Sonoma Creek is a 33.4-mile-long stream in northern California. It is one of two principal drainages of southern Sonoma County, with headwaters rising in the rugged hills of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park and discharging to San Pablo Bay, the northern arm of San Francisco Bay; the watershed drained by Sonoma Creek is equivalent to the wine region of Sonoma Valley, an area of about 170 square miles. The State of California has designated the Sonoma Creek watershed as a “Critical Coastal Water Resource”. To the east of this rectangular watershed is the Napa River watershed, to the west are the Petaluma River and Tolay Creek watersheds; this south flowing river drains the western slopes of the Mayacamas Range, the southern slopes of Annadel State Park and the eastern slopes of the Sonoma Mountains with intermittent winter flows in the higher tributary reaches. As the tributaries and headwaters reach the valley floor, a perennial stream cuts through scenic and valuable vineyards of Kenwood. Sonoma Creek veers west at Kenwood and cuts a gorge running parallel to Warm Springs Road, where it turns south to historic Glen Ellen, passing within one mile of Jack London State Historic Park and the Wolf House and thence southward paralleling Arnold Drive.
In the city of Sonoma it is an urban creek. Sonoma Creek discharges to the vast Napa-Sonoma Marsh at the northern tip of San Pablo Bay. Principal tributaries to the creek include Yulupa Creek, Graham Creek, Calabazas Creek, Bear Creek, Schell Creek, Fowler Creek. Headwaters rise on the west facing slopes of the inner coast southern Mayacamas Mountains, where the highest peaks are Hood Mountain, elevation 2750 feet and Bald Mountain, elevation 2729 feet, each of which has views of the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Nevada range; the headwaters cut through gorge and meadow of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park, which boasts 25 miles of self-guided trails and the Robert Ferguson Observatory. There is a 25 foot high waterfall, present only when fed by the winter rains but can persist until late May for high rainfall years such as 2006. In the 100 foot deep gorge into which the waterfall spills is a moist mixed forest habitat including California bay laurel, coast redwood, Douglas fir, big leaf maple, cherry holly and tanbark oak.
The understory boulder laden mosses. A prominent landform in this upper reach created by Sonoma Creek is Adobe Canyon. Locally part of this upper reach flow is sometimes called Adobe Creek. Tributaries near the headwaters include Graywood Creek. A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate its riparian zone. Winter-run Chinook salmon, Delta smelt and steelhead are the most prominent fishes. Anadromous fish movements in Sonoma Creek have been studied extensively not only in the mainstem Sonoma Creek, but in some of the tributaries; these investigations have demonstrated a historical decline in spawning and habitat value for these species due to sedimentation and secondarily to removal of riparian vegetation since the 1800s. A variety of salamanders and frogs are present; the federally listed as threatened California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park. Several endangered species present include California clapper rail, California black rail, California brown pelican, California freshwater shrimp, salt marsh harvest mouse, Suisun shrew, Sacramento splittail.
The above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail and black rail, which species are federally designated as threatened. California golden beaver were abundant along Sonoma Creek but were trapped out in the California Fur Rush of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In 1828 fur trapper Michel La Framboise travelled from the Bonaventura River to San Francisco and the missions of San José, San Francisco Solano and San Rafael Arcángel. La Framboise stated that "the Bay of San Francisco abounds in beaver", that he "made his best hunt in the vicinity of the missions"; the beaver were wiped out by the mid-nineteenth century but returned to Sonoma Creek from the Delta, in the 1990s. In 1996 a beaver family developed a taste for merlot grapevine bark in a vineyard beside the creek and were exterminated, leading to civic uproar and a shift to accommodate beaver resettlement. Sonoma Ecology Center executive director Richard Dale reports that although beavers fell trees and dam culverts, on balance they perform nearly "perfect stream restoration," because they cause the creation of deep pools, slowing the flow of flood water and enhancing fishery habitat.
New beavers have recolonized Sonoma Creek and are located in both Sonoma and Glen Ellen. A "keystone species", the beaver have created habitat that has, in turn, led to the return of river otter which have been sighted in the beaver pond below the Boyes Boulevard bridge in Boyes Hot Springs. Upland ecosystems drained include mixed California oak woodland and savannah woodland, In these upland reaches one finds plentiful black-tailed deer, skunk, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk and bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include: coast live oak, Garry
Temescal Creek (Northern California)
Temescal Creek is one of the principal watercourses in the city of Oakland, United States. The word "temescal" derives from the word temescalli, which means "sweat house" in the Nahuatl language of the Mexica people of Mexico; the name was given to the creek. It is surmised that the Peraltas or one of their ranch hands had seen local indigenous structures along the creek similar to those in other parts of New Spain which were called temescalli. Two forks begin in the Berkeley Hills in the northeastern section of Oakland, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, coming together in the Temescal district of Oakland flowing westerly across Oakland and Emeryville to San Francisco Bay; the north fork of Temescal Creek was renamed "Harwood's Creek" in the mid 19th century after an early claimant to grazing lands in the canyon above the Claremont neighborhood, retired sea captain and Oakland wharfinger William Harwood. It was renamed yet again "Claremont Creek" in the early 20th century after a residential development in the same vicinity, today's Claremont district.
The south fork begins in the northern section of Oakland's Montclair district, flowing southwest out of a canyon in the hills turning abruptly northwestward in the linear valley formed by the Hayward Fault. It flows into Lake Temescal, a natural sag pond, dammed in the 19th century to increase its capacity for use as a reservoir. Lake Temescal is now a public park; the creek continues out of Lake Temescal, curving westerly around the end of the shutter ridge in the Rockridge district of Oakland flowing in a line toward the Bay. Temescal Creek is a perennial stream, as such, was valued by early settlers. At its mouth, the indigenous Ohlone people, their predecessors, built up a large shellmound on the site of today's Emeryville, the largest and most studied shellmound on the shoreline of San Francisco Bay; when the area was part of the Peralta's Rancho San Antonio, the site near the shellmound was one of the landings for the ranch where their cattle and hides were loaded for shipping. Cattle and other livestock were slaughtered in this vicinity right up through the early 20th century for various meatpacking plants in an area which became known as "Butchertown".
It is believed that Temescal Creek once supported a population of rainbow trout, though urbanization and the damming at Lake Temescal have led to their decline. Archeological evidence indicates that coho salmon were likely found at one time in the creek; the Emeryville Shellmound is notable for its remains of beaver. Today, the creek is underground in culverts in the flatlands, but many stretches are open above Lake Temescal. In 2000, a segment of the creek below the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad in Emeryville became accessible to the public after the demolition of one of the buildings of the historic Sherwin-Williams paint factory in early 2000. Temescal Creek now flows in an open culvert through the 2002 Bay Street Mall development; this is just about the spot. A small informational park commemorating the creek and the Ohlone presence at the site is situated here. At Shellmound Street, which runs along the original Bay shoreline, the creek returns to a culvert which takes it to San Francisco Bay.
This straight course, however, is a imposition - the original course of the creek bent south and entered the Bay near the northern edge of the IKEA property. Temescal Creek near the mouth area is channelized with concrete linings; the mouth of Temescal Creek at the discharge to San Francisco Bay is tidal and consists of mudflats and marshland. Both banks of Temescal Creek in the lower area of Emeryville were part of the San Francisco Bay tidal floodplain and were extensively filled from about 1900 through the 1970s. Fill included slag and other inert materials originating from the Judson Steel plant; the Judson plant occupied much of the lower reach banks in Emeryville. Foundations remained of a shear, tin baler and conveyor as late as 1990 when the lower banks were renamed the "Chiron" site and re-developed. Sausal Creek Codornices Creek Schoolhouse Creek Strawberry Creek Durham's Place-Names of the San Francisco Bay Area, by David L. Durham, Published 2000 by Quill Driver Books, ISBN 1-884995-35-7 Friends of Temescal Creek
Redwood Creek (San Mateo County)
Redwood Creek is a 9.5-mile-long perennial stream located in San Mateo County, United States which discharges into South San Francisco Bay. The Port of Redwood City, the largest deepwater port in South San Francisco Bay, is situated on the east bank of Redwood Creek near its mouth, where the creek becomes a natural deepwater channel; the creek and city name, the latter first known as Red Woods City, was named because of the nearby coast redwood forest and lumbering industry. In 1851, a deep-water channel that ran inland to what is now Redwood City was discovered off of San Francisco Bay. Named Redwood Creek, this channel was used by the lumber companies to ship wood and logs from the redwood forests in the peninsula hills to San Francisco. A shipbuilding industry emerged, the first schooner was built in 1851 by G. M. Burnham and appropriately named "Redwood." Wooden shipbuilding remained an active industry until the last wooden ship built in Redwood City, called the "Perseverance," was launched in 1883.
The shipbuilding industry experienced a revival in the 1918s with the building of the first concrete ship in America, the SS Faith. Redwood Creek begins in the Woodside Glens neighborhood of Woodside, California just south of Interstate 280, below the terminus of Farm Hill Boulevard, it descends below Interstate 280 on the west side of Woodside Road, passing through the Menlo Country Club. At Alameda de las Pulgas it becomes an engineered concrete channel to El Camino Real, where it is daylighted before entering underground culverts in downtown Redwood City; the primary tributary to Redwood Creek is a stream named Arroyo Ojo de Agua which meets it underground at Broadway Street in Redwood City. As it crosses below US Highway 101 it becomes a tidal channel. Extensive mudflats and marsh areas are found along Redwood Creek near its mouth. Several side channel sloughs connect to Redwood Creek, the largest of, Westpoint Slough. Redwood Creek and Arroyo Ojo de Agua were fish sampled for Steelhead trout in 1981, but no trout were found.
The historical status of trout in the creek is unknown. At Stulsaft Park on the Arroyo de Ojo Agua tributary, a population of endangered Fountain Thistle was discovered in 2007, occupies seeps associated with serpentine soils. In Stulsaft Park it is found in an opening in a coffeeberry/bay laurel woodland; the plants may grow 6 feet tall and it is only found in a handful of locations in San Mateo County. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Dredging Seaport Centre Wetland Redwood Creek Watershed Map, Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks, Oakland Museum
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San
East Bay Municipal Utility District
East Bay Municipal Utility District, colloquially referred to as "East Bay Mud", is a public utility district which provides water and sewage treatment services for an area of 331 square miles in the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay. As of 2018, EBMUD provides drinking water for 1.4 million people in portions of Alameda County and Contra Costa County in California, including the cities of Richmond, El Cerrito, San Pablo, Lafayette, Orinda, Oakland, Emeryville, Albany, San Leandro, neighboring unincorporated regions, portions of cities such as Hayward and San Ramon. Sewage treatment services are provided for 685,000 people in an 88-square-mile area. EBMUD has an average annual growth rate of 0.8% and is projected to serve 1.6 million people by 2030. Headquartered in Oakland, EBMUD owns and maintains 2 water storage reservoirs on the Mokelumne River, 5 terminal reservoirs, 91 miles of water transmission aqueducts, 4,100 miles of water mains, 6 water treatment plants, 29 miles of wastewater interceptor sewer lines and a regional wastewater treatment facility rated at a maximum treatment capacity of 320 MGD.
Camanche Reservoir Pardee Reservoir Briones Reservoir Lafayette Reservoir San Pablo Reservoir Upper San Leandro Reservoir In 1923, EBMUD was founded due to the rapid population growth and severe drought in the area. The district constructed Pardee Dam on the Mokelumne River in the Sierra Nevada, a large steel pipe Mokelumne Aqueduct to transport the water from Pardee Reservoir across the Central Valley to the San Pablo Reservoir located in the hills of the East Bay region. In subsequent years, EBMUD constructed two additional aqueducts to distribute water to several other East Bay reservoirs. From the various large regional reservoirs, water is transported to treatment plants and delivered to local reservoirs and tanks, thence distributed by gravity to customers. In the 1980s with federal grant funding, EBMUD undertook a major facility expansion to accommodate wet weather waste water overflow; this project took many years of construction for implementation, after the planning and Environmental Impact Statement phases.
In 1994, the EBMUD board of directors approved the Seismic Improvement Plan, a $189 million capital project designed to minimize damage and disruption in the event of a potential earthquake along the Hayward Fault. One of EBMUD's main water supply lines, the Claremont Tunnel, traverses the Hayward Fault, the maximum credible earthquake along the fault could sever the tunnel, built in 1929; some of the major projects included in SIP were the Southern Loop Pipeline, a new 11-mile seismically-reinforced alternate route which would allow restoration of water service. The expected benefit of SIP was avoiding a potential $1.2 billion in lost revenue and damage resulting from a major earthquake. In May 2008, EBMUD announced severe austerity measures for its customers. With the easing of the drought, these measures were rescinded in 2010. EBMUD announced mandatory water rationing again in August 2014; the emergency regulations imposed during this prolonged drought were relaxed effective July 1, 2016, after the drought was declared ended.
As with other public entities, the District has underfunded liabilities for legacy costs. These include $89 million for retiree health. EBMUD has several sources of revenue for both sewage treatment enterprises; these sources include the sale of water, hydroelectric power, system capacity charges, sewage treatment charges, connection fees, wet weather facilities charges and property tax increments. In 2007, the water system was anticipated to generate a total of $375.5 million in revenue. Water sales account for 76 percent of the revenue, with System Capacity Charges generating an additional 7 percent in revenue. Property Tax Revenue is expected to generate an additional 5 percent of revenues, with interest, electric energy sales and other sources making up the remaining 12 percent of revenues. 90 percent of the water used by EBMUD comes from the 577 square mile protected Mokelumne River watershed. EBMUD has water rights for up to 325 million U. S. gallons per day or a total of 364,000 acre-feet per year.
In normal years, EBMUD reservoirs in the East Bay receive an additional 30,000 acre-feet of local water from runoff annually. In dry years and other losses can total more than the local runoff. Runoff from the Mokelumne watershed is not sufficient to meet EBMUD customer needs in times of severe drought. In April 2015, EBMUD declared a Stage 4 critical drought and has set a community-wide goal to reduce water use by 20%. To reach this goal, EBMUD has adopted new water rules that affect all customers and must supplement normal water supplies with water from additional sources, like 33,250 acre-feet from the Central Valley Project. EBMUD has enforced strict water restrictions in order to ensure all conservation measures are being taken. By the end of 2015, EBMUD was projected to have in storage 320,000 to 330,000 acre-feet of water. On May 10, 2016, EBMUD declared an end to the drought emergency, as their reservoirs had more water than average; the board voted to relax many of the water conservation rules and the 25% surcharge, effective July 1, 2016.
It announced that Pardee Reservoir had reached 100 percent of its capacity in January 2017 and had begun releasing excess water into Camanche Reservoir. EBMUD has begun considering
Mission Bay (San Francisco)
Mission Bay was a bay and the estuary of Mission Creek, on the west shore of San Francisco Bay, between Steamboat Point and Point San Quentin or Potrero Point. It is now filled in and is the location of the Mission Bay neighborhood of San Francisco. Mission Bay was a lagoon nestled inside of a +500 acre salt marsh and was occupied by year-round tidal waters; this area was a natural habitat and refuge for large water fowl populations that included ducks, herons, egrets and gulls. The Native American tribes who resided in this area were the Costanoan people who spoke eight different languages which delineated between the various tribelets; the tribe most prevalent in the Bay area was the Patwin people who resided in the area for over 5,000 years. By the early 19th century, European immigrants exposed the population to various deadly diseases that reduced the Patwin population dramatically. From the 1850s the area was used for shipbuilding and repair and meat production, oyster and clam fishing.
Beginning in the mid-1800s, in attempts to make this area suitable for building, Mission Bay like most of the shoreline of the city of San Francisco, was used as a convenient place to deposit refuse from building projects and debris from the 1906 earthquake. As the marsh stabilized with the weight of the infill, the area became an industrial district. With the addition of the railroad, Mission Bay became the home to shipyards, canneries, a sugar refinery and various warehouses. 1852 Coastal Survey Map showing Mission Bay and surrounds About Mission Bay/Mission Creek from sfsailtours.com accessed March 29, 2015. 1857 Coastal Survey Map showing Mission Bay and surrounds, with additions to 1852 map to up to 1857 About Mission Bay/Mission Creek from sfsailtours.com accessed March 29, 2015