Wilhelm Scherer was a German philologist and historian of literature. Scherer was born in Schönborn, Austrian Empire, he was educated at the academic gymnasium in Vienna and afterwards at the University of Vienna, where he was a favorite pupil of the distinguished Germanist, Karl Müllenhoff. Having taken the degree of doctor philosophiae, he became privatdozent for German language and literature in 1864. In 1868 he was named a full professor at Vienna, in 1872 received a call in a like capacity to the University of Strasbourg, in 1877 to the University of Berlin, where in 1884 he was made a member of the Academy of Sciences, he died in Berlin, German Empire at the age of 45. Scherer's literary activity falls into three categories: in Vienna was the philologist, at Strasbourg the professor of literature and Berlin the author, his earliest work was a biography of the philologist Jakob Grimm. Bis 12. Jahrhundert, his first major work was Zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, a history of the German language with special reference to phonetic laws.
He contributed the section on Alsatian literature to Ottokar Lorenz's Geschichte des Elsasses. Other important works are Geschichte Poeten der deutschen Kaiserzeit. Und 12. Jarhundert. Scherer's best known work is his history of Geschichte der deutschen Literatur; this work is distinguished by the clearness with which details are co-ordinated with general and comprehensive survey of German literature from the beginning to the death of Goethe. Besides many other philological treatises, Scherer wrote on Goethe, took an active part in the foundation of the Goethe archives at Weimar. A small treatise on Poetik, a biography of Karl Müllenhoff, two volumes of Kleine Schriften were published after his death; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Scherer, Wilhelm". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Which in turn cites: Victor Basch, Wilhelm Scherer et la philologie allemande Edward Schröder, "Scherer, Wilhelm", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 31, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 104–114 Wilhelm Scherer in the Deutsche Biographie Works by Wilhelm Scherer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Wilhelm Scherer at Internet Archive
Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer
Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer, born in Delle, near Belfort, became a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and on three occasions led armies in battle. Schérer served in the Austrian army long before the Revolution, but defected to France in 1775. In 1780 Schérer became a major in an artillery regiment stationed in Strasbourg, he entered Dutch service in 1785 as a major in the Légion de Maillebois. In 1790 he was released from Dutch service with the rank of lieutenant colonel, he returned to France in 1791 and in 1792 was made a captain in the 82nd Infantry Regiment, serving as aide-de-camp to General Jean de Prez de Crassier at the Battle of Valmy. In 1793 he served as a senior aide-de-camp to general Alexandre de Beauharnais on the Rhine. In 1794, Schérer was promoted to the rank of général de division and commanded a division in the Army of the Sambre and Meuse, serving with distinction at the Battle of Aldenhoven. On May 3, he married Marie Françoise Henriette Caroline Müller in a civil ceremony at Delle in the Franche-Comté.
On November 3, 1794, he was named commander of the Army of Italy before his transfer to command the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees on March 3, 1795. On June 14, a 35,000-strong Spanish army defeated Schérer's 25,000 men in battle at Bàscara in Catalonia province in Spain. On August 31, 1795 he was again sent to Italy to replace François Kellerman as commander-in-chief of the Army of Italy; as commander of the Army of Italy, Schérer won the Battle of Loano against an Austrian army but failed to exploit his advantage due to his own caution and winter weather. He was replaced by Napoleon Bonaparte. Schérer was unemployed for a number of months until being named Inspector-General of Cavalry, first of the Army of the Interior and of the Army of the Rhine and the Moselle. Schérer served as French Minister of War from July 22, 1797 to February 21, 1799; when the War of the Second Coalition broke out, Schérer was given command of the Army of Italy once again. He won an initial clash at Pastrengo on March 26.
But he proved unable to stop the Russo-Austrian advance. He was defeated by Austrian General Pál Kray at the Battle of Magnano on April 5. "Schérer went into this battle without forming a reserve and was thus unable to react to crisis or opportunities effectively." Forced to retire behind the river Mincio, he gave up command to Jean Moreau. Because of his loss of Italy he was forced to appear before a committee of inquiry. After securing an acquittal, he retired to private life on his estate at Chauny in Picardy, where he died in 1804. Chandler, David; the Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan, 1966. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9 website of the city of Delle about Schérer Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer The Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Kořenov is a mountain village in Jablonec nad Nisou District, Liberec Region in the northern Czech Republic, close to the border with Poland. Kořenov is situated in the Jizera Mountains, a range of the Sudetes, near the well-known winter sports centre Harrachov. Parts of it are a protected landscape area; the municipality was established in 1960 by the merger of the former market towns of Polubný and Příchovice with Rejdice and Jizerka. Other settlements include Dolní Kořenov, Horní Kořenov, Martinovské Údolí, Na Kobyle, Nová Víska, Počátky, Růžodol, Světlá, Tesařov, Údolí Nadeje, Václavíkova Studánka, Zelené Údolí; the hamlet of Údolí Nadeje belonged to the Silesian side of the Sudetes, it passed to Czechoslovakia in 1958. Today Kořenov is home to an elementary school in Horní Kořenov, as well as to a nursery school and retirements home in Polubný, two voluntary fire brigades, a factory producing salami packages; the first settlers came to the remote forested area in northern Bohemia in 1577 when German Paul Schierer established glassworks at Rejdice.
After the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, the lands were seized by Albrecht von Wallenstein, who sold them to the comital Desfours dynasty. The estates were acquired by the noble House of Rohan in 1824. In 1902, the cog railway Tanvald-Kořenov connecting to the electrified Izera railway line running to Silesian Hirschberg was put into operation; until 1918, Bohemian Unter Wurzelsdorf belonged to the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, in the Bezirk of Gablonz, one of 94 Bohemian Bezirkshauptmannschaften. A post-office was opened in 1886 named Wurzelsdorf. Štěpánka outlook tower, erected in 1847 Protestant chapel in Tesařov, built in 1909 according to plans designed by Otto Bartning, today attended by the Moravian Church St. John's Church in Polubný Tanvald–Harrachov rack railway with the steepest gradient and the second longest tunnel in the Czech Republic, with a picturesque viaduct across the river Jizera Paul Schierer, glassmaker Berthold Bartosch, film director Rudolf Burkert, skier Lubomír Štrougal, former politician, lives at Na Kobyle Claus Josef Riedel, glassmaker Ladislav Rygl, skier The official web pages of Kořenov Rack-railway Tanvald - Harrachov Media related to Kořenov at Wikimedia Commons
Albert I of Germany
Albert I of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenberg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination. From 1273 Albert ruled as a landgrave over his father's Swabian possessions in Alsace. In 1282 his father, the first German monarch from the House of Habsburg, invested him and his younger brother Rudolf II with the duchies of Austria and Styria, which he had seized from late King Ottokar II of Bohemia and defended in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. By the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden his father entrusted Albert with their sole government, while Rudolf II ought to be compensated by the Further Austrian Habsburg home territories – which, never happened until his death in 1290. Albert and his Swabian ministeriales appear to have ruled the Austrian and Styrian duchies with conspicuous success, overcoming the resistance by local nobles. King Rudolf I was unable to secure the succession to the German throne for his son due to the objections raised by Ottokar's son King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, the plans to install Albert as successor of the assassinated King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in 1290 failed.
Upon Rudolf's death in 1291, the Prince-electors, fearing Albert's power and the implementation of a hereditary monarchy, chose Count Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg as King of the Romans. An uprising among his Styrian dependents compelled Albert to recognize the sovereignty of his rival and to confine himself for a time to the government of the Habsburg lands at Vienna, he did not abandon his hopes of the throne, which were realised: In 1298, he was chosen German king by some of the princes, who were bothered about Adolf's attempts to gain his own power basis in the lands of Thuringia and Meissen, again led by the Bohemian king Wenceslaus II. The armies of the rival kings met at the Battle of Göllheim near Worms, where Adolf was defeated and slain. Submitting to a new election but securing the support of several influential princes by making extensive promises, he was chosen at the Imperial City of Frankfurt on 27 July 1298, crowned at Aachen Cathedral on 24 August. Although a hard, stern man, Albert had a keen sense of justice when his own interests were not involved, few of the German kings possessed so practical an intelligence.
He encouraged the cities, not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees. The serfs, whose wrongs attracted notice in an age indifferent to the claims of common humanity, found a friend in this severe monarch, he protected the despised and persecuted Jews. Stories of his cruelty and oppression in the Swiss cantons did not appear until the 16th century, are now regarded as legendary. Albert sought to play an important part in European affairs, he seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with the Kingdom of France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII to recognize his election led him to change his policy, and, in 1299, he made a treaty with King Philip IV, by which his son Rudolph was to marry Blanche, a daughter of the French king. He afterwards became estranged from Philip, but in 1303, Boniface recognized him as German king and future emperor. Albert had failed in his attempt to seize the counties of Holland and Zeeland, as vacant fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, on the death of Count John I in 1299, but in 1306 he secured the crown of Bohemia for his son Rudolph III on the death of King Wenceslaus III.
He renewed the claim made by his predecessor, Adolf, on Thuringia, interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian throne. The Thuringian attack ended in Albert's defeat at the Battle of Lucka in 1307 and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe, his action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led the Rhenish prince-archbishops and the Elector of the Palatinate to form a league against him. Aided by the Imperial cities, however, he soon crushed the rising, he was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on 1 May 1308, at Windisch on the Reuss River, by his nephew Duke John, afterwards called "the Parricide" or "John Parricida", whom he had deprived of his inheritance. Albert, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, Duke of Austria and Styria, Lord of Carniola, over the Wendish Mark and of Port Naon, Count of Habsburg and Kyburg, Landgrave of Alsace In 1274 Albert had married Elizabeth, daughter of Count Meinhard II of Tyrol, a descendant of the Babenberg margraves of Austria who predated the Habsburgs' rule.
The baptismal name Leopold, patron saint margrave of Austria, was given to one of their sons. Queen Elizabeth was in fact better connected to mighty German rulers than her husband: she was a descendant of earlier German kings, for example Emperor Henry IV, she was a niece of the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria, Austria's important neighbor. Albert and his wife had twelve children: Rudolph III, Married but line extinct and predeceased his father. Frederick I. Married but line extinct. Leopold I. Married, had issue. Albert II. Henry the Gentle. Married but line extinct. Meinhard, 1300 died young. Otto. Married but line extinct. Anna (12
Theodor Scherer was a German general and divisional commander in the Wehrmacht during World War II. In October 1941, Scherer took command of 281st Security Division, stationed in Kholm, in the occupied Soviet Union. In January 1942, the division, along with other Wehrmacht and police units, was encircled at Kholm, was not relieved until 5 May 1942. For his defense of the Kholm Pocket, Scherer was decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 20 February 1942. Scherer was subsequently appointed commander of the 34th and the 83rd Infantry Division; the division was deployed in Velikije Luki on the left flank of Army Group Center, when it was encircled by the Soviet 3rd Shock Army in November 1942 and subsequently destroyed by mid-January 1943. Scherer served in a staff role in the 4th Panzer Army and at the end of the war was in charge of the defence of the Schwarzen Elster river, near the Elbe, he was killed in a car accident at Ludwigsburg in May 1951. Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knight's Cross on 20 February 1942 as Generalmajor and commander of the 281.
Sicherungs-Division Oak Leaves on 5 May 1942 as Generalmajor and commander of the 281. Sicherungs-Division
Paul Scherrer Institute
The Paul Scherrer Institute is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering ETH Zurich and EPFL. It was established in 1988 through the merger of EIR and SIN, it is based in Würenlingen. The PSI is a multi-disciplinary research centre for the natural sciences and technology. In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid-state physics, materials sciences, elementary particle physics, life sciences and non-nuclear energy research, energy-related ecology, it is the largest Swiss national research institute with about 1,900 members of staff as of 2014, is the only one of its kind in Switzerland. PSI is a User Laboratory, offering access to its facilities to researchers affiliated to many different institutions, it runs several particle accelerators; the 590 MeV cyclotron, with its 72 MeV companion pre-accelerator, is one of them. As of 2011, it delivers a proton beam of up to 2.2 mA, the world record for such proton cyclotrons.
It drives the spallation neutron source complex. The Swiss Light Source, built in 2001, is a synchrotron light source with a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring. It is one of the world's best with respect to electron beam stability. An X-ray free-electron laser called SwissFEL is under construction and is slated to begin operation in 2016; the proton accelerators are used for the proton therapy program. Solid-state physics and materials sciences Elementary particle physics Life sciences and medicine Nuclear energy and nuclear safety Non-nuclear energy Energy-related ecology The institute has 13 collaborating institutions: Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany University of Sussex, United Kingdom Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, France Jagellonian University, Poland Henryk Niedwodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Poland Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Switzerland University of Fribourg, Switzerland Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, France University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA Katholieke University, Belgium Gutenberg University, Germany Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, France Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Switzerland Injector 1 is a variable energy cyclotron built by the Dutch company Philips Gloeilampen-Fabrieken.
Its one-piece magnet has an azimuthally varying magnetic field for vertical focusing at relativistic energies. The beam energy goes up to 72 MeV for protons and 120 MeV Z2/A for ions with charge Z and mass number A. Equipped with several ion sources, Injector 1 offers a wide variety of beams ranging from protons and deuterons to light and heavy ions. Polarized beams of protons and deuterons are available. In 1994 an ECR ion source was installed to extend its ability to accelerate heavy ions; this machine has been decommissioned on 1 December 2010. The Injector 2 cyclotron has been built to replace the multiparticle variable energy Injector 1, it provides high intensity, high quality beams of 72 MeV protons to be injected into the 590 MeV Ring cyclotron. The Injector 2 is itself a ring cyclotron, but with 4 sectormagnets and with an low injection energy of 870 keV; the 870 keV proton beam is achieved by extracting protons from an ion source with 60 kV and additional acceleration of the particles by means of a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator operated at 810 kV.
It was put in operation in 1984. The Ring Cyclotron is a separated sector cyclotron with a fixed beam energy of 590 MeV, built by PSI and commissioned in 1974; the 72 MeV beam from either one of two injector cyclotron enters from the back of the cyclotron, is injected into an orbit in the center of the Ring, accelerated over about 186 revolutions and extracted at the full energy. The design is based on criteria that allow operation at high beam intensities: an open structure of four large and powerful RF-cavities providing a high acceleration voltage, a flat-top cavity operating at the third harmonic of the accelerating RF-voltage; the resulting strong, phase-independent energy gain per revolution gives good turn separation and hence beam extraction with low beam losses. This is a mandatory condition for high current operation in a cyclotron. Presently, a continuous beam current of 2.2 mA at 590 MeV can be extracted from the ring cyclotron. This corresponds to a beam power of 1.3 MW turning the PSI-proton facility into the world's most powerful accelerator complex at the moment.
Neutron scattering is one of the most effective ways to obtain information on both the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. A wide scope of problems, ranging from fundamental to solid state physics and chemistry, from materials science to biology and environmental science, can be investigated with neutrons. Aside from the scattering techniques, non-diffractive methods like imaging techniques can be applied with increasing relevance for industrial applications; the spallation neutron source SINQ is a continuous source – the first of its kind in the world – with a flux of about 1014 n/cm2/s. Beside thermal neutrons, a cold moderator of liquid deuterium slows neutrons down and shifts their spectrum to lower energies; these neutrons have proved to be valuable in materials research and in the investigation of biological substances. SINQ is a user facility. Interested groups can apply fo
Rock Hudson was an American actor known for his turns as a leading man during the 1950s and 1960s. Viewed as a prominent "heartthrob" of the Hollywood Golden Age, he achieved stardom with roles in films such as Magnificent Obsession, All That Heaven Allows and Giant, for which he received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor, found continued success with a string of romantic comedies co-starring Doris Day in Pillow Talk, Lover Come Back and Send Me No Flowers. After appearing in films including Seconds and Ice Station Zebra during the late 1960s, Hudson began a second career in television through the 1970s and 1980s, starring in the popular mystery series McMillan & Wife and the primetime ABC soap opera Dynasty. Numerous film magazines declared Hudson Star of the Year, Favorite Leading Man, similar titles, he appeared in nearly 70 films and starred in several television productions during a career that spanned more than four decades. Although Hudson was discreet about his privacy throughout his life, the fact that he was homosexual was known in the film industry.
His sexual orientation became public knowledge following his death from AIDS-related complications in 1985, becoming the first major celebrity to die from an AIDS-related illness. Hudson was born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr. on November 17, 1925 in Winnetka, Illinois at Sarah A. Jarman Memorial Hospital, the only child of Katherine, a homemaker and telephone operator, Roy Harold Scherer Sr. an auto mechanic. His father was of Swiss descent, while his mother had English and Irish ancestry. During the Great Depression, Hudson's father abandoned the family. Hudson's parents divorced. Fitzgerald adopted his stepson without his consent, whose legal name became Roy Fitzgerald; that marriage ended in a bitter divorce and produced no children. Hudson attended New Trier High School in Winnetka, he sang in the school glee club, was remembered as a shy boy who delivered newspapers, ran errands, worked as a golf caddy. At some point during his teenage years, he worked as an usher in a movie theater and developed an interest in acting.
He tried out for a number of school plays, but failed to win any roles because he could not remember his lines, a problem that continued to occur through his early acting career. He graduated from high school in 1943, the following year enlisted in the United States Navy, during World War II. After training at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, he departed San Francisco aboard the troop transport SS Lew Wallace, with orders to report to Aviation Repair and Overhaul Unit 2 located on Samar, Philippines, as an aircraft mechanic. In 1946, he returned to San Francisco aboard an aircraft carrier, was discharged the same year. Hudson moved to Los Angeles to live with his biological father, who had remarried, to pursue an acting career, he worked at odd jobs, including as a truck driver. He applied to the University of Southern California's dramatics program, but was rejected due to poor grades. After he sent talent scout Henry Willson a picture of himself in 1947, Willson took him on as a client, changed the young actor's name to Rock Hudson.
The name was coined by combining the Rock of the Hudson River. Hudson made his acting debut with a small part in the 1948 Warner Bros. film Fighter Squadron, took 38 takes to deliver his only line in the film. Hudson was signed to a long-term contract by Universal Studios. There he was further coached in acting, dancing and horseback riding, he began to be featured in film magazines where, being photogenic, he was promoted, his first film at Universal was Undertow. He had small parts in Peggy, Winchester'73, The Desert Hawk and Air Cadet. Hudson was billed back down the cast list for Bright Victory, he had a good part as a boxer in Iron Man, starring Jeff Chandler, as a gambler in Bend of the River. He supported the Nelson family in Here Come the Nelsons. Hudson was promoted to leading man for Scarlet Angel, opposite Yvonne de Carlo, in Desert Hawk and Tomahawk, he co-starred with Piper Laurie in a comedy, Has Anybody Seen My Gal?, directed by Douglas Sirk. In Horizons West Hudson supported Robert Ryan, but he was star again for a pair of Westerns, The Lawless Breed and Seminole.
In 1953 he appeared in a Camel commercial. He and de Carlo were borrowed by RKO for an adventure set during the Napoleonic Wars. Back at Universal he played in Harun al-Rashid in The Golden Blade. There was Gun Fury, a Western, Back to God's Country. Hudson had the title role in Taza, Son of Cochise, produced by Ross Hunter. Hudson was by now established as a leading man in B adventure films. What turned him into a star was the 1954 film Magnificent Obsession, co-starring Jane Wyman, produced by Hunter and directed by Sirk; the film received positive reviews, with Modern Screen Magazine citing Hudson as the most popular actor of the year. It made over $5 million at the box office. Hudson went back to adventure films with Bengal Brigade, set during the Indian Mutiny, Captain Lightfoot (19