Philosophy of culture
Philosophy of culture is a branch of philosophy that examines the essence and meaning of culture. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant has formulated an individualist definition of enlightenment similar to the concept of bildung and he argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged, Sapere aude, Dare to be wise, Herder proposed a collective form of bildung, For Herder, Bildung was the totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and sense of common destiny, to a people. In 1795, the great linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kants, according to this school of thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between civilized and primitive or tribal cultures, in 1860, Adolf Bastian argued for the psychic unity of mankind.
He proposed that a comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements. According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of ideas, different cultures. This view paved the way for the understanding of culture. Franz Boas was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States, in practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine. As these forms were associated with life, culture was identified with civilization. Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklore and this distinction is often characterized as that between high culture, namely that of the ruling social group, and low culture. In other words, the idea of culture that developed in Europe during the 18th, matthew Arnold contrasted culture with anarchy, other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted culture with the state of nature.
According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and this contrast led to Herbert Spencers theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgans theory of cultural evolution. These critics considered folk music to express a natural way of life, while classical music seemed superficial. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as noble savages living authentic and unblemished lives, in 1870 the anthropologist Edward Tylor applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms, in the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies. This view paved the way for the understanding of culture. A Philosophy of Culture, The Scope of Holistic Pragmatism by Morton White Cultura
Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese.
One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks
History of logic
The history of logic deals with the study of the development of the science of valid inference. Formal logics developed in ancient times in China, Greek methods, particularly Aristotelian logic as found in the Organon, found wide application and acceptance in Western science and mathematics for millennia. The Stoics, especially Chrysippus, began the development of predicate logic and Islamic philosophers such as Boethius and William of Ockham further developed Aristotles logic in the Middle Ages, reaching a high point in the mid-fourteenth century. The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the century saw largely decline and neglect. Empirical methods ruled the day, as evidenced by Sir Francis Bacons Novum Organon of 1620, valid reasoning has been employed in all periods of human history. However, logic studies the principles of reasoning, inference. It is probable that the idea of demonstrating a conclusion first arose in connection with geometry, the ancient Egyptians discovered geometry, including the formula for the volume of a truncated pyramid.
Ancient Babylon was skilled in mathematics, while the ancient Egyptians empirically discovered some truths of geometry, the great achievement of the ancient Greeks was to replace empirical methods by demonstrative proof. Both Thales and Pythagoras of the Pre-Socratic philosophers seem aware of geometrys methods, fragments of early proofs are preserved in the works of Plato and Aristotle, and the idea of a deductive system was probably known in the Pythagorean school and the Platonic Academy. The proofs of Euclid of Alexandria are a paradigm of Greek geometry, the three basic principles of geometry are as follows, Certain propositions must be accepted as true without demonstration, such a proposition is known as an axiom of geometry. Every proposition that is not an axiom of geometry must be demonstrated as following from the axioms of geometry, the proof must be formal, that is, the derivation of the proposition must be independent of the particular subject matter in question. Further evidence that early Greek thinkers were concerned with the principles of reasoning is found in the fragment called dissoi logoi and this is part of a protracted debate about truth and falsity.
Thales was said to have had a sacrifice in celebration of discovering Thales Theorem just as Pythagoras had the Pythagorean Theorem and Babylonian mathematicians knew his theorem for special cases before he proved it. It is believed that Thales learned that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle during his travels to Babylon, before 520 BC, on one of his visits to Egypt or Greece, Pythagoras might have met the c.54 years older Thales. The systematic study of proof seems to have begun with the school of Pythagoras in the sixth century BC. Indeed, the Pythagoreans, believing all was number, are the first philosophers to emphasize rather than matter. He is known for his obscure sayings and this logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, in contrast to Heraclitus, Parmenides held that all is one and nothing changes
Environmental philosophy is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the natural environment and humans place within it. It asks crucial questions about human environmental relations such as What do we mean when we talk about nature, what is the value of the natural, that is non-human environment to us, or in itself. How should we respond to challenges such as environmental degradation, pollution. How can we best understand the relationship between the world and human technology and development. And What is our place in the natural world, as such, it uniquely positions itself as a field set to deal with the challenges of the 21st Century. Environmental philosophy includes environmental ethics, environmental aesthetics, environmental hermeneutics, Environmental Philosophy re-emerged as a major social movement in the 1970s. The movement was an attempt to connect with humanitys sense of alienation from nature in a continuing fashion throughout history and this was very closely related to the development at the same time of ecofeminism, an intersecting discipline.
Since its areas of concern have expanded significantly, another debate that arose at this time was the debate over whether there really is such a thing as wilderness or not, or whether it is merely a cultural construct with colonialist implications. Since then, readings of history and discourse have become more critical. In this ongoing debate, a diversity of dissenting voices have emerged from different cultures across the globe questioning the dominance of Western assumptions and this has been alternately dubbed the postmodern and most recently post-naturalistic turn in environmental philosophy. Today, environmental philosophy is a burgeoning and increasingly relevant field, in 1984, George Sessions and Arne Naess articulated the principles of the new Deep Ecology Movement. These basic principles are, The well-being and flourishing of human and non-human life have value and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are values in themselves. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs, the flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease in the human population.
Present human interference with the world is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening. These policies affect basic economic and ideological structures, the resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present. The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality, rather adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. There will be an awareness of the difference between big and great. Those who subscribe to the points have an obligation directly or indirectly to try to implement the necessary changes
It is usually assumed, based on Platos Parmenides, that Zeno took on the project of creating these paradoxes because other philosophers had created paradoxes against Parmenides view. Plato has Socrates claim that Zeno and Parmenides were essentially arguing exactly the same point, some of Zenos nine surviving paradoxes are essentially equivalent to one another. Aristotle offered a refutation of some of them, three of the strongest and most famous—that of Achilles and the tortoise, the Dichotomy argument, and that of an arrow in flight—are presented in detail below. Zenos arguments are perhaps the first examples of a method of proof called reductio ad absurdum known as proof by contradiction and they are credited as a source of the dialectic method used by Socrates. Some mathematicians and historians, such as Carl Boyer, hold that Zenos paradoxes are simply mathematical problems, some philosophers, say that Zenos paradoxes and their variations remain relevant metaphysical problems. The origins of the paradoxes are somewhat unclear, Diogenes Laertius, a fourth source for information about Zeno and his teachings, citing Favorinus, says that Zenos teacher Parmenides was the first to introduce the Achilles and the tortoise paradox.
But in a passage, Laertius attributes the origin of the paradox to Zeno. In a race, the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a lead. – as recounted by Aristotle, Physics VI,9, 239b15 In the paradox of Achilles, Achilles allows the tortoise a head start of 100 meters, for example. If we suppose that each racer starts running at constant speed, after some finite time, Achilles will have run 100 meters. During this time, the tortoise has run a shorter distance. Thus, whenever Achilles reaches somewhere the tortoise has been, he still has farther to go, because there are an infinite number of points Achilles must reach where the tortoise has already been, he can never overtake the tortoise. That which is in locomotion must arrive at the stage before it arrives at the goal. – as recounted by Aristotle, Physics VI,9. Before he can get there, he must get halfway there, before he can get halfway there, he must get a quarter of the way there.
Before traveling a quarter, he must travel one-eighth, before an eighth, one-sixteenth, the resulting sequence can be represented as, This description requires one to complete an infinite number of tasks, which Zeno maintains is an impossibility. This sequence presents a problem in that it contains no first distance to run, for any possible first distance could be divided in half. Hence, the trip cannot even begin, the paradoxical conclusion would be that travel over any finite distance can neither be completed nor begun, and so all motion must be an illusion. An alternative conclusion, proposed by Henri Bergson, is that motion is not actually divisible and this argument is called the Dichotomy because it involves repeatedly splitting a distance into two parts
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta is a Senior research scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information. He received his Ph. D. in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1980, Zalta has taught courses at Stanford University, Rice University, the University of Salzburg, and the University of Auckland. Zalta is the Principal Editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Zaltas most notable philosophical position is descended from the position of Alexius Meinong and Ernst Mally, who suggested that there are many non-existent objects. On Zaltas account, some objects exemplify properties, while others merely encode them, while the objects that exemplify properties are discovered through traditional empirical means, a simple set of axioms allows us to know about objects that encode properties. For every set of properties, there is one object that encodes exactly that set of properties. This allows for a formalized ontology
Philosophy of education
As an academic field, philosophy of education is the philosophical study of education and its problems. its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy. The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. Although there is overlap, philosophy of education should not be conflated with educational theory, Philosophy of education should not be confused with philosophy education, the practice of teaching and learning the subject of philosophy. These theories are called educational philosophies, for example, a teacher might be said to follow a perennialist educational philosophy or to follow a perennialist philosophy of education. Date, 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC Platos educational philosophy was grounded in his vision of the ideal Republic, Education would be holistic, including facts, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class and he built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class.
While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it, both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual, at the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take a course in mathematics, astronomy. The first course in the scheme of education would last for ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science, at the age of 30 there would be another selection, those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysics and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of 50, Date, 1724–1804 Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves thinking whereas the latter does not. In addition to educating reason, of importance to him was the development of character.
Kant was a proponent of education and of learning by doing. Date, 1770–1831 Date,384 BC –322 BC Only fragments of Aristotles treatise On Education are still in existence and we thus know of his philosophy of education primarily through brief passages in other works. Aristotle considered human nature and reason to be important forces to be cultivated in education. Thus, for example, he considered repetition to be a key tool to develop good habits, the teacher was to lead the student systematically, this differs, for example, from Socrates emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas. Aristotle placed great emphasis on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects taught, subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading and mathematics, physical education and history, and a wide range of sciences
Philosophy of happiness
The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence and attainment of happiness. Philosophically, happiness can be understood as the goal of life or as an aspect of chance, indeed. Thus, philosophers usually explicate on happiness as either a state of mind, using Socrates as the main character in his philosophical dialogues, outlined the requirements for happiness in The Republic. In The Republic, Plato asserts that those who are moral are the ones who may be truly happy. Thus, one must understand the virtues, particularly justice. Aristotle held that eudaimonia is the goal of human thought and action, eudaimonia is usually translated as happiness, but human flourishing may be a more accurate translation. Eudaimonia involves activity, exhibiting virtue in accordance with reason, within the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle points to the fact that many aims are really only intermediate aims, and are desired only because they make the achievement of higher aims possible. Therefore, things such as wealth and courage are valued only in relation to other things, Aristotle regarded virtue as necessary for a person to be happy and held that without virtue the most that may be attained is contentment.
Aristotle has been criticized for failing to show that virtue is necessary in the way he claims it to be, oft regarded as the founder of Cynicism, advocated an ascetic life lived in accordance with virtue. Xenophon testifies that Antisthenes had praised the joy that sprang out of ones soul. He maintained that virtue was sufficient in itself to ensure happiness and he, along with all following Cynics, rejected any conventional notions of happiness involving money and fame, to lead entirely virtuous, and thus happy, lives. Thus, happiness can be gained through training and by living in a way which was natural for humans, rejecting all conventional desires. Diogenes of Sinope is most frequently seen as the embodiment of the philosophy. The Stoics themselves saw him as one of the few, if not only, stoicism was a school of philosophy established by Zeno of Citium. While Zeno was syncretic in thought, his influence were the Cynics. Stoics believe that virtue is sufficient for happiness, one who has attained this sense of virtue would become a sage.
This would only be achieved if one was to dedicate their life studying Stoic logic, Stoic physics, the Cyrenaics were a school of philosophy established by Aristippus of Cyrene. The school asserted that the good is positive pleasure
Philosophy of music
Philosophy of music is the study of. fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics, some basic questions in the philosophy of music are, What is the definition of music. What is the relationship between music and mind, what is the relationship between music and language. What does musical history reveal to us about the world, what is the connection between music and emotions. What is meaning in relation to music, explications of the concept of music usually begin with the idea that music is organized sound. There are many different ways of denoting the fundamental aspects of music which are more specific than sound, popular aspects include melody, rhythm, however, noise music may consist mainly of noise. Musique concrète often consists only of sound samples of non-musical nature, ambient music may consist of recordings of wildlife or nature. There was intense debate over absolute music versus program music during the late Romantic Era, advocates of the absolute music perspective argued that instrumental music does not convey emotions or images to the listener.
They claimed that music is not explicitly about anything and that it is non-representational. The idea of music developed at the end of the 18th century in the writings of authors of early German Romanticism, such as Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck. Adherents of the program music perspective believed that music could convey emotions, one example of program music is Berliozs Symphonie fantastique, in which the fourth movement is the composers depiction of a story about an artist who poisons himself with opium and is executed. The majority of opposition to absolute instrumental-based music came from composer Richard Wagner, wagners works were chiefly programmatic and often used vocalization, and he said that Where music can go no further, there comes the word… the word stands higher than the tone. Nietzsche wrote many commentaries applauding the music of Wagner and was in fact a composer himself. Some expressed a spiritual connection with music, in Part IV of his chief work, The World as Will and Representation, Arthur Schopenhauer said that music is the answer to the mystery of life.
The most profound of all the arts, it expresses the deepest thoughts of life, in The Immediate Stages of the Erotic, or Musical Erotic, a chapter of Either/Or, Søren Kierkegaard examines the profundity of music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the sensual nature of Don Giovanni. In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization, in the eighteenth century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment of music. The origin of this shift is sometimes attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century. Through their writing, the ancient term aesthetics, meaning sensory perception, in recent decades philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives from the Ancient Greek word ἠθικός ethikos, the branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values. As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions What is the best way for people to live, and What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances. In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice, justice. As a field of enquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics. Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as a set of concepts, the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word ethics is commonly used interchangeably with morality. And sometimes it is used narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition.
Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs, the word ethics in English refers to several things. It can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason in order to various kinds of ethical questions. As bioethicist Larry Churchill has written, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values, Ethics can be used to describe a particular persons own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example, Joe has strange ethics, the English word ethics is derived from an Ancient Greek word êthikos, which means relating to ones character. The Ancient Greek adjective êthikos is itself derived from another Greek word, meta-ethics asks how we understand, know about, and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question fixed on some particular practical question—such as, Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake. —cannot be a meta-ethical question, a meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions.
For example, Is it ever possible to have knowledge of what is right. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics, meta-ethics is important in G. E. In it he first wrote about what he called the naturalistic fallacy, moore was seen to reject naturalism in ethics, in his Open Question Argument. This made thinkers look again at second order questions about ethics, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into cognitivism and non-cognitivism, non-cognitivism is the claim that when we judge something as right or wrong, this is neither true nor false