Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Das Ich is a German electronic music group formed in 1989. The group, fronted by Stefan Ackermann and Bruno Kramm, were one of the prominent founders of and contributors to "Neue Deutsche Todeskunst" a musical movement in the early 1990s; the German term das Ich makes reference to the Freudian concept James Strachey translated as "ego". In 1989, the members of Das Ich founded the Danse Macabre record label, their first full-length album, Die Propheten, was released in Germany in 1991 and was reissued in the US in 1997, selling over thirty thousand copies. In 1998, the album Egodram, saw the group moving towards a more rhythmic, industrial dance-oriented sound, resulting in the club singles "Kindgott" and "Destillat"; the album was followed by an American tour in 1998. This was followed in 1998 by their next album, Morgue, a concept album based on the work of Gottfried Benn. In 1999, they released a remix album, Re-Laborat, that included work done by popular electro-industrial bands. Bruno Kramm released his solo spin off Coeur in 2000.
In 2002, Das Ich released the album Antichrist, a critical reflection on world politics. In 2003 the Best Of Album Relikt was released. In 2004, they released the double album Lava, made of: Lava:Glut: Disc with more instrumental than industrial tracks. Lava:Asche: Disco with dance versions of song from Lava:Glut. In 2006, they released an additional dual album: Cabaret: Disc with circus style songs, like the name implies, more instrumental. Varieté: Disc with remix versions of Cabaret, made by bands like Stillste Stund, Metallspürunde, FabrikC.etc. In the same year, they released Panopticum. Since 2010 the band underwent a hiatus due to the health problems of the lead singer, Stefan Ackermann, they had their Comeback at the Wave-Gotik-Treffen in 2013. Back in studio in 2017 for Satanische Verse - Vinyl Edition. Keyboardist Brunno Kramm announced there is a new studio album scheduled for release in 2017 or 2018. Stefan Ackermann - lead vocals Bruno Kramm - keyboards, programming, backing vocals Stefan Siegl Kain Gabriel Simon Daniel Galda Chad Blinman Jakob Lang Michael Schmid Ringo Müller Damian “Plague” Hrunka Martin Söffker - keyboards, backing vocals Music by Das Ich made up the soundtrack of the movie Das Ewige Licht and produced by Hans Helmut Haessler.
1990: Satanische Verse 1991: Die Propheten 1994: Staub 1998: Egodram 1998: Morgue 2002: Anti'christ 2004: LAVA:glut 2006: Cabaret TBD: Koma Das Ich have changed the release date many times since May 2010. In 2018 the information about creating new album appeared on official web site. 2008: Kannibale 2000: Re-Laborat 2004: LAVA:asche 1994: "Stigma" 1998: "Kindgott" 1998: "Destillat" 1996: Das Innere Ich 1999: Re-Kapitulation 2003: Relikt 2007: Alter Ego 2007: Addendum 1995: Feuer 2002: Momentum 1995: Die Liebe 2000: Coeur Official MySpace Profile
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion or sample of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, speech, or other sounds, they are integrated using hardware or software such as digital audio workstations. A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète, experimental music created by splicing and looping tape; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler that became a staple of 1980s pop music. The 1988 release of the first Akai MPC, an affordable sampler with an intuitive interface, made sampling accessible to a wider audience. Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, with producers sampling funk and soul records drum breaks, which could be rapped over. Musicians have created albums assembled from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing; the practice has influenced all genres of music and is important to electronic music, hip hop and pop. Sampling without permission can infringe copyright.
The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, which can be a complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc in 1991, changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now prohibitively expensive. In the 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète, an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, manipulating them to create sound collages, he created pieces using recordings of sounds including the human body and kitchen utensils. The method involved the creation of tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end, by which a sound could be played indefinitely. Schaeffer developed a tape recorder, the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
It was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who. In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were deejayed over. Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer. Designers of early samplers used the term to describe the technical process of the instruments, rather than to describe how users would use the feature. While developing the Fairlight, Vogel sampled around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, discovered that he could imitate a real piano by playing the sample back at different pitches, he recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano.
This had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Compared to samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples, it allowed control over pitch and envelope, could only record a few seconds of sound. However, its ability to sample and play back acoustic sounds became its most popular feature. Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first world-changing sampler". Though it was it was unaffordable for most hobbyists, early users included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren and Ebn Ozn. An early pulse-code modulation digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic.
The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM. The success of the Fairlight inspired competitors, improving the technology and driving down prices dramatically. Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator and the Akai S950. Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 began incorporating samples of drum kits rather than generating sounds from circuits; the designers of early samplers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as drum hits or individual notes, to use as "building blocks" for compositions. However and producers began sampling longer passages of music. In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, "They didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of'When the Levee Breaks'." Roger Linn, designer of the LM-1 and MPC, said: "It was a pleasant surprise. After sixty years of recording, there are so many. Why reinvent the wheel?"In response to demand, samplers such as E-mu's SP-1200 were developed to allow users to store longer samples.
In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, which allowed artists to assign samples to separate pads and trigger them independently to playing a keyboard or drum kit. It h
Psychoburbia is the second studio album by German electronic music band Dance or Die, released in October 1992. Music by Andreas Goldacker and lyrics by Wagner except where noted. "Psychoburbia" – 4:27 "Will of the Wind" – 4:42 "Black Sabbath" – 5:58 "Man Mind Machine" – 3:21 "Escape" – 4:02 "Lügenbaron" – 3:48 "Berlin 5 A. M." – 2:50 "Archimedes" – 3:57 "Right or Wrong" – 4:04 "Daydream" – 3:51 "Golden Cage" – 3:11Early CD masters have split track 2 in two separate tracks. Dance or DieA. N. G. O. - soundgenerators Wagner - vocalsAdditional musician: Brian Hewitt - vocals on "Archimedes" Produced and mixed by Andreas Goldacker/Crypton Music Recorded and mixed at Crypton Studio Berlin Published by UFA/Dark Wings · "Black Sabbath" published by Essex Musikvertrieb Psychoburbia at AllMusic Psychoburbia at Discogs Psychoburbia at MusicBrainz
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Follow Me (Amanda Lear song)
"Follow Me" is a song by French singer Amanda Lear released in 1978 by Ariola Records as the lead single from her second album, Sweet Revenge. The song went on to become a multi-million-selling chart success in Continental Europe and remains one of Amanda Lear's trademark hits; the lyrics of the song were written by Lear herself, who contributed words to every track on Sweet Revenge, the music was composed by Anthony Monn, her long-time producer and collaborator. Musically, "Follow Me" showcased mainstream disco sound, which in the second half of the 1970s was at the peak of its popularity, with symphonic elements, inspired by the innovatory work of German band Kraftwerk. Lyrically, the song tells about seduction as the first track in conceptual suite on side A, which tells a story about a girl tempted by Devil; the suite is concluded with an alternative version of the song, billed as "Follow Me", which contains different lyrics and sees the girl reject the Devil's offers. The 10-minute Wally MacDonald remix of the song was released in Canada, which in fact was a medley of the original version and the reprise.
"Follow Me" was released as the first single from Amanda's second album, Sweet Revenge, in the spring of 1978. In most countries, the B-side of the single was "Mother, Look What They've Done to Me"; the only exception to this in Europe was Spain, with "Run Baby Run" on side B, although the song would be released as a separate A-side in selected territories. In Canada, the B-side was "Enigma" released as a single in its own right in Europe; the song was a major commercial success. In Germany, it was the sixth biggest-selling single of 1978, in Belgium – the second, only behind John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John's "You're the One That I Want", it remains Amanda's signature song and arguably her biggest hit to date, having sold in several million copies worldwide. The singer performed the track in numerous television shows across Europe as well as in the erotic Italian documentary film Follie di notte in which she appeared as the hostess; the song was featured in the film Dallas Buyers Club. A new version of the song was released as the single in 1987, remixed by Christian De Walden who produced Lear's most recent album at the time, Secret Passion.
In 1989, DJ Ian Levine produced Hi-NRG remixes of "Gold" and "Follow Me" which were released as a commercial double A-side single, on both vinyl and CD. Lear re-recorded the song with changed lyrics in 1992 and the new version appeared on her 1993 album Cadavrexquis as well as side B of the single "Fantasy", it was performed on television. Another re-recording appeared on the 1998 album Back in Your Arms and released in Italy as the double A-side 12" vinyl single with "Tomorrow"; this version would subsequently end up on numerous budget compilations released in Europe up until the early 2010s. In 2000, a new version of the song was included on a various artists compilation released to celebrate Paris Pride. In 2000, the 1978 version was released as the CD single in Belgium as part of the "45 Hit Collection" series, back with the original version of "The Sphinx". Most "Follow Me" was re-recorded again on Lear's 2016 album Let Me Entertain You. In 1978, Amanda Lear filmed the "Follow Me" music video as part of her television special for German TV show Musikladen.
Based on the bluescreen technique, it pictures her performing the song against a starry night sky and images of her from the Sweet Revenge album cover. She is clad in a bright pink catsuit, which she hides underneath a long black cape, it was directed by Michael Leckebusch. In 2012, the video was released on a 3-DVD box set Das beste aus dem Musikladen Vol. 1, together with other videos Lear had made for Musikladen. In 1978, another video for the song was filmed, this time as part of Italian TV show Stryx. Amanda again wore a different outfit underneath it; the video was directed by Enzo Trapani. Lear filmed another bluescreen "Follow Me" video for her Italian TV show Premiatissima, used in her television special Ma chi è Amanda?. Another music video was produced for the 1992 re-recording, with Amanda Lear performing the song against a green background. Belgian singer Wendy Van Wanten released a Dutch-language cover of the song on her album Blijf nog 1 nacht in 1994. German band Dance or Die released a cover of the song on their album Schlafende Energie in 2001.
In 2001, German singer and TV host Kim Fisher released a German-language cover of the song on her album Follow Me. In 2006, Spanish singer Pedro Marín covered the song on his Amanda Lear tribute album Diamonds and filmed a video for the song. Robert Coyne covered "Follow Me" on his 2010 album Woodland Conspiracy. Singer and DJ Romina Cohn released a cover of the song in 2012