The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the low frequency portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere; this global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide; the limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz through 60 Hz, appear as distinct peaks at low frequencies around 7.83 Hz, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz. In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth.
This lowest-frequency mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of 4.11 Hz, but this frequency can vary from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which compresses the upper wall of the closed cavity. The higher resonance modes are spaced at 6.5 Hz intervals, a characteristic attributed to the atmosphere's spherical geometry. The peaks exhibit a spectral width of 20% on account of the damping of the respective modes in the dissipative cavity; the 8th partial lies at 60 Hz. Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth's climate it has been suggested that they may be used to monitor global temperature variations and variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere, it has been speculated that extraterrestrial lightning may be detected and studied by means of their Schumann resonance signatures. Schumann resonances have been used to study the lower ionosphere on Earth and it has been suggested as one way to explore the lower ionosphere on celestial bodies.
Effects on Schumann resonances have been reported following geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances. More discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events – sprites, ELVES, other upper-atmospheric lightning. A new field of interest using Schumann resonances is related to short-term earthquake prediction. Interest in Schumann resonances was renewed in 1993 when E. R. Williams showed a correlation between the resonance frequency and tropical air temperatures, suggesting the resonance could be used to monitor global warming. In applied geophysics, the resonances of Schumann are used in the prospection of offshore hydrocarbon deposits. In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be good conductors. Assuming that the height of these layers is about 100 km above ground, he estimated that oscillations would have a period of 0.1 second. Because of this contribution, it has been suggested to rename these resonances "Schumann–FitzGerald resonances".
However FitzGerald's findings were not known as they were only presented at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, followed by a brief mention in a column in Nature. Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly, it took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925 were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere. Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918, it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, together with H. L. König, attempted to measure the resonant frequencies. However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963 that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise.
Since there has been an increasing interest in Schumann resonances in a wide variety of fields. Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; these signals are weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies. In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the n -th mode f n is determined by the Earth radius a and the speed of light c. F n = c 2 π a n The real Earth–ionosphere waveguide is not a perfect electromagnetic resonant cavity. Losses due to finite ionosphere electrical conductivity lower the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in the cavity, resulting in a resonance frequency that is
Schuman railway station
Schuman is a railway and metro station in the City of Brussels located above the Schuman metro station. The station serves the European quarter of Brussels; the rail station is an elevated station, though its northeastern end is "underground" as it enters a hillside. Its ticket office is located next to the metro station. Trains travelling between Brussels South station and Namur and Luxembourg call at the station; the NMBS/SNCB code for the station is FBSM. A new tunnel was due to open in time for December 2015 between Brussels-Schuman and Meiser, however this was delayed until April 2016; this tunnel offers connections to Brussels National Airport and stations on the East ring line of Brussels. The station is served by the following service: Intercity services Brussels - Namur - Arlon - Luxembourg Intercity services Brussels Airport - Brussels-Luxembourg - Namur - Dinant Intercity services Brussels - Namur - Dinant Intercity services Brussels - Namur - Liege Intercity services Brussels Airport - Brussels-Luxembourg - Nivelles - Charleroi Brussels RER services Aalst - Denderleeuw - Brussels-Luxembourg Brussels RER services Mechelen - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Halle - Enghien Brussels RER services Brussels - Etterbeek - Ottignies - Louvain-le-Neuve Brussels RER services Leuven - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Braine-l'Alleud Brussels RER services Schaarbeek - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Ottignies From 2008 to 2016 the station underwent major renovation works, increasing the station's capacity by 2 extra tracks.
These connect to a tunnel to the old Schaerbeek-Josaphat station on line 26, in order to offer direct quick connections to Antwerp and Brussels Airport. With this third connection, the station has become one of Brussels' largest, its new glass roof allows more daylight into the station. This station is in the centre of the European quarter of Brussels, being adjacent to the Berlaymont building, the Justus Lipsius building and numerous other EU offices; the station is named after the area around the Schuman roundabout, named after Robert Schuman. The station sits on the Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat, a major city thoroughfare, is close to Parc du Cinquantenaire/Jubelpark. Media related to Schuman station, Brussels at Wikimedia Commons A peek on the future Schuman Station - December 9, 2007 ifrancis blog Brussels explosion: Many dead in attacks on Zaventem airport and Metro
Schuman Roundabout, or Schuman Square, is a roundabout at the end of the Wetstraat / Rue de la Loi in Brussels that serves as a focus for major institutions of the European Union. It is named after Robert Schuman, one of the founding fathers of the European Union and gives its name to the surrounding district and Schuman station; the major buildings next to it are the Berlaymont building, headquarters of the European Commission, the Justus Lipsius building, used to hold low-level meetings of the Council of the European Union and provide office space to the Council secretariat. The roundabout is just to the east of the metro segment of Schuman station, which connects to heavy rail; the station is undergoing renovation to improve its interchange and link it to a new regional railway via a new tunnel. There are a web of rail and road tunnels running under and around the roundabout; the area is to see some major rebuilding as EU offices are converted into shops and other civilian uses and the roundabout will be converted into one of three pedestrian squares, the theme of the new Place Schumanplein will concentrate on "policy and politics".
Rue de la Loi / Wetstraat runs west-north-west towards the centre of Brussels, one-way. It continues east-south-east for a short distance towards the western end of Cinquantenaire park; the bulk of the traffic on this main carriageway avoids the roundabout by taking the tunnel underneath, the road becoming Avenue de Tervueren / Tervurenlaan and heading out of Brussels east / east-south-east towards Woluwe-Saint-Pierre and Tervuren. Kortenberglaan / Avenue de Cortenbergh leads north-east towards Schaerbeek and Place de Jamblinne de Meux; the Rue Belliard / Belliardstraat tunnel follows this route, leading out towards Diamant premetro station and the E40. Archimedestraat / Rue Archimède leads north towards Square Ambiorix. Avenue d'Auderghem / Oudergemselaan runs south-east through the middle of Etterbeek, towards the La Chasse junction and Auderghem. Rue Froissart / Froissartstraat is one of the smaller roads leaving the roundabout, heading towards Place Jourdan
The Schuman Declaration is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950. It proposed to place German production of coal and steel under one common High Authority; this organization would be open to participation of Western European countries. This cooperation was to be designed in such a way as to create common interests between European countries which would lead to gradual political integration, a condition for the pacification of relations between them: “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan, it will be built through concrete achievements. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany”. Schuman's speech did not fall on deaf ears, as West German Chancellor Adenauer responded swiftly with a positive reply as did the governments of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Within one year, on 18 April 1951, the six founding members signed the Treaty of Paris, it created Steel Community - Europe's first supranational Community.
This organization paved the way for the European Economic Community and subsequently the European Union, still run by the innovative type of European institutions conceived in 1950. However, Schuman's efforts did not stop there, he became a great proponent of further integration through a European Defence Community and in 1958 he became the first President of the predecessor to the current European Parliament. When he left office the Parliament bestowed on him the title of ‘Father of Europe’; because of the significance of his ‘Schuman Declaration’ on 9 May 1950, this day has been designated as ‘Europe Day’. And, in honour of his pioneering work towards a united Europe, the district housing the headquarters of several European Union institutions in Brussels is named after him; the new Cold War split Europe between two spheres of influence. With the desire not to repeat such destruction, there was a strong momentum towards European co-operation. Winston Churchill, standing next to Robert Schuman, had called for Franco-German reconciliation in a united Europe in a speech in Metz on 14 July 1946.
In Zurich, Churchill called for a "United States of Europe" and, in the meantime, the formation of a "Council of Europe". Anxious to see greater European economic integration in order to be able to form a block against the Soviet Union, the US used the Marshall Plan to force the adoption of more open markets as a prerequisite to receive aid; the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was founded in 1948 to help coordinate the Marshall Plan. Its guiding principles were: promote co-operation between participating countries and their national production programmes for the reconstruction of Europe, develop intra-European trade by reducing tariffs and other barriers to the expansion of trade, study the feasibility of creating a customs union or free trade area, study multi-lateralisation of payments, achieve conditions for better utilisation of labour; the United States directly funded prominent European pro-federalists through the government funded American Committee on United Europe.
Under the Monnet Plan of 1946–1950, designed to increase French steel production at the expense of Germany, France had absorbed the Saarland, a center for coal mining, from Germany and turned it into a protectorate. French attempts to detach the industrial region of the Ruhr with its many steel plants and coal mines from Germany met with greater resistance. However, in 1949 the International Authority for the Ruhr was founded, it was an international body that set limits on the production and production capacity in the Ruhr, controlled distribution of the production, i.e. export or domestic. The organisation was dissolved with the introduction of the common market and the European Coal and Steel Community. In speeches before the United Nations, Schuman announced that a revitalized Germany must be placed inside a European democracy; the Council of Europe was duly created to provide the great framework of a European union in which the European Communities could be inserted. The Council was a herald of these supranational communities to come on the path to a full European integration.
Schuman had stated that the idea of a European Coal and Steel Community dated from before he attended university. Schuman initiated policies in preparation for this major change of European politics while Prime Minister of France and Foreign Minister from 1948 onwards, he spoke about the principles of sharing European resources in a supranational union at the signing of the Statute of the Council of Europe in London, 5 May 1949. The Declaration had several distinct aims, which it tackled together: It marked the birth of Europe as a political entity It aimed to make war between Member States impossible It encouraged world peace It would transform Europe by a'step by step' process leading to the unification of Europe, including both East and West Europe separated by the Iron Curtain The world's first international anti-cartel agency It created a single market across the Community This, starting with the coal and steel sector, would revitalise the whole European economy by similar community processes It claimed to improve the world economy and of the developing countries, such as those in Africa.
According to Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl, Schuman made a speech arguing that the Schuman Plan was a continuation of the Monnet Plan, that it was for the sake of supporting French steel exports that they had taken on that task. Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl says. However, Prof Ritschl cites no sou
Robert Schumann was a German composer and influential music critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, his teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann focused his musical energies on composing. In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with Wieck, who opposed the marriage, Schumann married Wieck's daughter Clara. Before their marriage, Clara—also a composer—had supported her father through her considerable career as a pianist. Together and Robert encouraged, maintained a close relationship with German composer Johannes Brahms; until 1840, Schumann wrote for the piano. He composed piano and orchestral works, many Lieder, he composed four symphonies, one opera, other orchestral and chamber works. His best-known works include Carnaval, Symphonic Studies, Kinderszenen and the Fantasie in C, his writings about music appeared in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, a Leipzig-based publication that he co-founded.
Schumann suffered from a mental disorder that first manifested in 1833 as a severe melancholic depressive episode—which recurred several times alternating with phases of "exaltation" and also delusional ideas of being poisoned or threatened with metallic items. After a suicide attempt in 1854, Schumann was admitted at his own request to a mental asylum in Endenich near Bonn. Diagnosed with psychotic melancholia, he died two years at the age of 46 without recovering from his mental illness. Schumann was born in Zwickau, in the Kingdom of Saxony, the fifth and last child of Johanna Christiane and August Schumann. Schumann began to compose before the age of seven, but his boyhood was spent in the cultivation of literature as much as music—undoubtedly influenced by his father, a bookseller and novelist. At age seven, Schumann began studying general music and piano with Johann Gottfried Kuntzsch, a teacher at the Zwickau high school; the boy developed a love of music, worked on his own compositions, without the aid of Kuntzsch.
Though he disregarded the principles of musical composition, he created works regarded as admirable for his age. The Universal Journal of Music 1850 supplement included a biographical sketch of Schumann that noted, "It has been related that Schumann, as a child, possessed rare taste and talent for portraying feelings and characteristic traits in melody,—ay, he could sketch the different dispositions of his intimate friends by certain figures and passages on the piano so and comically that everyone burst into loud laughter at the similitude of the portrait."At age 14, Schumann wrote an essay on the aesthetics of music and contributed to a volume, edited by his father, titled Portraits of Famous Men. While still at school in Zwickau, he read the works of the German poet-philosophers Schiller and Goethe, as well as Byron and the Greek tragedians, his most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, a German writer whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, Selene.
Schumann's interest in music was sparked by attending a performance of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Karlsbad, he developed an interest in the works of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. His father, who had encouraged his musical aspirations, died in 1826 when Schumann was 16. Thereafter, neither his mother nor his guardian encouraged him to pursue a music career. In 1828, Schumann left school, after a tour during which he met Heinrich Heine in Munich, he went to Leipzig to study law. In 1829, he continued his law studies in Heidelberg, where he became a lifelong member of Corps Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg. During Eastertide 1830, he heard the Italian violinist, violist and composer Niccolò Paganini play in Frankfurt. In July he wrote to his mother, "My whole life has been a struggle between Poetry and Prose, or call it Music and Law." By Christmas he was back in Leipzig, at age 20 taking piano lessons from his old master Friedrich Wieck, who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist after a few years' study with him.
During his studies with Wieck, some stories claim that Schumann permanently injured a finger on his right hand. Wieck claimed that Schumann damaged his finger by using a mechanical device that held back one finger while he exercised the others—which was supposed to strengthen the weakest fingers. Clara Schumann discredited the story, saying the disability was not due to a mechanical device, Robert Schumann himself referred to it as "an affliction of the whole hand." Some argue that, as the disability appeared to have been chronic and have affected the hand, not just a finger, it was not caused by a finger strengthening device. Schumann devoted himself instead to composition. To this end he began a study of music theory under Heinrich Dorn, a German composer six years his senior and, at that time, conductor of the Leipzig Opera. About this time Schumann considered composing an opera on the subject of Hamlet; the fusion of literary ideas with musical ones—known as program music—may have first taken shape in Papillons, Op. 2, a musical portrayal of events in Jean Paul's novel Die Flegeljahre.
In a letter from Leipzig dated April 1832, Schumann bids his brothers, "Read the last scene in Jean Paul's Flegeljahre as soon as possible, because the Papillons are intended as a musical repre
Robert Schuman University
The Université Robert Schuman known as Strasbourg III or URS, was a university in Strasbourg, France. In 2007, there were nearly 10,000 students enrolled at the university, including more than 1,500 foreign students; the university tended to teach and research in fields such as law and international relations. This university included three grande écoles, the Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg, the Institut Européen d'Etudes Commerciales Supérieures de Strasbourg, the Centre Universitaire d'Enseignement du Journalisme; the Université Robert Schuman was named after the politician Robert Schuman, not to be confused with composer Robert Schumann. On 1 January 2009, Robert Schuman University became part of the refounded University of Strasbourg and lost its status as an independent university. Centre for International Industrial Property Studies Institut Européen d'Etudes Commerciales Supérieures de Strasbourg Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg University of Strasbourg Robert Schuman Institute Université Robert Schuman