemes share similar characteristics that should be "red flags" for investors; the warnings signs include:High investment returns with little or no risk. Every investment carries some degree of risk, investments yielding higher returns involve more risk. Be suspicious of any "guaranteed" investment opportunity. Overly consistent returns. Investment values tend to go up and down over time those offering high returns. Be suspicious of an investment that continues to generate regular positive returns regardless of overall market conditions.
Unregistered investments. Ponzi schemes involve investments that have not been registered with the SEC or with state regulators. Registration is important because it provides investors with access to key information about the company's management, products and finances. Unlicensed sellers. Federal and state securities laws require that investment professionals and their firms be licensed or registered. Most Ponzi schemes involve unregistered firms. Secretive or complex strategies. Avoid investments that you do not understand or for which you cannot get complete information. Issues with paperwork. Do not accept excuses regarding why you cannot review information in writing about an investment. Account statement errors and inconsistencies may be signs that funds are not being invested as promised. Difficulty receiving payments. Be suspicious if you do not receive a payment or have difficulty cashing out your investment. Keep in mind that Ponzi scheme promoters encourage participants to "roll over" investments and sometimes promise higher returns on the amount rolled over.
If a Ponzi scheme is not stopped by authorities, it falls apart for one of the following reasons: The operator vanishes, taking all the remaining investment money. Since the scheme requires a continual stream
Richard Fisk is a fictional character, a criminal appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #83 and was created by Stan Lee and John Romita Sr, he is the son of the Vanessa Fisk. Although he was a villain, he became an antihero; the character Richard Fisk first appears as The Schemer in The Amazing Spider-Man #83, created by Stan Lee and John Romita Sr. He first appeared as The Rose in The Amazing Spider-Man #253, but was not revealed as the Rose until The Amazing Spider-Man #286. Richard Fisk grew up as a child of privilege, believing that his father Wilson Fisk was a respectable and honorable businessman. Wilson was sometimes abusive to Richard. At one point he and his childhood friend Samuel Silke saw Wilson roughing up someone, it was when he was attending a prestigious college in Switzerland that he discovered that his father was, in reality, the Kingpin of Crime. Realizing the luxuries of his youth had been financed by a criminal empire, Richard was distraught and vowed to make atonement for his father's crimes.
When his parents received word that Richard had perished in a skiing accident, they suspected that it was a suicide after Richard learned the truth of his father's identity. Heartbroken and furious that his son could have acted so spinelessly, the Kingpin sunk into a spell of depression. Not long afterward, a new gang emerged in New York, led by a mysterious figure calling himself the Schemer. Unlike most gangs in New York, the Schemer's organization seemed bent on dismantling the Kingpin's empire. After a series of confrontations, the Kingpin and the Schemer met face to face, it was that the Schemer revealed that his face was a mask, that his true face was that of Richard Fisk. Richard explained that he had faked his death in the Alps and was striking back at his father using his own money; this final shock was too much for the Kingpin to bear, he collapsed into catatonia. This made Richard realize how much he had hurt his father, he set off to find a way to cure his comatose state. Richard joined the international terrorist group HYDRA, becoming a leader of the Nevada fragment of HYDRA and rising to the rank of Supreme Hydra.
Now with HYDRA's expansive medical resources at his disposal, Richard was able to return his father to full health. The Kingpin, reconciled with his son, proved that he was back to normal by clandestinely taking over as ruler of HYDRA. However, it was soon revealed that the true leader of HYDRA was the Nazi supervillain the Red Skull, the Fisks had to team up with Captain America and the Falcon to stop the mad dictator. Richard was critically wounded in the final battle, the Kingpin had his son placed in suspended animation curing him by siphoning some life force from Spider-Man. Several years Richard joined his father's organization, calling himself the Rose, a crime lord under the Kingpin's control. However, this was all a ruse to undermine the Kingpin's empire from within. Aiding Richard in this scheme were his good friend Alfredo Morelli and Ned Leeds, brainwashed to act as the supervillain the Hobgoblin. However, the Rose's subterfuge resulted in an explosive gang war. During a shoot-out Richard shot and killed a police officer, an act that became a turning point for him - no longer could he consider himself morally superior to his father.
After Leeds' death and the end of the gang war, Richard resigned himself to his birthright and rejoined the Kingpin's organization as himself. However, the desire to overthrow his father once again arose, Richard and Alfredo plotted to make the Kingpin think that Richard was ready to inherit his father's position. Alfredo had plastic surgery to make himself look just like Richard, began climbing the ladder of power. However, when the Kingpin was overthrown by the combined forces of Daredevil and HYDRA, Alfredo betrayed his old friend by maintaining that he was Richard, took over as the new Kingpin. Richard became Blood Rose, a Punisher-like vigilante, began gunning down criminals in a bloody purge of the city; the Blood Rose shot and wounded Alfredo, who returned under the alias of Gauntlet, although he was defeated by NightWatch and incarcerated. Caught by Spider-Man and arrested, Richard entered the Witness Protection Program. Years Wilson Fisk once again regained the mantle of the Kingpin, Richard re-emerged to public life and rejoined the Kingpin's organization, once again vowing to never again attempt to overthrow his father.
However, upon meeting his old childhood friend, the ambitious enforcer Silke, Richard thought that he at last had found the perfect way to make his father pay for his crimes. Silke's assassination attempt nearly did succeed and wounding the Kingpin. However, Richard did not count on the tenacity of his mother Vanessa. Vanessa made a startling counterstrike, eliminating the rebellion and selling her husband's territory so he could travel to Europe and recover. Richard cornered her, insisting that by getting rid of the Kingpin they could be free to have a new life, but Vanessa coldly shot her son dead, eliminating him as a threat once and for all. Richard Fisk has no superhuman powers, however he is trained in the use of guns and has some martial arts training, he is intelligent and has a number of criminal contacts. As the Rose he wears a bulletproof three-piece suit, he always carries a handgun and a variety of mini-grenades as well. Another version of Richard Fi
In color theory, a color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. For example, the "Achromatic" use of a white background with black text is an example of a basic and default color scheme in web design. Color schemes are used to create appeal. Colors that create an aesthetic feeling when used together will accompany each other in color schemes. A basic color scheme will use two colors. More advanced color schemes involve several related colors in "Analogous" combination, for example, text with such colors as red and orange arranged together on a black background in a magazine article; the addition of light blue creates an "Accented Analogous" color scheme. Color schemes can contain different "Monochromatic" shades of a single color. Use of the phrase color scheme may and does refer to choice and use of colors used outside typical aesthetic media and context, although may still be used for purely aesthetic effect as well as for purely practical reasons; this most refers to color patterns and designs as seen on vehicles those used in the military when concerning color patterns and designs used for identification of friend or foe, identification of specific military units, or as camouflage.
In hotel room designs, the relationship between preferences of color schemes and gender was detected. Male guests tend to prefer masculine color schemes, while female guests favor feminine color schemes. A color scheme in marketing is referred to as a trade dress and can sometimes be protected by trademark or trade dress laws, as is the pink color of Owens-Corning fiberglass. Color schemes are described in terms of logical combinations of colors on a color wheel. Different types of schemes are used. Monochromatic colors are all the colors of a single hue. Monochromatic color schemes are derived from a single base hue, extended using its shades and tints (that is, a hue modified by the addition of black and white; as a result, the energy is peaceful due to a lack of contrast of hue. For the mixing of colored light, Newton's color wheel is used to describe complementary colors, which are colors which cancel each other's hue to produce an achromatic light mixture. Newton offered as a conjecture that colors opposite one another on the hue circle cancel out each other's hue.
A key assumption in Newton's hue circle was that the "fiery" or maximum saturated hues are located on the outer circumference of the circle, while achromatic white is at the center. The saturation of the mixture of two spectral hues was predicted by the straight line between them. Split-Complementary: The split-complementary color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. In addition to the base color, it uses the two "Analogous" colors adjacent to its complement. Split-complementary color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme, but has less pressure. Any color that lacks strong chromatic content is said to be'unsaturated, achromatic, or near neutral'. Pure achromatic colors include black and all grays. Near neutrals can be of lightness. Neutrals are obtained by mixing pure colors with white, black or gray, or by mixing two complementary colors. In color theory, neutral colors are colors modified by adjacent more saturated colors and they appear to take on the hue complementary to the saturated color.
Next to a bright red couch, a gray wall will appear distinctly greenish. Black and white have long been known to combine well with any other colors. Analogous colors color scheme are groups of colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel, with one being the dominant color, which tends to be a primary or secondary color, two on either side complementing, which tend to be tertiary; the term analogous refers to the having analogy, or corresponding to something in particular. An analogous color scheme creates a monochromatic look. It’s best used with either warm or cool colors, creating a look that has a certain temperature as well as proper color harmony. While this is true, the scheme lacks contrast and is less vibrant than complementary schemes. Red, reddish-orange, yellow-orange is one example of a set of analogous colors. An accented analogous complementary scheme utilizes related hues lying adjacent on the color wheel with a hue directly opposite to these; this direct complement becomes the accent color, used to create a dominant color grouping of three similar colors accented with the direct complement of one of them.
The complementary accent color creates an interesting contrast against the dominant color grouping. This scheme is used to put a warm accent color with a cool analogous color pallet, or a cool accent color with a warm pallet; the triadic color scheme uses three colors spaced around the color wheel. The easiest way to place them on the wheel is by using a triangle of equal sides. Triadic color schemes tend to be quite vibrant when using pale or unsaturated versions of hues, offers a higher degree of contrast while at the same time