Orchestral suites (Bach)
The four orchestral suites, BWV 1066–1069 are four suites by Johann Sebastian Bach. The name ouverture refers only in part to the opening movement in the style of the French overture, in which a majestic opening section in slow dotted-note rhythm in duple meter is followed by a fast fugal section rounded off with a short recapitulation of the opening music. More broadly, the term was used in Baroque Germany for a suite of dance-pieces in French Baroque style preceded by such an ouverture; this genre was popular in Germany during Bach's day, he showed far less interest in it than was usual: Robin Stowell writes that "Telemann's 135 surviving examples only a fraction of those he is known to have written". Bach did write several other ouverture for solo instruments, notably the Cello Suite no. 5, BWV 1011, which exists in the autograph Lute Suite in G minor, BWV 995, the Keyboard Partita no. 4 in D, BWV 828, the Overture in the French style, BWV 831 for keyboard. The two keyboard works are among the few Bach published, he prepared the lute suite for a "Monsieur Schouster," for a fee, so all three may attest to the form's popularity.
Scholars believe that Bach did not conceive of the four orchestral suites as a set, since the sources are various, as detailed below. The Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis catalogue includes BWV 1070 in G minor. However, this work is unlikely to have been composed by J. S. Bach; the source is a set of parts from Leipzig in 1724–45 copied by C. G. Meissner. Ouverture Courante Gavotte I/II Forlane Menuet I/II Bourrée I/II Passepied I/II Instrumentation: Oboe I/II, violin I/II, basso continuo The source is a autograph set of parts from Leipzig in 1738–39. Ouverture Rondeau – written Rondeaux by Bach Sarabande, with a canon at the 12th between the flute and the bass Bourrée I/II Polonaise / Double. Bach, in the autograph part, spells this "Battinerie". Instrumentation: Solo " traversiere", violin I/II, basso continuo; the Polonaise is a stylization of the Polish Folk Song "Wezmę ja kontusz". The Badinerie has become a show-piece for solo flautists because of its quick difficulty. Joshua Rifkin has argued, based on in-depth analysis of the autograph primary sources, that this work is based on an earlier version in A minor in which the solo flute part was scored instead for solo violin.
Rifkin demonstrates that notational errors in the surviving parts can best be explained by their having been copied from a model a whole tone lower, that this solo part would venture below the lowest pitches on the flutes Bach wrote for. Rifkin argues that the violin was the most option, noting that in writing the word "Traversiere" in the solo part, Bach seems to have fashioned the letter T out of an earlier "V", suggesting that he intended to write the word "violin" Further, Rifkin notes passages that would have used the violinistic technique of bariolage. Rifkin suggests that Bach was inspired to write the suite by a similar work by his second cousin Johann Bernhard Bach. Flautist Steven Zohn accepts the argument of an earlier version in A minor, but suggests that the original part may have been playable on flute as well as violin. Oboist Gonzalo X. Ruiz has argued in detail that the solo instrument in the lost original A minor version was the oboe, he has recorded it in his own reconstruction of that putative original on a baroque oboe.
His case against the violin is that: the range is "curiously limited" for that instrument, "avoiding the G string entirely," and that the supposed violin solo would at times be lower in pitch than the first violin part, something, unheard of in dedicated violin concertos. By contrast, "the range is the range of Bach's oboes"; the oldest source is a partially-autographed set of parts from around 1730. Bach wrote out the first violin and continuo parts, C. P. E. Bach wrote out the trumpet and timpani parts, J. S. Bach's student Johan
Partitas for keyboard (Bach)
The Partitas, BWV 825–830, are a set of six harpsichord suites written by Johann Sebastian Bach, published individually beginning in 1726 together as Clavier-Übung I in 1731, the first of his works to be published under his own direction. They were, among the last of his keyboard suites to be composed, the others being the six English Suites, BWV 806-811 and the six French Suites, BWV 812-817, as well as the Overture in the French style, BWV 831; the six partitas for keyboard form the last set of suites that Bach composed, are the most technically demanding of the three. They were composed between 1725 and 1730 or 1731; as with the French and English Suites, the autograph manuscript of the Partitas is no longer extant. In keeping with a nineteenth-century naming tradition that labelled Bach's first set of Suites English and the second French, the Partitas are sometimes referred to as the German Suites; this title, however, is a publishing convenience. In comparison with the two earlier sets of suites, the Partitas are by far the most free-ranging in terms of structure.
Unlike the English Suites, for example, wherein each opens with a strict prelude, the Partitas feature a number of different opening styles including an ornamental Overture and a Toccata. Although each of the Partitas was published separately under the name Clavier-Übung, they were subsequently collected into a single volume in 1731 with the same name, which Bach himself chose to label his Opus 1. Unlike the earlier sets of suites, Bach intended to publish seven Partitas, advertising in the Spring of 1730 upon the publication of the fifth Partita that the promised collected volume would contain two more such pieces; the plan was revised to include a total of eight works: six Partitas in Part I and two larger works in Part II, the Italian Concerto, BWV 971, the Overture in the French style, BWV 831. The second of these is an eleven-movement partita, the largest such keyboard work Bach composed, may in fact be the elusive "seventh partita" mentioned in 1730; the Overture in the French style was written in C minor, but was transposed a half step down for publication to complete the tonal scheme of Parts I and II as described below.
The tonalities of the six Partitas may seem to be irregular, but in fact they form a sequence of intervals going up and down by increasing amounts: a second up, a third down, a fourth up, a fifth down, a sixth up. This key sequence continues into Clavier-Übung II with the two larger works: the Italian Concerto, a seventh down, the Overture in the French style, an augmented fourth up, thus this sequence of tonalities customary for 18th-century keyboard compositions is complete, beginning with the first letter of his name and ending with the last letter while including both A and C along the way. Partita No. 1 in B♭ major, BWV 825Praeludium, Corrente, Menuet I, Menuet II, GiguePartita No. 2 in C minor, BWV 826Sinfonia, Courante, Rondeaux, CapriccioPartita No. 3 in A minor, BWV 827Fantasia, Corrente, Burlesca, GiguePartita No. 4 in D major, BWV 828Ouvertüre, Courante, Sarabande, GiguePartita No. 5 in G major, BWV 829Praeambulum, Corrente, Tempo di Minuetto, GiguePartita No. 6 in E minor, BWV 830Toccata, Corrente, Sarabande, Tempo di Gavotta, Gigue Richard Troeger First recording on clavichord.
Menno van Delft Wanda Landowska Ralph Kirkpatrick Helmut Walcha Gustav Leonhardt Martin Galling Blandine Verlet Kenneth Gilbert Trevor Pinnock Huguette Dreyfus Scott Ross Christophe Rousset Andreas Staier Masaaki Suzuki Zuzana Růžičková Pascal Dubreuil Peter Watchorn Martin Gester Jory Vinikour Dinu Lipatti, Glenn Gould Tatiana Nikolayeva András Schiff Maria Tipo Wolfgang Rübsam Risto Lauriala Maria João Pires Sergey Schepkin Angela Hewitt Richard Goode Gianluca Luisi Martha Argerich Murray Perahia Vladimir Ashkenazy Andres Carciente Igor Levit Judicael Perroy Partita no.2 Works for keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach English Suites, BWV 806-811 French Suites, BWV 812-817 List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime Bach, J. S. Klaus Engler, ed. 6 Partiten, BWV 825–830, Wiener Urtext Edition, Schott/Universal Edition Schulenberg, The Keyboard Music of J. S. Bach, New York and London: Routledge, pp. 321–345, ISBN 0415974003 Partitas for keyboard: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Essay by Yo Tomita on Bach's Partitas
Johann Baptist Schenk
Johann Baptist Schenk was an Austrian composer and teacher. Schenk was born in Wiener Neustadt. While still a boy he composed songs and symphonies, became a proficient violinist and keyboard and wind instrument player. In 1773 he went to Vienna to study with Georg Christoph Wagenseil. Beginning in 1777 he was composing religious works for Saint Stephen's Cathedral. In the 1780s he became a prolific composer of incidental music for plays and singspiele, his best-known singspiel is Der Dorfbarbier, which premiered in 1796. His other compositions include numerous cantatas, ten symphonies, several concertos, five string quartets. Mozart was a good friend of Schenk and Beethoven studied under him in 1793. In around 1823, he composed a variation on a waltz by Anton Diabelli, being one of the 51 composers who contributed to Vaterländischer Künstlerverein, he died in Vienna. John Kucaba/Bertil H. van Boer. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie, ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5 Free scores by Johann Baptist Schenk at the International Music Score Library Project
Baroque music is a period or style of Western art music composed from 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, is now studied and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Pachelbel; the Baroque period saw the creation of common-practice tonality, an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key. During the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts. Baroque concerts were accompanied by a basso continuo group while a group of bass instruments—viol, double bass—played the bassline.
A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed purely for listening, not for accompanying dancers. During the period and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size and complexity of instrumental performance, established the mixed vocal/instrumental forms of opera and oratorio and the instrumental forms of the solo concerto and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era, such as toccata and concerto grosso are still in use in the 2010s. Dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed was an important part of many Baroque choral and instrumental works; the term "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl". Negative connotations of the term first occurred in 1734, in a criticism of an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau, in a description by Charles de Brosses of the ornate and ornamented architecture of the Pamphili Palace in Rome.
Although the term continued to be applied to architecture and art criticism through the 19th century, it was not until the 20th century that the term "baroque" was adopted from Heinrich Wölfflin's art-history vocabulary to designate a historical period in music. The term "baroque" is used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region in Europe, composed over a period of 150 years. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734; the critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances.
The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited. It appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians." Rousseau was referring to the philosophical term baroco, in use since the 13th century to describe a type of elaborate and, for some, unnecessarily complicated academic argument. The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wölfflin's theory of the Baroque systematically to music. Critics were quick to question the attempt to transpose Wölfflin's categories to music, in the second quarter of the 20th century independent attempts were made by Manfred Bukofzer and by Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune to use autonomous, technical analysis rather than comparative abstractions, in order to avoid the adaptation of theories based on the plastic arts and literature to music. All of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period concerning when it began.
In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Bukofzer and Paul Henry Lang. As late as 1960, there was still considerable dispute in academic circles in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti, Johann Sebastian Bach under a single rubric; the term has become used and accepted for this broad range of music. It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding and following periods of musical history; the Baroque perio
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are always scored for an orchestra consisting of a string section, brass and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30 to 100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score. Orchestral musicians play from parts; some symphonies contain vocal parts. The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος, "harmonious"; the word referred to a variety of different concepts before settling on its current meaning designating a musical form. In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία, the word for "dissonance".
In the Middle Ages and the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously. Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum, from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century. In the sense of "sounding together," the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae, Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus, published in 1597 and 1615, respectively. 16, published in 1607. 18, published in 1610. 6, Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars, op. 10, published in 1629 and 1647, respectively. Except for Viadana's collection, which contained purely instrumental and secular music, these were all collections of sacred vocal works, some with instrumental accompaniment.
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas and concertos—usually part of a larger work. The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like, it is this form, considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century. In the 17th century, pieces scored for large instrumental ensemble did not designate which instruments were to play which parts, as is the practice from the 19th century to the current period; when composers from the 17th century wrote pieces, they expected that these works would be performed by whatever group of musicians were available. To give one example, whereas the bassline in a 19th-century work is scored for cellos, double basses and other specific instruments, in a 17th-century work, a basso continuo part for a sinfonia would not specify which instruments would play the part.
A performance of the piece might be done with a basso continuo group as small as a single cello and harpsichord. However, if a bigger budget was available for a performance and a larger sound was required, a basso continuo group might include multiple chord-playing instruments and a range of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol or a serpent, an early bass woodwind instrument. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson write in the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "the symphony was cultivated with extraordinary intensity" in the 18th century, it played a role in many areas of public life, including church services, but a strong area of support for symphonic performances was the aristocracy. In Vienna the most important location in Europe for the composition of symphonies, "literally hundreds of noble families supported musical establishments dividing their time between Vienna and their ancestral estate ". Since the normal size of the orchestra at the time was quite small, many of these courtly establishments were capable of performing symphonies.
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson's article traces the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin and bass; the early symphonists dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuo part including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was pos
The Brandenburg Concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach are a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, in 1721. They are regarded as some of the best orchestral compositions of the Baroque era. Bach wrote out the music himself for presentation to the Margrave rather than leaving it to a copyist. While he took the opportunity to revise the music, most it was not freshly composed, he appears to have selected the six pieces from concertos he had composed over a number of years while Kapellmeister at Köthen, extending back to his employment at Weimar. Bach's dedication to the Margrave was dated 24 March 1721. Translated from the original French, the first sentence of Bach's dedication reads: As I had the good fortune a few years ago to be heard by Your Royal Highness, at Your Highness's commands, as I noticed that Your Highness took some pleasure in the little talents which Heaven has given me for Music, as in taking Leave of Your Royal Highness, Your Highness deigned to honour me with the command to send Your Highness some pieces of my Composition: I have in accordance with Your Highness's most gracious orders taken the liberty of rendering my most humble duty to Your Royal Highness with the present Concertos, which I have adapted to several instruments.
Bach's reference to his scoring the concertos for "several instruments" is an understatement. Bach used the "widest spectrum of orchestral instruments … in daring combinations," as Christoph Wolff has commented. "Every one of the six concertos set a precedent in scoring, every one was to remain without parallel." Heinrich Besseler has noted that the overall forces required tallies with the 17 players Bach had at his disposal in Köthen. Title on autograph score: Concerto 1mo à 2 Corni di Caccia, 3 Hautb: è Bassono, Violino Piccolo concertato, 2 Violini, una Viola col Basso Continuo. Instrumentation: two corni da caccia, three oboes, violino piccolo, two violins, cello, basso continuo Duration: about 22 minutes This concerto is the only one in the collection with four movements; the concerto exists in an alternative version, Sinfonia BWV 1046a, which appears to have been composed during Bach's years at Weimar. The Sinfonia, which lacks the third movement and the Polacca from the final movement, appears to have been intended as the opening of the cantata Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd, BWV 208.
This implies a date of composition as early as the 1713 premiere of the cantata, although it could have been used for a subsequent revival. The first movement can be found as the sinfonia of a cantata Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht, BWV 52, but in a version without the piccolo violin, closer to Sinfonia BWV 1046a; the third movement was used as the opening chorus of the cantata Vereinigte Zwietracht der wechselnden Saiten, BWV 207, where the horns are replaced by trumpets. Title on autograph score: Concerto 2do à 1 Tromba, 1 Flauto, 1 Hautbois, 1 Violino, concertati, è 2 Violini, 1 Viola è Violone in Ripieno col Violoncello è Basso per il Cembalo. Concertino: clarino in F, alto recorder, violin Ripieno: two violins, viola and basso continuo Duration: about 13 minutes The trumpet part is still considered one of the most difficult in the entire repertoire, was written for a clarino specialist certainly the court trumpeter in Köthen, Johann Ludwig Schreiber. After clarino skills were lost in the eighteenth century and before the rise of the informed performance movement of the late twentieth century, the part was played on the valved trumpet.
The clarino does not play in the second movement. This is due to its construction; because concerti move to a minor key in the second movement, concerti that include the instrument in their first movement and are from the period before the valved trumpet was used exclude the trumpet from the second movement. The first movement of this concerto was chosen as the first musical piece to be played on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record containing a broad sample of Earth's common sounds and music sent into outer space with the two Voyager probes; the first movement served as a theme for Great Performances in the early-to-mid 1980s, while the third movement served as the theme for William F. Buckley, Jr.'s Firing Line. Title on autograph score: Concerto 3zo a tre Violini, tre Viole, è tre Violoncelli col Basso per il Cembalo. Instrumentation: three violins, three violas, three cellos, basso continuo Duration: about 10 minutes The second movement consists of a single measure with the two chords that make up a'Phrygian half cadence' and—although there is no direct evidence to support it—it was that these chords are meant to surround or follow a cadenza improvised by a harpsichord or violin player.
Modern performance approaches range from playing the cadence with minimal ornamentation, to i
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique, without equal in his generation."Chopin was born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin in the Duchy of Warsaw and grew up in Warsaw, which in 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw before leaving Poland at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising. At 21, he settled in Paris. Thereafter—in the last 18 years of his life—he gave only 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon, he supported himself by selling his compositions and by giving piano lessons, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his other musical contemporaries. In 1835, Chopin obtained French citizenship.
After a failed engagement to Maria Wodzińska from 1836 to 1837, he maintained an troubled relationship with the French writer Amantine Dupin. A brief and unhappy visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 would prove one of his most productive periods of composition. In his final years, he was supported financially by his admirer Jane Stirling, who arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. For most of his life, Chopin was in poor health, he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39 of pericarditis aggravated by tuberculosis. All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for solo piano, though he wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces, some 19 songs set to Polish lyrics, his piano writing was technically demanding and expanded the limits of the instrument: his own performances were noted for their nuance and sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of the instrumental ballade, his major piano works include mazurkas, nocturnes, polonaises, études, scherzos and sonatas, some published only posthumously.
Among the influences on his style of composition were Polish folk music, the classical tradition of J. S. Bach and Schubert, the atmosphere of the Paris salons of which he was a frequent guest, his innovations in style and musical form, his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period. Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest superstars, his association with political insurrection, his high-profile love-life, his early death have made him a leading symbol of the Romantic era, his works remain popular, he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying historical fidelity. Fryderyk Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, 46 kilometres west of Warsaw, in what was the Duchy of Warsaw, a Polish state established by Napoleon; the parish baptismal record gives his birthday as 22 February 1810, cites his given names in the Latin form Fridericus Franciscus. However, the composer and his family used the birthdate 1 March, now accepted as the correct date.
Fryderyk's father, Nicolas Chopin, was a Frenchman from Lorraine who had emigrated to Poland in 1787 at the age of sixteen. Nicolas tutored children of the Polish aristocracy, in 1806 married Tekla Justyna Krzyżanowska, a poor relative of the Skarbeks, one of the families for whom he worked. Fryderyk was baptized on Easter Sunday, 23 April 1810, in the same church where his parents had married, in Brochów, his eighteen-year-old godfather, for whom he was named, was Fryderyk Skarbek, a pupil of Nicolas Chopin. Fryderyk was only son. Nicolas was devoted to his adopted homeland, insisted on the use of the Polish language in the household. In October 1810, six months after Fryderyk's birth, the family moved to Warsaw, where his father acquired a post teaching French at the Warsaw Lyceum housed in the Saxon Palace. Fryderyk lived with his family in the Palace grounds; the father played the violin. Chopin was of slight build, in early childhood was prone to illnesses. Fryderyk may have had some piano instruction from his mother, but his first professional music tutor, from 1816 to 1821, was the Czech pianist Wojciech Żywny.
His elder sister Ludwika took lessons from Żywny, played duets with her brother. It became apparent that he was a child prodigy. By the age of seven Fryderyk had begun giving public concerts, in 1817 he composed two polonaises, in G minor and B-flat major, his next work, a polonaise in A-flat major of 1821, dedicated to Żywny, is his earliest surviving musical manuscript. In 1817 the Saxon Palace was requisitioned by Warsaw's Russian governor for military use, the Warsaw Lyceum was reestablished in the Kazimierz Palace. Fryderyk and his family moved to a building. During this period, Fryderyk was sometimes invited to the Belweder Palace as playmate to the son of the ruler of Russian Poland, Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, in his dramatic eclogue, "Nasze Przebiegi", attested to "little Chopin's" popularity. From September 1823 to 1826, Chopin