"Göth" and "Goeth" redirect here. Amon Leopold Göth was an Austrian SS functionary during the Nazi era, he served as the commandant of the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp in Płaszów in German-occupied Poland for most of the camp's existence during World War II. Göth was tried after the war by the Supreme National Tribunal of Poland at Kraków and was found guilty of ordering the imprisonment and extermination of individuals and groups of people, he was convicted of homicide, the first such conviction at a war crimes trial, for "personally killing and torturing a substantial, albeit unidentified number of people."Göth was executed by hanging not far from the former site of the Płaszów camp. The 1993 film Schindler's List, where Göth is portrayed by Ralph Fiennes, depicts his running of the Płaszów concentration camp. Göth, an only child named after his father and grandfather, was born on 11 December 1908 in Vienna to a wealthy Catholic family in the book publishing industry, his mother was Berta Schwendt Göth and his father, Amon Franz Göth, owned Verlagsanstalt Amon Franz Göth.
Its offerings included religious literature and military history books. He was raised by his aunt, due to his father travelling for business and his mother working at the publishing house; as a child he went by the nickname "Mony". He attended public school in Vienna and studied agriculture in Waidhofen an der Thaya for a few semesters, he abandoned his studies. Göth joined the local youth chapter of the Austrian Nazi Party in 1925 and, from 1927 to 1930, was a member of the Steirischer Heimatschutzverband Wien, a radical and powerful faction of the antisemitic nationalist paramilitary group Heimwehr, he dropped his membership to join the Austrian branch of the Nazi Party and was assigned the party membership number 510,764 in September 1930. He was granted full party membership on 31 May 1931, his decision to join the party at this early stage meant that he was considered an Alter Kämpfer, i.e. one who had joined the party before Hitler's rise to the position of Chancellor of Germany. Göth began working for the Party in the Ortsgruppe of the Margareten district in Vienna and soon moved to the Mariahilf Ortsgruppe, where he was a political leader in the Sturmabteilung.
Göth joined the Austrian SS in 1930, was granted full membership in 1932 after the two-year candidacy period. He was appointed an SS-Mann with the SS number 43,673. Göth served with the SS Truppe Deimel and Sturm Libardi in Vienna until January 1933, when he was promoted to serve as adjutant and Zugführer of the 52nd SS-Standarte, a regimental-sized unit, he was soon promoted to SS-Scharführer. He fled to Germany when his illegal activities, including obtaining explosives for the Nazi Party, made him a wanted man; the Austrian Nazi Party was declared illegal in Austria on 19 June 1933, so it set up operations in exile in Munich. From this base, Göth smuggled radios and weapons into Austria and acted as a courier for the SS, he was arrested in October 1933 by the Austrian authorities but was released for lack of evidence in December 1933. He was again detained after the assassination of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed Nazi coup attempt in July 1934, he escaped custody and fled to the SS training facility at Dachau, next to Dachau Concentration Camp.
He temporarily quit the SS and Nazi party activities until 1937 because of differences with his Oberführer Alfred Bigler, lived in Munich while trying to help his parents to develop their publishing business. He was divorced after only a few months. Göth resumed his party activities, he married Anna Geiger, a woman he met at a motorcycle race, in an SS civil ceremony on 23 October 1938. Prior to the wedding, the couple had to pass a set of strict physical tests administered by the SS to determine the suitability of the marriage; the couple had three children: Peter, born in 1939. The couple maintained a permanent home in Vienna throughout World War II. Assigned to 89th SS-Standarte, Göth was transferred to the 1st SS-Sturmbann of the 11th SS-Standarte at the start of the war, was promoted to SS-Oberscharführer in early 1941. On 5 March 1940, he was drafted into the Wehrmacht with the rank of Unterfeldwebel, but his continuous SS service record indicates he did not serve. From mid-1941 to late May 1942, as Einsatzführer, financial officer in East Upper Silesia in the Kattowitz office of the Reichskommissariat für die Festigung deutschen Volkstums, he gained a reputation as a seasoned administrator in the Nazi efforts to isolate and kill the Jewish population of Europe.
He was commissioned to the rank of SS-Untersturmführer on 14 July 1941. Göth received a Dienstleistungszeugnis from his commanding officer, praising his service, as well as his physical and ideological traits, he was transferred to Lublin in the summer of 1942, where he joined the staff of SS-Brigadeführer Odilo Globočnik, the SS and Police Leader of the Kraków area, as part of Operation Reinhard, the code name given to the establish
A hero or heroine is a real person or a main fictional character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength. On the other hand are post-classical and modern heroes, who perform great deeds or selfless acts for the common good instead of the classical goal of wealth and fame; the antonym of a hero is a villain. The concept of the hero can be found in classical literature, it is the main or revered character in heroic epic poetry celebrated through ancient legends of a people striving for military conquest and living by a continually flawed personal honor code. The definition of a hero has changed throughout time. Merriam Webster dictionary defines a hero as "a person, admired for great or brave acts or fine qualities." Examples of heroes range from mythological figures, such as Gilgamesh and Iphigenia, to historical figures, such as Joan of Arc, Giuseppe Garibaldi or Sophie Scholl, modern heroes like Alvin York, Audie Murphy and Chuck Yeager, fictional superheroes, including Superman and Wonder Woman.
The word hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, "hero" one such as Heracles with divine ancestry or given divine honors. Before the decipherment of Linear B the original form of the word was assumed to be *ἥρωϝ-, hērōw-, but the Mycenaean compound ti-ri-se-ro-e demonstrates the absence of -w-. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Proto-Indo-European root is *ser meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is akin to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Partridge concludes, "The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be'protector'." R. S. P. Beekes rejects an Indo-European derivation and asserts that the word has a Pre-Greek origin. A classical hero is considered to be a "warrior who lives and dies in the pursuit of honor" and asserts their greatness by "the brilliancy and efficiency with which they kill"; each classical hero's life focuses on fighting, which occurs during an epic quest. Classical heroes are semi-divine and extraordinarily gifted, like Achilles, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances.
While these heroes are resourceful and skilled, they are foolhardy, court disaster, risk their followers' lives for trivial matters, behave arrogantly in a childlike manner. During classical times, people regarded heroes with the highest esteem and utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature; the appearance of these mortal figures marks a revolution of audiences and writers turning away from immortal gods to mortal mankind, whose heroic moments of glory survive in the memory of their descendants, extending their legacy. Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, known through Homer's The Iliad. Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters," offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives. However, his familial values conflict with his heroic aspirations in The Iliad, as he cannot be both the protector of Troy and a father to his child.
Hector is betrayed by the gods when Athena appears disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him to take on Achilles, leading to his death at the hands of a superior warrior. Achilles was a Greek Hero, considered the most formidable military fighter in the entire Trojan War and the central character of The Iliad, he was the child of Peleus, making him a demi-god. He wielded superhuman strength on the battlefield and was blessed with a close relationship to the Gods. Achilles famously refuses to fight after his dishonoring at the hands of Agamemnon, only returns to the war due to unadulterated rage after Hector kills his close friend Patroclus. Achilles was known for uncontrollable rage that defined many of his bloodthirsty actions, such as defiling Hector's corpse by dragging it around the city of Troy. Achilles plays a tragic role in The Iliad brought about by constant de-humanization throughout the epic, having his menis overpower his philos. Heroes in myth had close but conflicted relationships with the gods.
Thus Heracles's name means "the glory of Hera" though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods. The most striking example is the Athenian king Erechtheus, whom Poseidon killed for choosing Athena over him as the city's patron god; when the Athenians worshiped Erechtheus on the Acropolis, they invoked him as Poseidon Erechtheus. Fate, or destiny, plays a massive role in the stories of classical heroes; the classical hero's heroic significance stems from battlefield conquests, an inherently dangerous action. The gods in Greek Mythology, when interacting with the heroes foreshadow the hero's eventual death on the battlefield. Countless heroes and gods go to great lengths to alter their pre-destined fate, but with no success, as no immortal can change their prescribed outcomes by the three Fates; the most prominent example of this is found in Oedipus Rex. After learning that his son, will end up killing him, the King of Thebes, takes huge steps to assure his son's death by removing him from the kingdom.
But, Oedipus slays his father without an afterthought when he unknowingly encounters him in a dispute on the road many years
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Bring Larks and Heroes
Bring Larks and Heroes is a 1967 novel by Australian author Thomas Keneally which won the Miles Franklin Award in 1967. The novel is set in an unidentified Penal colony in the South Pacific, which bears a superficial resemblance to Sydney; the novel is concerned with the exploits of the colony's "felons", in particular an Irish Marine named Phelim Halloran. Halloran joins the marines after leaving prison and finds he identifies more with the Irish prisoners than his Protestant English superiors. London-based Australian critic Robert Hughes stated in The Times: "Here is a rarity — an Australian novelist who docs not use his Strine literary context as a prop or an excuse, thus remains sensitive to his actual and physical environment... He is the first novelist to use Australia's colonial past intelligently, neither sentimentalising it as woozy bush - balladry nor turning it into an ersatz myth". Leonard Ward in The Canberra Times: " Thomas Keneally's writing style is smooth and economical of words with sometimes a curious lilt to them when he is dealing in brutality and tragedy.
He is one of the best Australian novelists today." "To Judith who nursed this poor herd of chapters to pasture." Following its original publication by Cassell in 1967, the novel went through the following editions: Belmont Books, New York, 1967 Sun Books, Melbourne, 1968 Viking, New York, 1968 Quartet, London, 1973 Penguin, Victoria, 1988 Text Publishing, Text Classics, Victoria, 2012 Middlemiss.org
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro
Sh'erit ha-Pletah is a biblical term used by Jewish refugees who survived the Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed in postwar Europe following the liberation in the spring of 1945. Hundreds of thousands of survivors spent several years following their repatriation in Displaced Persons camps in Germany and Italy; the refugees became and politically organized, advocating at first for their political and human rights in the camps, for the right to immigrate to British Mandate of Palestine, most of which became the Jewish State of Israel where the majority ended up living by 1950. In an effort to destroy the evidence of war crimes, Nazi authorities and military staff accelerated the pace of killings, forced victims on death marches, attempted to deport many of them away from the shrinking German lines; as the German war effort collapsed, survivors were left on their own, on trains, by the sides of roads, in camps. Concentration camps and death camps were liberated by Allied forces in the final stages of the war, beginning with Majdanek, in July 1944, Auschwitz, in January 1945.
At the time of Germany's unconditional surrender on 7 May 1945 there were some 6.5 to 7 million displaced persons in the Allied occupation zones, among them an estimated 55,000 to 60,000 Jews. The vast majority of non-Jewish DPs were repatriated in a matter of months; the number of Jewish DPs, subsequently grew many fold as Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe migrated westward. It is estimated that a total of more than 250,000 Jewish DPs resided in camps or communities in Germany and Italy during the period from 1945 to 1952. In the first weeks after liberation, Allied military forces improvised relief in the form of shelter and medical care. A large number of refugees were in critical condition as a result of malnutrition and disease. Many died, but medical material was requisitioned from military stores and German civilian facilities. Military doctors as well as physicians among the survivors themselves used available resources to help a large number recover their physical health; the first proper funerals of Holocaust victims took place during this period with the assistance of Allied forces and military clergy.
Shelter was improvised in the beginning, with refugees of various origins being housed in abandoned barracks, former concentration camps, private homes. As Germany and Austria came under Allied military administration, the commanders assumed responsibility for the safety and disposition of all displaced persons; the Allies provided for the DPs according to nationality, did not recognize Jews as constituting a separate group. One significant consequence of this early perspective was that Jewish DPs sometimes found themselves housed in the same quarters with former Nazi collaborators; the general policy of the Allied occupation forces was to repatriate DPs to their country of origin as soon as possible, there was not sufficient consideration for exceptions. General George Patton, the commander of the United States Third Army and military governor of Bavaria, where most of the Jewish DPs resided, was known for pursuing a harsh, indiscriminate repatriation policy. However, his approach raised objections from the refugees themselves, as well as from American military and civilian parties sympathetic to their plight.
In early July 1945, Patton issued a directive that the entire Munich area was to be cleared of displaced persons with an eye toward repatriating them. Joseph Dunner, an American officer who in civilian life was a professor of political science, sent a memorandum to military authorities protesting the order; when 90 trucks of the Third Army arrived at Buchberg to transport the refugees there, they refused to move, citing Dunner's memo. Based on these efforts and blatant antisemitic remarks, Patton was relieved of this command. By June 1945 reports had circulated back in the United States concerning overcrowded conditions and insufficient supplies in the DP camps, as well as the ill treatment of Jewish survivors at the hand of the U. S. Army. American Jewish leaders, in particular, felt compelled to act. American Earl G. Harrison was sent by president Truman to investigate conditions among the "non-repatriables" in the DP camps. Arriving in Germany in July, he spent several weeks visiting the camps and submitted his final report on 24 August.
Harrison's report stated among other things that: Generally speaking... many Jewish displaced persons and other non-repatriables are living under guard behind barbed-wire fences, in camps of several descriptions, including some of the most notorious of the concentration camps, amidst crowded unsanitary and grim conditions, in complete idleness, with no opportunity, except surreptitiously, to communicate with the outside world, hoping for some word of encouragement and action in their behalf....... While there has been marked improvement in the health of survivors of the Nazi starvation and persecution program, there are many pathetic malnutrition cases both among the hospitalized and in the general population of the camps... at many of the camps and centers including those where serious starvation cases are, there is a marked and serious lack of needed medical supplies......many of the Jewish displaced persons, late in July, had no clothing other than th
Thomas Michael Keneally, AO is a prolific Australian novelist and essayist. He is best known for writing Schindler's Ark, the Booker Prize-winning novel of 1982, inspired by the efforts of Poldek Pfefferberg, a Holocaust survivor; the book would be adapted to Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Both Keneally's parents were born to Irish fathers in the timber and dairy town of Kempsey, New South Wales, though born in Sydney, his early years were spent there. By 1942, the family had moved to 7 Loftus Crescent, Homebush, a working-class suburb in the west of Sydney and Keneally was enrolled at Christian Brothers St Patrick's College, Strathfield. Shortly after, his brother John was born. Keneally studied Honours English for his Leaving Certificate in 1952, under Brother James Athanasius McGlade, won a Commonwealth scholarship. Keneally entered St Patrick's Seminary, Manly, to train as a Catholic priest. Although he was ordained as a deacon while at the seminary, after six years there he left in a state of depression and without being ordained to the priesthood.
He worked as a Sydney schoolteacher before his success as a novelist and was a lecturer at the University of New England. His father, Edmund Thomas Keneally, flew for the RAAF in World War II returned to work in a small business in Sydney. Keneally was known as "Mick" until 1964 but began using the name Thomas when he started publishing, after advice from his publisher to use what was his first name. Kenneally's first story was published in the Bulletin magazine in 1962 under the pseudonym Bernard Coyle. By February 2014, he had written over 50 books, including 30 novels, he is famed for his Schindler's Ark, the first novel by an Australian to win the Booker Prize and is the basis of the film Schindler's List. He had been shortlisted for the Booker three times prior to that: 1972 for The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith, 1975 for Gossip from the Forest, 1979 for Confederates. Many of his novels are reworkings of historical material, although modern in their psychology and style. Keneally has acted in a handful of films.
He had a small role in Fred Schepisi's The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith and played Father Marshall in the award-winning film The Devil's Playground by Schepisi. In 1983, he was made an Officer of the Order of Australia, he is an Australian Living Treasure. Keneally was a member of the Literature Board of the Australia Council from 1985 to 1988 and President of the National Book Council from 1985 to 1989. Keneally was a visiting professor at the University of California, Irvine where he taught the graduate fiction workshop for one quarter in 1985. From 1991 to 1995, he was a visiting professor in the writing program at UCI. In 2006, Peter Pierce, Professor of Australian Literature, James Cook University, wrote: Keneally can sometimes seem the nearest that we have to a Balzac of our literature; the Tom Keneally Centre opened in August 2011 at the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, housing Keneally's books and memorabilia. The site is used for book launches and writing classes. Keneally married Judy Martin a nurse, in 1965, they had two daughters and Janet.
Keneally was the founding chairman of the Australian Republic Movement and published a book on the subject Our Republic in 1993. Several of his Republican essays appear on the website of the movement, he is a keen supporter of rugby league football, in particular the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles club of the NRL. In 2004, he gave the sixth annual Tom Brock Lecture, he made an appearance in the 2007 rugby league drama film The Final Winter. In March 2009, the Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd, gave an autographed copy of Keneally's biography Lincoln to President Barack Obama as a state gift. Keneally's nephew Ben is married to former Premier of New South Wales and Sky News Australia newscaster Kristina Keneally. Keneally wrote the Booker Prize-winning novel in 1982, inspired by the efforts of Poldek Pfefferberg, a Holocaust survivor. In 1980, Keneally met Pfefferberg in the latter's shop, learning that he was a novelist, Pfefferburg showed him his extensive files on Oskar Schindler, including the original list itself.
Keneally was interested, Pfefferberg became an advisor for the book, accompanying Keneally to Poland where they visited Kraków and the sites associated with the Schindler story. Keneally dedicated Schindler's Ark to Pfefferberg: "who by zeal and persistence caused this book to be written." He said in an interview in 2007 that what attracted him to Oskar Schindler was that "it was the fact that you couldn't say where opportunism ended and altruism began. And I like the subversive fact; that is, that good will emerge from the most unlikely places". The book was made into a film titled Schindler's List directed by Steven Spielberg, earning the director his first Best Director Oscar. Keneally's meeting with Pfefferberg and their research tours are detailed in Searching for Schindler: A Memoir; some of the Pfefferberg documents that inspired Keneally are now housed in the State Library of New South Wales in Sydney. In 1996 the State Library purchased this material from a private collector. Keneally has been awarded honorary doctorates including one from the National University of Ireland.
The Place at Whitton The Fear, rewritten in as By the Line Bring Larks and Heroes, winner of the Miles Franklin Award, set in an unidentified Briti