The Vogelsberg is a large volcanic mountain range in the German Central Uplands in the state of Hesse, separated from the Rhön Mountains by the Fulda river valley. Emerging 19 million years ago, the Vogelsberg is Central Europe's largest basalt formation, consisting of a multitude of layers that descend from their peak in ring-shaped terraces to the base; the main peaks of the Vogelsberg are the Taufstein, 773.0 metres, Hoherodskopf, 763 metres, both now within the High Vogelsberg Nature Park. The Vogelsberg lies in the county of Vogelsbergkreis, around 60 kilometres northeast of Frankfurt between the towns of Alsfeld, Fulda, Büdingen and Nidda. To the northeast is the Knüll, to the east the Rhön, to the southeast the Spessart and to the southwest the low-lying Wetterau, which transitions to the South Hessian lowlands of the Rhine-Main region. In the opposite direction, to the northwest, the Vogelsberg transitions into parts of the West Hesse Highlands, whilst retaining the name and the basalt rocks that bear its name continue well beyond the actual Vogelsberg.
The Vogelsberg is the largest contiguous volcanic region in Central Europe with an area of 2,500 square kilometres. It comprises many individual volcanoes, which are superimposed, thus it consists of a multitude of overlapping basalt terraces, which descend from the Oberwald, the high central plateau, 600 to 773 metres high, in series of stepped rings to the edges of the mountain region. Its present appearance, reminiscent of a large flat, shield-shaped volcano with a central dome, is the result of an interplay of uplift processes and ablation acting on all sides; the volcanic activity in the Vogelsberg, as well as that of the North Hessian Volcanic Region to the north which extends as far as Adelebsen in Lower Saxony, is connected with fault block activity that, during the Tertiary, led to the formation of the Lower Hessian Basin. It began in North Hesse about 20 million years ago during the lower Miocene, reached a peak about 13-12 million years ago and came to an end about 7 million years ago, during the upper Miocene.
The volcanism of the Vogelsberg was active during the Middle Miocene, according to potassium-argon dating 18.5-10 million years ago, reaching its peak 17-15 million years ago. As a result of volcanic activity basaltic lava and pyroclastic deposits were formed. During the course of this volcanicity and phonolite were produced in the early stages alkali-olivine basalts were deposited, which alternated with tholeiites; these volcanic products overlaid a basement of bunter sandstone and tertiary sands, in small areas in the east rocks of the muschelkalk and keuper. Erosion following the Miocene wore away the contiguous basalt nappes, which reached as far as the area of the Lower Main, back to isolated deposits in the central complex. Under tropical to subtropical conditions, the volcanic rocks were turned into red clays by lateritic weathering. In many places, red clays collected and bauxite was formed; these deposits were mined over a long period of time in order to produce raw materials for industry, the basalt was and still is a popular raw material for gravel and natural stone production.
The division of the Vogelsberg into individual natural regions is based, on the one hand, on the relief of the mountain range from its highest point towards the outside and, on the other hand, on its river catchments which radiate outwards: the catchments of the Eder, Lower Fulda and Lahn. The following natural regions form the Vogelsberg: 350 Lower Vogelsberg 350.1 Northern Lower Vogelsberg 350.2 Northwestern Lower Vogelsberg 350.3 Eastern Lower Vogelsberg 350.4 Western Lower Vogelsberg 350.5 Southern Lower Vogelsberg 350.6 Giesel Forest 351 High Vogelsberg 351.0 Western High Vogelsberg 351.1 Eastern High Vogelsberg 351.2 OberwaldSoils and rocks are, in all parts of the Vogelsberg – with the exception of the Giesel Forest – similar, but average annual temperatures drop noticeably towards the centre of the range and the annual precipitation rises towards the Oberwald to an average of 1,200 mm. The basalt areas of the Vogelsberg continue towards the east and north into its neighbouring natural regions, whilst the Giesel Forest in the east is on bunter sandstone, like the rest of the natural regions towards the east.
The Vogelsberg massif has stone runs of basalt and tuff, raised bogs and areas of ancient woodland. Numerous hiking trails cross, not only the Oberwald, but the rest of the area; the Oberwald is the heart of the Vogelsberg and is wooded. In outer areas of the Vogelsberg, by contrast, there is a tapestry of green pasture, arable fields and woodlands. Large parts of the Oberwald are protected. For example, the beech wood in the Taufstein Nature Reserve has been left to manage itself since 1906. On the northern slopes of the Taufstein are large stone runs of basalt; the valleys of the Western and Eastern High Vogelsberg lie at heights of over 500 m in the north. In the west, some descend to under 400 m. In the main, the boundaries follow the watersheds of the source region of the most important rivers and that of the Rhine-Weser watershed, which runs from southeast to northwest, the Lahn-Main watershed wh
Wabern is a community in the Schwalm-Eder district in northern Hesse, Germany. It lies on the Main-Weser Railway between Frankfurt. From Wabern, the Edersee Railway runs to Bad Wildungen; the main centre of Wabern lies on the Eder and Schwalm floodplain, a few kilometres south of where the Schwalm empties into the Eder. The community of Wabern consists of ten centres, the main centre, bearing the same name as the whole municipality, the nine outlying villages of Hebel, Falkenberg, Unshausen, Zennern, Niedermöllrich and Harle. For a long time, Wabern was an important railway hub, where the Sauerland Line to Brilon branched off the Frankfurt-Kassel-Hanover mainline. Today the branchline ends at Bad Wildungen. A big sugar factory processes the sugar beets in the autumn; these are grown over a wide area around the community. In June 2015 Claus Steinmetz was elected mayor with 60,7 % of the votes. Lormaison, France The local stately home, Landgrave Karl von Hesse's Jagd- und Lustschloss Wabern, was built in 1701 so that the Landgrave could practise falconry in the nearby Reiherwald.
In 1770 some remodelling work was done under the well known Baroque architect Simon Louis du Ry. The Schloss nowadays houses a youth centre; the Evangelical Church was built in the 18th century. It has a Rococo organ worth seeing. Karl Schmidt, footballer Wilhelm Dilich, engraver Rolf Hocke, football official Fritz Harney, industrialist Philipp Losch, historian Ludwig Schneider, politician Arnold Strippel, SS Obersturmführer and war criminal Wabern
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Schwalmstadt is the largest town in the Schwalm-Eder district, in northern Hesse, Germany. It was established only in 1970 with the amalgamation of the towns of Treysa and Ziegenhain together with some outlying villages to form the town of Schwalmstadt. Schwalmstadt lies in the Schwalm region in a low mountain range. Through the town flows the river Schwalm; the nearest large towns are Kassel, Bad Hersfeld and Fulda. Besides the core of Treysa and Ascherode, the town consists of the centres of Allendorf an der Landsburg, Florshain, Michelsberg, Rommershausen, Rörshain, Trutzhain and Wiera. In the 8th century, Treise was owned by the Abbots of Hersfeld; the Counts of Cigenhagen were named in a document for the first time in 1144. In 1186, Treysa was fortified. Treysa's landmark, the Martinskirche, nowadays known as the Totenkirche, was built in 1230. Treysa was granted town rights sometime between 1229 and 1270, the same rights were bestowed upon Ziegenhain in 1274. After the last Count's death in 1450, the county passed to Hesse.
The Landgraves of Hesse had the castle in Ziegenhain remodelled into a stately home in 1470, between 1537 and 1548, Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse had it built into a fortification with a moat. In August 1945, the proceedings to establish the Evangelical Church in Germany took place in Treysa in an event known as the Church Conference of Treysa; the meeting brought about the merger of the Lutheran and United state churches. Two further church gatherings in May 1946 and June 1947 tried to start discussion about divergent perceptions of the Eucharist, dealt with Denazification; as part of Hesse's municipal reforms, the two towns of Treysa and Ziegenhain, along with their outlying villages, were united in 1970 into the Town of Schwalmstadt, since they have existed only as constituent communities of a larger municipality. In 1995, with the motto "Hessisch Willkommen", Schwalmstadt hosted the 35th Hessentag state festival. In the Marburg State Archive, Rommerhausen is first mentioned under the name "Rumershusen" in 1243.
In 1360 it was called "Romirshusin" and in 1365 "Rumershusen", but it has gone by its current name since 1419. On 3 April 1916 at 15:30, a cosmic lump of iron fell to earth in a woodlot near Rommershausen; this was named, after the place where it was found, the Meteorite of Rommershausen, it has gone down in German astronomic history as Germany's greatest verifiable observed meteorite impact. Rommershausen has been part of Schwalmstadt since the municipal reforms in the 1970s. During the Second World War, Ziegenhain was home to a prisoner of war camp, Stalag IX-A, after the war to a displaced persons camp at the same facility; the camp is now the constituent community of Trutzhain. Some of the barracks still have been converted into houses. Schwalmstadt Town Council has 37 members; as of the municipal elections held in 2011, the council seats are apportioned thus: On 3 June 2012, Dr. Gerald Näser was elected new mayor with 53% of the vote, his opponent was Dr. Fabio Longo of the SPD; the turnout was 54.1%.
Näser took office on 1 October 2012. He was temporarily replaced by Detlef Schwierzeck. In 2016, Stefan Pinhard was elected as the new mayor and took office on 1 December 2016. Schwalmstadt's civic coat of arms might be heraldically described thus: Or a goat-headed spreadeagle sable armed and attired gules, surmounted by a roundel argent in which a mullet of six of the third; the heraldic elements are historical symbols from both former towns and the old County of Ziegenhain. Schwalmstadt's coat of arms bears a keen likeness to Schwarzenborn's. Canton of Loriol-sur-Drôme, Département Drôme, France Zwalm, East Flanders, Belgium Schwalmstadt's local THW association was founded in 1961; the local association has, among a technical team with a positioning section. Eckhardt-Vonholt-Schule Ziegenhainer Grundschule am Alleeplatz Brüder-Grimm-Schule Allendorf Grundschule Niedergrenzebach Mittelpunkt Grundschule Herrmann-Schuchard-Schule Ludwig-Braun-Schule Schule im Ostergrund Friedrich-Trost-Schule Carl-Bantzer-Schule Sankt-Martin-Schule Schwalmgymnasium Berufliche Schulen Schwalmstadt Fachhochschule Hephata Stenografenverein 1925 Treysa e. V. Schwalmstadion Stadion am Fünften Landsburg Stadion Allendorf Europabad und ein Freibad Minigolf course Riding Inline skating path Youth centres Schwalmstadt gliding ground Recreational vehicle grounds several football fields Schwalmberg Open-Air Stage Totenkirche Open-Air Stage Castle Theatre Culture Hall Trutzhain Theatre Club: "Trutzhainer Bühne" German Typewriter Museum Museum of the Schwalm, Ziegenhain Trutzhain Memorial and Museum Treysa's and Ziegenhain's historic Old Towns with many half-timbered houses.
Totenkirche with "Buttermilk Tower" in Treysa Town parish church Old Hospital in Treysa Hexenturm in Treysa Schloss with wall graves and parade square in Ziegenhain Town Hall and Johannisbrunnen in Treysa Hünengrab near Wiera Through Schwalmstadt run Federal Highways (
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The Eder is a 177-kilometre long major river in Germany that begins in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia and passes in to Hesse, where it confluences with the River Fulda. The river was first mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus. In his Annals, he describes the Roman campaign against the Chatti under the command of Germanicus in 15 AD. Forty-five thousand soldiers of the Roman army destroyed the major centre of the Chatti, directly after they crossed the Adrana. In the Middle Ages, the river was known by the names. On the banks of the Eder, in the town of Schwarzenau, near Bad Berleburg, a religious group was founded in August 1708. Eight adults were baptised thrice in the Eder; this group emigrated to America. As late as up to the end of the 19th Century, the river was known in local dialect as Edder. For instance, in Felsberg-Gensungen, the pharmacy is known as the Edder-Apotheke. Sediments of the Eder contain a proportion of gold; the majority of this gold is said to originate from Eisenberg, which contains one of the largest reserves of gold in Middle Europe.
Gold is eroded out of the Eisenberg, for example, by the Itter stream, since the Edersee dam was built, flows into the Edersee lake. Gold panning in the Eder has been known since 1308; the main historical area for panning the gold is between Fritzlar. In the 14th Century, the Teutonic Order panned gold out of the Eder sediments near Obermöllrich. In the 18th Century ducats were minted from Eder gold. Up to the 1970s, school children from Duisburg, who stayed at a nearby holiday camp, together with a teacher from Marienhagen, part of the town of Vöhl, went panning for gold in the sediments of the River Itter. Panning for gold along the Eder is still popular; the river rises from the Ederkopf mountain in the Rothaar mountain range in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, near the springs of the Lahn and Sieg rivers. However, unlike the Lahn and Sieg, which are both tributaries of the Rhine, the Eder flows east and north, into the river Fulda at Edermünde, south of Kassel; the Fulda confluences with the Werra River at Hann.
Münden to form the Weser River, which flows in to the North Sea. The Edersee Dam is situated below the town of Waldeck, it is constructed of rock and concrete, is 47 metres high and 400 metres long. It was completed in 1914, it forms the Edersee lake, 27 kilometres long and contains 200 million cubic metres of water. This is used to generate hydroelectricity and to regulate water levels for shipping on the Weser river. At low water in late summer, during dry years, the remnants of three villages and a bridge across the original river bed, submerged when the lake was filled in 1914, can be seen. Descendants of those buried. On the night of the 17 May 1943, Avro Lancaster bombers of the RAF 617 Squadron used specially-developed bouncing bombs that were engineered by Barnes Wallis, they were used to destroy the Möhne and Eder dams, as part of Operation Chastise. The dam was in use again before the end of the year; the story of the raid was documented by the 1955 film called The Dam Busters. The most important tributaries of the Eder are: rivers that used to flow to the Eder, but now flow in to the Edersee lake
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg