Windsor is a city in Southwestern Ontario, situated on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan. Located in Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the city's population was 217,188 at the 2016 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous transborder conurbation, the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border. Windsor is a major contributor to Canada's automotive industry and has a storied history and a diverse culture. Known as the "Automotive Capital of Canada", Windsor's industrial and manufacturing heritage is responsible for how the city has developed through the years. At the time when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century, the Detroit River region was inhabited by the Huron, Odawa and Iroquois First Nations.
A French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal; the area was first named la Petite Côte. It was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle. Windsor's French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, François, Langlois and Lauzon; the current street system reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north–south street name indicates the name of the family that once farmed the land where the street is now located; the street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1797, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was established, it was renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England.
The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the city's oldest buildings, including Mackenzie Hall built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building is a community centre; the oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is owned by houses government offices; the François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history. Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, it was attacked by a band of rebels from Detroit. Windsor served as a theatre for the Patriot War that year. In 1846, Windsor had a population of about 300. Two steamboats offered service to Detroit; the barracks were still manned. There were various types of a bank agency and a post office; the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the northern United States along the Underground Railroad. Many went across the Detroit River to Windsor to escape pursuit by slave catchers.
There were estimated to be 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees who settled in Canada, with many settling in Essex County, Ontario. Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 became a town in 1858, gained city status in 1892; the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1, 1867. A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying more than 100 buildings. Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities until 1935, they are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was incorporated as a village in 1912. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status, it was incorporated as a town in 1858. These three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935; the nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1921 respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966. During the 1920s, alcohol prohibition was enforced in Michigan. Rum-running in Windsor was a common practice during that time.
On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were at least one hundred injured; the 45th anniversary of the event was commemorated by the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century; the Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, its contributions to World War I and World War II fighting efforts. It recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when Windsor aimed to become a city; the most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry", Richmond. Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until World War II by the local post office. Windsor has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons; the mean annual temperature
Ian Renwick McWhinney, OC, FRCGP, FCFP, FRCP, was an English physician and academic known as Canada's "Founding Father of Family Medicine" for his work in creating a family medicine program at the University of Western Ontario. Born in Burnley, England, he studied at Cheltenham College from 1940 to 1944. During World War II, he served with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After the war, he studied at Clare College, Cambridge and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital at the University of London, he practiced family medicine with his father in Stratford-upon-Avon for thirteen years. He was inspired by two articles, the work of James MacKenzie and a paper about postgraduate teaching in family practice in the New England Journal of Medicine; these led him to author his first book, The Early Signs of Illness: Observations in General Practice in 1964 and gain a Nuffield Traveling Fellowship in family medicine with Robert Haggerty at Harvard University. By 1968, he had moved his family away from his father and to the University of Western Ontario as the first chair of family medicine in Canada.
He became. He published around 110 articles during his lifetime and is best remembered for his influential A Textbook of Family Medicine. In 1989, he published Introduction to Family Medicine, now in its third edition. In his last years, he worked tirelessly on his writings. In 1997, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. In 2000, he was awarded honorary degrees from the University of Oslo and the University of Western Ontario. In 2006, he was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. McWhinney died on 28 September 2012; the Ian McWhinney Family Medicine Education Award is presented to a unique, innovative teacher of family medicine who has demonstrated impact in Canada
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Anesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before and after surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, pain medicine. A physician specialised in this field of medicine is called an anesthesiologist, anaesthesiologist or anaesthetist, depending on the country; the core element of the specialty is the study and use of anesthesia and anesthetics, since the 19th century anesthesiology has developed from an experimental field with non-specialist practitioners using novel, untested drugs and techniques into what is now a refined and effective field of medicine. In some countries, anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, their role can now extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, into fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery.
Various names are used for the specialty, those doctors who practise it, in different parts of the world: In North America and China, the medical study and application of anesthetics is called anesthesiology, a physician in the specialty is called an anesthesiologist. In these countries, the word "anesthetist" is used to refer to advanced non-physician providers of anesthesia services such as anesthesiologist assistants and nurse anesthetists. In some countries that are current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations–namely, United Kingdom, New Zealand and South Africa–the medical specialty is instead referred to as anaesthesia or anaesthetics, with an extra "a"; as such, in these countries the same term may be used to refer to the overall medical specialty, the medications and techniques that are used, the resulting state of loss of sensation. The term anaesthetist is used only to refer to a physician practising in the field; some countries which used "anaesthesia" and "anaesthetist", such as Ireland and Hong Kong, have transitioned to "anaesthesiology" and "anaesthesiologist", or are in the process of transition.
In most other parts of the world, the spelling anaesthesiology is most used when writing in English, a physician practising it is termed an anaesthesiologist. This is the spelling adopted by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and most of its most of its member societies, as well as the European Society of Anaesthesiology, it is the most used term found in the titles of medical journals; as a specialty, the core element of anesthesiology is the practice of anesthesia. This comprises the use of various injected and inhaled medications to produce a loss of sensation in patients, making it possible to carry out procedures that would otherwise cause intolerable pain or be technically unfeasible. Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs. Anesthesiologists are expected to have expert knowledge of human physiology, medical physics, pharmacology, as well as a broad general knowledge of all areas of medicine and surgery in all ages of patients, with a particular focus on those aspects which may impact on a surgical procedure.
In recent decades, the role of anesthesiologists has broadened to focus not just on administering anesthetics during the surgical procedure itself, but beforehand in order to identify high-risk patients and optimize their fitness, during the procedure to maintain situational awareness of the surgery itself so as to improve safety, as well as afterwards in order to promote and enhance recovery. This has been termed "perioperative medicine"; the concept of intensive care medicine arose in the 1950s and 1960s, with anesthesiologists taking organ support techniques that had traditionally been used only for short periods during surgical procedures, applying these therapies to patients with organ failure, who might require vital function support for extended periods until the effects of the illness could be reversed. The first intensive care unit was opened by Bjørn Aage Ibsen in Copenhagen in 1953, prompted by a polio epidemic during which many patients required prolonged artificial ventilation.
In many countries, intensive care medicine is considered to be a subspecialty of anesthesiology, anesthesiologists rotate between duties in the operating room and the intensive care unit. This allows continuity of care when patients are admitted to the ICU after their surgery, it means that anesthesiologists can maintain their expertise at invasive procedures and vital function support in the controlled setting of the operating room, while applying those skills in the more dangerous setting of the critically ill patient. In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology. Anesthesiologists have key roles in major trauma, airway management, caring other patients outside the operating theatre who have critical emergencies that pose an immediate threat to life, a
A Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis; this happens early in embryonic development at random in mammals, except in marsupials and in some extra-embryonic tissues of some placental mammals, in which the father's X chromosome is always deactivated. In humans with more than one X chromosome, the number of Barr bodies visible at interphase is always one fewer than the total number of X chromosomes. For example, men with Klinefelter syndrome have a single Barr body, whereas women with a 47,XXX karyotype have two Barr bodies. Barr bodies can be seen in the nucleus of neutrophils, at the rim of the nucleus in female somatic cells between divisions. A genotypical human female has only one Barr body per somatic cell, while a genotypical human male has none.
Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation is initiated from the X inactivation centre or Xic found near the centromere. The center contains twelve genes, seven of which code for proteins, five for untranslated RNAs, of which only two are known to play an active role in the X inactivation process and Tsix; the centre appears to be important in chromosome counting: ensuring that random inactivation only takes place when two or more X-chromosomes are present. The provision of an extra artificial Xic in early embryogenesis can induce inactivation of the single X found in male cells; the roles of Xist and Tsix appear to be antagonistic. The loss of Tsix expression on the future inactive X chromosome results in an increase in levels of Xist around the Xic. Meanwhile, on the future active X Tsix levels are maintained; this shift allows Xist to begin coating the future inactive chromosome, spreading out from the Xic. In non-random inactivation this choice appears to be fixed and current evidence suggests that the maternally inherited gene may be imprinted.
Variations in Xi frequency have been reported with age, the use of oral contraceptives, fluctuations in menstrual cycle and neoplasia. It is thought that this constitutes the mechanism of choice, allows downstream processes to establish the compact state of the Barr body; these changes include histone modifications, such as histone H3 methylation and histone H2A ubiquitination, as well as direct modification of the DNA itself, via the methylation of CpG sites. These changes help inactivate gene expression on the inactive X-chromosome and to bring about its compaction to form the Barr body. Reactivation of a Barr body is possible, has been seen in breast cancer patients. One study showed that the frequency of Barr bodies in breast carcinoma were lower than in healthy controls, indicating reactivation of these once inactivated X chromosomes. X-inactivation Sex-determination system Demethylation Acetylation Xist Tsix Links to full text articles are provided where access is free, in other cases only the abstract has been linked.
Alberts, B.. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition. Garland Science. Pp. 428–429. ISBN 978-0-8153-4072-0. Turnpenny & Ellard: Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics 13E
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city had a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census. London is at the confluence of the Thames River 200 km from both Toronto and Detroit; the city of London is a separated municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County, though it remains the county seat. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, who proposed the site for the capital city of Upper Canada; the first European settlement was between 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855. Since London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canada's 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a regional centre of healthcare and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College, several hospitals; the city hosts a number of musical and artistic exhibits and festivals, which contribute to its tourism industry, but its economic activity is centred on education, medical research and information technology.
London's university and hospitals are among its top ten employers. London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto and Sarnia, it has an international airport and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral and Ojibwe villages. Archaeological investigations in the region show aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years; the current location of London was selected as the site of the future capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, who named the village, founded in 1826. It did not become the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was an administrative seat for the area west of York. Locally, it was part of the Talbot Settlement, named for Colonel Thomas Talbot, the chief coloniser of the area, who oversaw the land surveying and built the first government buildings for the administration of the Western Ontario peninsular region.
Together with the rest of Southwestern Ontario, the village benefited from Talbot's provisions, not only for building and maintaining roads but for assignment of access priorities to main routes to productive land. At the time and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill Hungerford Hill. In 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, notwithstanding a brief rebellion led by Charles Duncombe; the British government located its Ontario peninsular garrison there in 1838, increasing its population with soldiers and their dependents, the business support populations they required. London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, at the time constructed of wooden buildings. One of the first casualties was the town's only fire engine.
The fire burned nearly 30 acres of land, destroying 150 buildings, before burning itself out the same day. One-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the province's first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speech, they were: the location of the court and administration in London in 1826. The population in 1846 was 3,500. Brick buildings included a jail and court house, large barracks. London had a fire company, a theatre, a large Gothic church, nine other churches or chapels, two market buildings. In 1845, a fire destroyed 150 buildings but most had been rebuilt by 1846. Connection with other communities was by road using stages that ran daily. A weekly newspaper was published and mail was received daily by the post office. On 1 January 1855, London was incorporated as a "city". In the 1860s, a sulphur spring was discovered at the forks of the Thames River while industrialists were drilling for oil; the springs became a popular destination for wealthy Ontarians, until the turn of the 20th century when a textile factory was built at the site, replacing the spa.
Records from 1869 indicate a population of about 18,000 served by three newspapers, churches of all major denominations and offices of all the major banks. Industry included several tanneries, oil refineries and foundries, four flour mills, the Labatt Brewing Company and the Carling brewery in addition to other manufacturing. Both the Great Western and Grand Trunk railways had stops here. Several insurance companies had offices in the city; the Crystal Palace Barracks, built in 1861, an octagonal brick building with eight doors and forty-eight windows, was used for events such the Provincial Agricultural Fair of Canada West held in London that year. It was visited by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor-General John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar and Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald.. Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a 3 month long military courses from 1865 at the School of Military Instruction in London.
Established by Militia General Order in 1865, the school enabled Officers of Militia or Candidates for Commission or promotion in the M
University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine
The University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine is the medical school of the University of Toronto. The faculty is based in the Discovery District of Downtown Toronto along with most of its teaching hospitals and research institutes. Founded in 1843, it is one of Canada's oldest institutions of medical studies, is known for the discovery of insulin and stem cells; the school was ranked 5th in the world and 1st in Canada by the U. S. News and World Education Rankings for Clinical Medicine in 2018, 11th in the world and 1st in Canada by the QS University Subject Rankings for Medicine in 2018; the university opened its medical school in 1843, providing instruction in medicine and medical sciences. In 1853, it suspended the school's teaching program and transferred teaching duties to the city's three proprietary schools: Trinity Medical College, the Toronto School of Medicine and Woman's Medical College; because proprietary schools could not grant degrees, the university's medical school retained the responsibility of holding examinations and conferring medical degrees.
As the university kept raising its standards, the medical examinations became rigorous and scientific. This led to fewer medical students from proprietary schools deciding to obtain university degrees, which were not required for medical practice at the time. In 1887, the university resumed medical teaching in its Faculty of Medicine; the faculty promptly absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine, which could no longer compete with the university as it faced heavy costs of scientific work and higher examination standards set by the faculty. The Faculty, in partnership with the University of Toronto Mississauga and Trillium Health Partners opened the Mississauga Academy of Medicine in August 2011 with 54 first-year students; as of 2014, the Academy has a total of 216 students enrolled in the four-year program. The new facility is located across two floors inside the new Terrence Donnelly Health Sciences Complex and provides brand new classrooms, seminar rooms, computer facilities, learning spaces and laboratories.
Students are provided with equipped student lounge and outdoor terrace to relax and socialize. Students are able to share lectures and learning experiences both inside and outside the classroom through advanced technologies. In 2016, the Faculty of Medicine will be implementing the new Foundations Curriculum, moving away from the traditional lecture based style of teaching based on anatomy, physiology and pharmacology and into a problem based learning approach with early clinical exposure, similar to the approach first pioneered at McMaster University Medical School; the Doctor of Medicine program at the University of Toronto has a total enrolment of about 850 students. In 2015, the average accepted undergraduate GPA was 3.96 and the median score in the numerically graded sections of the MCAT was 11. The University of Toronto is one of only a few programs in Canada to accept international students through its regular admission process, not only through contract with foreign governments; the faculty offers the M.
D./PhD degree jointly with University of Toronto doctoral programs, in addition to other degrees of master of science, master of public health, master of health science, doctor of philosophy, post-doctoral fellowships. The program for the Doctor of Medicine degree spans four years; the first two years are known as the preclerkship curriculum, during which M. D. candidates acquire the basic human anatomy knowledge. The principles of medical ethics and medical jurisprudence are taught in preclerkship; the final two years form the clerkship curriculum that takes place in hospitals and ambulatory clinics. The core clerkship rotations cover the essential medical specialties: surgery and internal medicine, paediatrics and gynecology, family medicine, ambulatory experience, emergency medicine, ophthalmology and dermatology. Additional rotations are devoted to elective clerkships that provide training in subdisciplines within the major specialties; the Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in the Greater Toronto Area and operates a health network that comprises twelve teaching hospitals with significant emphasis on tertiary care, including medical treatment and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad.
The faculty is associated with two level 1 adult trauma centres, a multi-organ transplant hospital, a pediatric hospital, a psychiatric hospital, a geriatric hospital, four rehabilitation institutes and several general hospitals. There are three hospital networks, which are the University Health Network, Our Shared Purpose and the Sinai Health System, as well as two major teaching hospitals outside of the system, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Mount Sinai Hospital; the University Health Network consists of three specialized hospitals: Toronto General Hospital for cardiology and organ transplants. Unity Health Toronto consists of St Michael's Hospital, an adult hospital and trauma center, Providence Healthcare, a rehabilitation institute and St. Joseph's Health Centre, a community teaching hospital. Sinai Health System consists of Mount Sinai Hospital, a general hospital and Bridgepoint Active Healthcare, a rehabilitation institute. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre is an adult hospital and trauma centerThe Hospital for Sick Children is the pediatric medical centre specializing in treatments for childhood diseases and injuries.
Rotations may involve community teaching hospitals, which include