Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Firth is a word in the Scots and English languages used to denote various coastal waters in Scotland and a strait. In the Northern Isles, it more refers to a smaller inlet, it is linguistically cognate to fjord. Bodies of water named "firths" tend to be more common on the east coast, or in the southwest of the country, although the Firth of Lorn is an exception to this; the Highland coast contains numerous estuaries and inlets of a similar kind, but not called "firth". Before about 1850, the spelling "Frith" was more common. A firth is the result of ice age glaciation and is often associated with a large river, where erosion caused by the tidal effects of incoming sea water passing upriver has widened the riverbed into an estuary. Demarcation can be rather vague; the Firth of Clyde is sometimes thought to include the estuary as far upriver as Dumbarton, but the Ordnance Survey map shows the change from river to firth occurring off Port Glasgow, while locally the change is held to be at the Tail of the Bank where the river crosses a sandbar off Greenock at the junction to the Gare Loch, or further west at Gourock point.
However, some firths are exceptions. The Cromarty Firth on the east coast of Scotland, for example, resembles a large loch with only a small outlet to the sea and the Solway Firth and the Moray Firth are more like large bays; the Pentland Firth is a strait rather than an inlet. Firth of Lorn (northernmost, connects with the Moray Firth via the Great Glen lochs, the Caledonian Canal and Loch Ness at Inverness. Lochs adjoining the Firth: Loch Lochy, Loch Linnhe, Loch Leven, Loch Oich. Places: Oban, Fort William. Islands: Isle of Mull and Kerrera. Firth of Clyde Sea lochs adjoining the Firth of Clyde: Gare Loch, Loch Long, Holy Loch, Loch Striven, Loch Riddon off the Kyles of Bute, Loch Fyne and Campbeltown Loch. Places: Helensburgh, Port Glasgow, Gourock, Rothesay, Wemyss Bay, Brodick, Troon, Ayr and Campbeltown. Note that Glasgow is at the tidal limit of the River Clyde, Clydebank, the Erskine Bridge and Dumbarton are on the river estuary as it widens out towards Port Glasgow. Islands: Bute, Arran In Scottish Gaelic, the Firth of Clyde is treated as two bodies, with the landward end being called Linne Chluaidh, while the area around the south of Arran and Ayrshire/Galloway is An Linne Ghlas.
Solway Firth. The Firth is off the Solway Coast. Rough Firth Places: Carlisle, England on the River Eden and Gretna, both in Scotland. Luce Bay, Wigtown, St Bees, Aspatria These are connected to, or form part of, the North Sea. Dornoch Firth Places: Dornoch, Dornoch Bridge, Bonar Bridge, Kyle of Sutherland, Portmahomack on Tarbat Ness. Rivers: Oykel, Cassley and Carron Headland: Tarbat Ness. Cromarty Firth; the Firth runs out into the Moray Firth. Places: Cromarty, Invergordon. Rivers: Conon, Rusdale, Alness. Moray Firth and Beauly Firth connected with the Firth of Inverness; the Firth of Inverness is identified on modern maps, but forms a connection via the River Ness, Loch Ness and the other lochs of the Great Glen and stretches of the Caledonian Canal with the Firth of Lorne on the west coast of Scotland. Places on the Moray Firth: Inverness, Fortrose, Fort George. Headlands: Whiteness Head, Chanonry Point, Alturlie Point. Places on the Beauly Firth: Beauly. Firth of Tay. Places: Perth, Monifieth, Newport on Tay, Fife.
Rivers: Tay, Earn. Headland: Buddon Ness. Islands: Mugdrum Island Firth of Forth Places: Edinburgh, Kirkcaldy, Stirling, Rosyth, North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Crail, Anstruther, Pittenweem, St Monans, Earlsferry, Aberlady, Dirleton, North Berwick, it is spanned by the Forth Road Bridge, 2,512 m long, the Forth Bridge, 2,498m long. Rivers: Forth, River Avon, Water of Leith, River Almond, River Esk, River Leven Islands: Bass Rock, Eyebroughy, Inchcolm, Inchkeith, Isle of May, The Lamb The Pentland Firth; this is a strait between the Scottish mainland and the Orkney Islands, forms a link between the Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Places: John o' Groats, Gills Bay, Rattar Headlands: Brims Ness, Brough Ness, Duncansby Head, Dunnet Head Islands: Hoy, Pentland Skerries, South Ronaldsay, South Walls. In Shetland in particular, "firth" can refer to smaller inlets, although geo and wick are as common. In Orkney, "wick" is common. Orkney Islands Bay of Firth North Ronaldsay Firth Stronsay Firth Westray Firth Wide Firth Shetland Islands Lax Firth & Cat Firth near Nesting & Whiteness Collafirth/Colla Firth Firths Voe, Firth Gon Firth Olna Firth Olnes Firth Quey Firth Unie Firth Ura Firth Burra Firth/Burrafirth Effirth Shetland North Isles: Yell, Unst Whale Firth Burrafirth In the Scottish Gaelic language, linne is
Hedeby was an important Danish Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein; the settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. The location was favorable because there is a short portage of less than 15 km to the Treene River, which flows into the Eider with its North Sea estuary, making it a convenient place where goods and ships could be pulled on a corduroy road overland for an uninterrupted seaway between the Baltic and the North Sea and avoid a dangerous and time-consuming circumnavigation of Jutland, providing Hedeby with a role similar to Lübeck. Hedeby was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra in present-day southern Sweden, The city of Schleswig was founded on the other side of the Schlei. Hedeby was abandoned after its destruction in 1066.
Hedeby was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900. The Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985; the Old Norse name Heiða-býr translates to "heath-settlement". The name is recorded in numerous spelling variants. Heiðabýr is the reconstructed name in standard Old Norse anglicized as Heithabyr; the Stone of Eric, a 10th-century Danish runestone with an inscription mentioning ᚼᛅᛁᚦᛅ᛭ᛒᚢ, found in 1796. Old English æt Hæðum, from Ohthere's account of his travels to Alfred the Great in the Old English Orosius. Hedeby, the modern Danish spelling most used in English. Haddeby is the Low German form the name of the administrative district formed in 1949 and named for the site. Haithabu is the modern German spelling used. Sources from the 9th and 10th century AD attest to the names Sliesthorp and Sliaswich, the town of Schleswig still exists 3 km north of Hedeby. However, Æthelweard claimed in his Latin translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Saxons used Slesuuic and the Danes Haithaby to refer to the same town.
Hedeby is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard, in the service of Charlemagne, but was founded around 770. In 808 the Danish king Godfred destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby; this may have provided the initial impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, an earthen wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula; the Danevirke joined the defensive walls of Hedeby to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, from the marshes in the west to the Schlei inlet leading into the Baltic in the east. The town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section. A 9-metre high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei inlet and the bay of Haddebyer Noor.
Hedeby became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia, between the Baltic and the North Sea. Between 800 and 1000 the growing economic power of the Vikings led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre; the following indicate the importance achieved by the town: The town was described by visitors from England and the Mediterranean. Hedeby belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen; the town minted its own coins. Adam of Bremen reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden and Greece. A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby during the last decades of the 9th century and the first part of the 10th century; this was told to Adam of Bremen by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark. Two of them were raised by the mother of Olof's grandson Sigtrygg Gnupasson; the third runestone, discovered in 1796, is from the Stone of Eric.
It is inscribed with Norwegian-Swedish runes. It is, possible that Danes occasionally wrote with this version of the younger futhark. Life was crowded in Hedeby; the small houses were clustered together in a grid, with the east-west streets leading down to jetties in the harbour. People lived beyond 30 or 40, archaeological research shows that their years were painful due to crippling diseases such as tuberculosis, yet make-up for men and rights for women provide surprises to the modern understanding. Al-Tartushi, a late 10th-century traveller from al-Andalus, provides one of the most colourful and quoted descriptions of life in Hedeby. Al-Tartushi was from Cordoba in Spain, which had a significan
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture, it is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523; the old part of Lübeck is on an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Denmark. Travemünde is a sea ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Lübeck Hauptbahnhof links Lübeck to a number of railway lines, notably the line to Hamburg. Humans settled in the area around what today is Lübeck after the last Ice Age ended about 9700 BCE. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area. Around AD 700, Slavic peoples started moving into the eastern parts of Holstein, an area settled by Germanic inhabitants who had moved on in the Migration Period. Charlemagne, whose efforts to Christianise the area were opposed by the Germanic Saxons, expelled many of the Saxons and brought in Polabian Slavs allies.
Liubice was founded on the banks of the River Trave about four kilometers north of the present-day city-center of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. In 1128 the pagan Rani from Rügen razed Liubice. In 1143 Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, founded the modern town as a German settlement on the river island of Bucu, he built a new castle, first mentioned by the chronicler Helmold as existing in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, in 1158. After Henry's fall from power in 1181 the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa ordained. With the council dominated by merchants, pragmatic trade interests shaped Lübeck's politics for centuries; the council survived into the 19th century. The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and formed part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217, of the kingdom of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.
Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and by the Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of that medieval trade organization. In 1375 Emperor Charles IV named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome and Florence. Several conflicts about trading privileges resulted in fighting between Lübeck and Denmark and Norway – with varying outcome. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck joined the pro-Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of the mid-16th century. After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power declined.
The city remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648, but the combination of the devastation from the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade caused the Hanseatic League – and thus Lübeck with it – to decline in importance. However after the de facto disbanding of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck still remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. Franz Tunder was the organist in the Marienkirche, it was part of the tradition in this Lutheran congregation that the organist would pass on the duty in a dynastic marriage. In 1668, his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703; some of the greatest composers of the day came to the church to hear his renowned playing. In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on 6 November 1806. Under the Continental System, the State bank went into bankruptcy.
In 1811, the French Empire formally annexed Lübeck as part of France. The writer Thomas Mann was a member of the Mann family of Lübeck merchants, his well-known 1901 novel Buddenbrooks made readers in Germany familiar with the manner of life and mores of the 19th Century Lübeck bourgeoisie. In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, which merged the city of Lübeck with Prussia. During World War II, Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force bombing; the attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm. This raid destroyed large parts of the built-up area. Germany operated a POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, near the city from 1940 until April 1945; the British Second Army occupied it without resistance. On 3 May 1945 one of the biggest disasters in naval history occurred in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships: the SS Cap Arcona, the SS Deutschland, the SS Thielbek – which, unknown to them, were packed with concentr
Anglia is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitutes the northern part of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, protruding into the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea. To the south, Anglia is separated from the neighbouring peninsula of Swania by the Sly Firth, to the north from the Danish peninsula of Sundeved and the Danish island of Als by the Flensburg Firth; the landscape is dotted with numerous lakes. Whether ancient Anglia conformed to the borders of the Anglian Peninsula is uncertain, it may have been somewhat larger. Anglia has a significance far beyond its current small area and country terrain, in that it is believed to have been the original home of the Angles, Germanic immigrants to East Anglia and Northern England, the Eastern Scottish Lowlands; this migration led to their new homeland being named after them, from which the name "England" derives. England, East and West Anglia as well as the English language, thus derive at least their names from Anglia.
The German word Angeln has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic Proto-Indo-European root *h₂enǵʰ-, meaning "narrow", meaning here "the Narrow ", i.e. the Sly Firth. The "-n"-ending is the most common ending for geographical regions in German, comparable to the English endings "-ia" and "-y": "Croatia" = Kroatien, "Italy" = Italien. In German, the word Angeln has yet three other meanings: as a verb, angeln means "to angle", it is written with a capitalized initial letter in its nominalized form: das Angeln = " angling". When used with the plural article, Angeln means "fishing rods": die Angel = "the fishing rod", die Angeln = "the fishing rods"; the term Angeln refers to the people of the Angles: die Angeln = "the Angles", while Eng. "the angel" = Ger. der Engel, "the angle" = der Winkel, "the angler" = der Angler, "the fisherman" = der Fischer. There is a theory that Angeln meant "hook", in reference to the shape of the peninsula. Linguist Julius Pokorny derived it from the Proto-Indo-European root *ang-, "bend".
It is possible that the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such. Together with Swania, Danish Wahld and Wagria, Anglia is one of four peninsulas along the Baltic Sea coast of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein; as part of the Schleswig-Holstein Morainic Uplands, that were formed during the Weichselian glaciation, these peninsulas are hilly and dotted with several glacial lakes. The Anglian glacial lakes form the North Anglian Lake Group; the River Treene with its main headstream Bondenau rises in Anglia. Although rising on the Anglian Peninsula in the Baltic Sea, the Treene flows towards the North Sea, being the main tributary of the River Eider, the river that constituted the Southern border of the Danish Realm for a long time; the northernmost part of Anglia is formed by the Holnis Peninsula that protrudes into the Flensburg Firth. Apart from Flensburg, an independent town, the Anglian Peninsula belongs to the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, Germany's northeasternmost district.
The district has 197,000 inhabitants. The main language of Anglia is German; the peninsula is, however part of the Low German language area, a language, more related to English than German since it was not affected by the High German consonant shift. Danish was the main language of Anglia from the 9th to the 19th century; the Danish variety indigenous to Anglia was Anglian Danish, a dialect of South Jutlandic, the southernmost variety of Danish spoken on the Jutland Peninsula, once spoken as far south as Eckernförde-Borby on the Eckernförde Bay. In the 19th century, however, a language shift towards Low German occurred. Danish is still spoken in Anglia by a minority, but in Southern Schleswig Danish dialects, which are not dialects of South Jutlandic, but Low German-influenced dialects of Standard Danish; the cities with the largest Danish-speaking minorities are Flensburg/Flensborg, Schleswig/Slesvig and Glücksburg/Lyksborg. Many Anglian placenames are like all placenames ending on - by and - rup.
There are many placenames of Danish origin in England as well, but in Danish and Swedish, -by is pronounced IPA:, not IPA:, as in England. North Frisian, one of the Frisian languages, that form the Anglo-Frisian languages together with English, is spoken in ma
Glücksburg is a small town in the district Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and is the farmost northern settlement of Germany. It is situated on the south side of an inlet of the Baltic Sea, approx. 10 km northeast of Flensburg. The town was the home of the family Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, since 1863 the royal family of Denmark and since 1905 of Norway. A branch of the family is the former royal family of Greece, which includes Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his descendants, including Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince George of Cambridge, are members of the House of Windsor under British law, but genealogically are members of a cadet branch of the House of Glücksburg. Glücksburg is home to a German Navy base. Among the facilities at the base is the transmitter, callsign DHJ58. DHJ58, situated at 54° 50'N and 9° 32' E, ceased its transmissions on longwave frequency 68.9 kHz in 2002 and in 2004 its longwave antenna was disassembled.
Kai-Uwe von Hassel, was mayor of Glücksburg, Minister President of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Minister, President of the Bundestag Gui Bonsiepe and design theorist Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Glücksburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an