SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by relapsing episodes of psychosis. Major symptoms include hallucinations and disorganized thinking. Other symptoms include social withdrawal, decreased emotional expression, lack of motivation. Symptoms come on begin in young adulthood, in many cases never resolve. There is no objective diagnostic test. To be diagnosed with schizophrenia and functional impairment need to be present for six months. Many people with schizophrenia have other mental disorders that may include an anxiety disorder such as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depressive disorder, or a substance use disorder. About 0.3% to 0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetimes. In 2017, there were a total of 19.8 million cases globally. Males are more affected and onset is on average earlier in age; the causes of schizophrenia include genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, the ages of a person's parents, poor nutrition during pregnancy.

Genetic factors include a variety of rare genetic variants. About half of those diagnosed with schizophrenia will have a significant improvement over the long term with no further relapses, a small proportion of these will recover completely; the other half will have a lifelong impairment, severe cases may be admitted to hospital. Social problems such as long-term unemployment, homelessness and victimization are common consequences. Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a higher suicide rate and more physical health problems, leading to an average decreased life expectancy of 20 years. In 2015, an estimated 17,000 people worldwide died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia; the mainstay of treatment is an antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training, social rehabilitation. In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be tried. In situations where there is a risk of harm to self or others, a short involuntary hospitalization may be necessary.

Long-term hospitalization may be needed for a small number of people with severe schizophrenia. In countries where supportive services are limited or unavailable, long-term hospital stays are more typical. Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder characterized by significant alterations in perception, thoughts and behavior. Symptoms are described in terms of positive and cognitive symptoms; the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the same for any psychosis and are sometimes referred to as psychotic symptoms. These may be present in any of the different psychoses, are transient making early diagnosis of schizophrenia problematic. Psychosis noted for the first time in a person, diagnosed with schizophrenia is referred to as a first-episode psychosis. Positive symptoms are those symptoms that are not experienced, but are present in people during a psychotic episode in schizophrenia, they include delusions and disorganized thoughts and speech regarded as manifestations of psychosis. Hallucinations most involve the sense of hearing as hearing voices but can sometimes involve any of the senses including taste and touch.

They are typically related to the content of the delusional theme. Delusions are persecutory in nature. Distortions of self-experience such as feeling as if one's thoughts or feelings are not one's own, to believing that thoughts are being inserted into one's mind, sometimes termed passivity phenomena, are common. Thought disorders can include disorganized speech – speech, not understandable is known as word salad, thought blocking. Positive symptoms respond well to medication. Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes; the five recognised domains of negative symptoms are: blunted affect – showing flat expressions or little emotion. Other related symptoms are social withdrawal, self-neglect in hygiene, self-care, loss of judgment. Negative symptoms appear to contribute more to poor quality of life, functional impairment, to the burden on others than do positive symptoms. People with greater negative symptoms have a history of poor adjustment before the onset of illness.

Negative symptoms are less responsive to medication, are the most difficult to treat. Cognitive deficits are the earliest and most found symptoms in schizophrenia, they are a core feature but not considered to be core symptoms, as are positive and negative symptoms. However, their presence and degree of dysfunction is taken as a better indicator of functionality than the presentation of core symptoms, it is the deficits in cognition that are seen to drive the negative psychosocial outcome in schizophrenia, are claimed to equate to a possible reduction in IQ from the norm of 100 to 70–85. The cognitive deficits affect many areas including attention, perception, processing speed and problem solving. Verbal memory impairment is associated with a decreased level of semantic processing. Another memory impairment is that of episodic memory. Impairment in social

Yoodlee films

Yoodlee Films is the film division of Saregama India Limited, India's oldest music label. It has headquarters in Mumbai, India; this writer's studio believes in cinema that has powerful stories. One of the main highlights of their films is, their first film was the critically acclaimed Ajji directed by Devashish Makhija, starring Sushama Deshpande, Sharvani Suryavanshi, Abhishek Banerjee, Vikas Kumar, Sadiya Siddiqui, Sudhir Pandey and Smita Tambe. Their next film Kuchh Bheege Alfaaz was by National Award-winning director Onir, starring Zain Khan Durrani, Geetanjali Thapa, Shray Rai Tiwari and Mona Ambegaonkar, their latest film was Abhi Anu, a bilingual romantic drama in Tamil and Malayalam directed by B. R. Vijayalakshmi and starring Tovino Thomas and Piaa Bajpai. Yoodlee's first film ‘Ajji’ released in November, 2017, it is a modern-day version of the European children's story Little Red Riding Hood. Ajji is now available on Netflix, their second film Kuchh Bheege Alfaaz released in February, 2018.

The film is a modern-day love story in the age of social media. It was the opening film at Indian Film Festival Stuttgart 2018 and premiered at festivals like Newcastle International Film Festival 2018, Edinburgh UK Asian Film Festival 2018, London UK Asian Film Festival 2018 and Leicester UK Asian Film Festival 2018. Abhi & Anu released in May 2018; the film was shot in Tamil and Malayalam languages titled Abhiyum Anuvum and Abhiyude Kadha Anuvinteyum respectively. Brij Mohan Amar Rahe released on Netflix and garnered various praises for its nail-biting plot twists. Hamid premiered at Mumbai Film Festival 2018 and continued to screen at various festivals like Dharamshala International Film Festival & Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival Their upcoming projects are Ascharya Fuck It, Music Teacher, Chaman Bahaar, Chhote Nawab, KD, Habbadi and Axone

John Jameson (colonel)

John Jameson was an American soldier, most notable for his service during the American Revolutionary War. He was of Scottish descent and was a resident of Culpeper and belonged to a distinguished Jameson Virginian family. John Jameson was a graduate of The College of William and Mary, Virginia, the second oldest college in the country. In Culpeper, Virginia under an old Oak tree during the spring of 1775, he volunteered with other men from Culpeper and Fauquier counties forming the Culpeper Minutemen, he was a company commander in the Culpeper Minutemen battalion. Making use of popular symbols and phrases of the period, the battalion's flag featured an obverse field containing an emblem of a snake and the American Revolutionary mottoes "Liberty or Death" and "Don't Tread on Me." Jameson and John Marshall were a leading spirit amongst the famous Culpeper minute-men. These were the first soldiers raised in Virginia. Together, he and the Minutemen fought in the Battle of Great Bridge, the first Revolutionary War battle on Virginia soil, where the minutemen defeated British troops under John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, temporarily ending British control of Virginia.

Jameson was elected June 1776, by the Virginia Convention, captain of the Third Troop of Horse. He had six competitors for the position, received forty-eight vote, while his competitors received 17, 15, 9, 4, 3, 2 votes. One of his competitors was Henry Lee. Jameson took command June 1776 as captain in a Virginia regiment of dragoons, he fought at the Battle of Brandywine. While staying with George Washington at Valley Forge, Major Jameson was wounded in a skirmish nearby on January 21, 1778. Throughout that year and the next he remained at Washington's side, engaged at the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey in June, promoted to Colonel in August 1779; as a Colonel in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War he was instrumental in exposing the treason of Benedict Arnold. In 1780, General George Washington placed key commanders in strategic areas around West Point, New York, Colonel Jameson was placed in Tarrytown, New York under the supervision of General Benedict Arnold. A man calling himself "John Anderson" was intercepted by militiamen and found to be in possession of documents that included information regarding the defenses of West Point and the movements of the American army.

Since the papers were found in an odd place, "under the feet of his stockings", Colonel Jameson became alarmed, arrested Anderson, alerted General Arnold, since he did not yet suspect Arnold. Anderson was carrying a pass signed by the General, Arnold was noted to be "very desirous of the Papers and everything being sent with him." Jameson followed orders and had sent Anderson and the papers but was dissuaded by Major Benjamin Tallmadge, head of Continental Army Intelligence, who had just arrived at the headquarters. Because of the serious nature of the papers Jameson wrote to General Washington, enclosing the papers taken from Anderson; however he still insisted on notifying Arnold. Upon examining the papers, Washington called for Anderson, who confessed that he was British major John André, envoy to the British commander in chief, Sir Henry Clinton; the investigation further revealed that Benedict Arnold, as commandant of West Point, agreed in 1780 to surrender the fort to the enemy in return for a royal commission in the British army and a large sum of money.

Because of Jameson's intuition, Arnold's plot was foiled, but on balance, his misjudgment allowed Arnold to escape. In any case, the attempt to pass control of West Point to the British was thwarted. Jameson was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, in Virginia, was present at their meeting held December 13, 1802, in Richmond, when it was voted to appropriate some of their funds, to the amount of $25,000, to found Washington College in Maryland, he was described as being blue-eyed and fair-complexion with black hair. After the war he was awarded over 416 acres of land some of, located in Green Co. Ohio, he owned many thousands acres of land throughout Virginia and Kentucky. Jameson was a member at the Freemasonry chapter in Virginia, he is buried at the Culpeper Masonic Cemetery in Virginia. Colonel John Jameson’s uncle was Lieutenant Governor David Jameson of Yorktown, Virginia who served from 1780-81 under the Governorship of Thomas Nelson, Jr. signor of the United States Declaration of Independence and served as Governor in August 1781 when Nelson took ill.

He was elected as a State Senator in 1783. He served in the Senate during the War in 1776-1777, serving on Patrick Henry's Privy Council, his great nephew John Jameson served as a congressman for Missouri 1839-1849. History of Culpeper, VA "Oaths of Allegiance - Valley Forge, 1778 - Page 5". Colonialancestors.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-09-26. "Marking Revolutionary War Patriots' Graves". The Culpeper Minute Men Chapter, Virginia Society, Sons of the American Revolution