Darrell Charles Schweitzer is an American writer and critic in the field of speculative fiction. Much of his focus has been on dark fantasy and horror, although he does work in science fiction and fantasy. Schweitzer is a prolific writer of literary criticism and editor of collections of essays on various writers within his preferred genres. Schweitzer was born in son of Francis Edward and Mary Alice Schweitzer, he attended Villanova University from 1970–1976, from which he received a B. S. in geography and an M. A. in English. He started his literary career as a columnist, he worked as an editorial assistant for Isaac Asimov's SF Magazine from 1977–1982 and Amazing Stories from 1982–1986, was co-editor with George H. Scithers and John Gregory Betancourt of Weird Tales from 1987–1990 and sole editor of the same magazine from 1991–1994 and its successor, Worlds of Fantasy & Horror, from 1994–1996. From 1998–2007 he was again co-editor of the revived Weird Tales, first with Scithers and with Scithers and Betancourt.
He has been a part-time literary agent for the Owlswick Agency in Philadelphia. And a World Fantasy Award judge, he is a member of Horror Writers of America. He works in the Philadelphia area. Most of Schweitzer's fiction is in the areas of dark horror, he works most in fiction of shorter lengths, though he has written a number of novels. His first, The White Isle, an epic, disillusioning quest to the underworld, was written in 1976 but remained unpublished until 1989; the Shattered Goddess takes place in a far future "Dying Earth" setting, which he revisited for a sequence of short stories collected as Echoes of the Goddess. The first work in his tales of the world of the Great River focusing on child-sorcerer Sekenre, "To Become a Sorcerer", was nominated for the 1992 World Fantasy Award for Best Novella and expanded into the novel The Mask of the Sorcerer. Additional stories in the series have been collected in Sekenre: The Book of the Sorcerer, his latest novel, The Dragon House, melds his customary dark tone with elements of humor in a lighter work for young adults.
Other works include his stories of the lapsed knight Julian, most collected in We Are All Legends, his tales of legendary madman Tom O'Bedlam, numerous works utilizing H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos, a large body of unconnected short stories. Schweitzer is an authority on the history of speculative fiction and has written numerous critical and bibliographical works on both the field in general and such writers as Lord Dunsany, H. P. Lovecraft, Robert E. Howard. Many of his essays and author interviews have been collected into book form, he has edited a number of anthologies and short story collections. Together with his editorial colleagues Schweitzer won the 1992 World Fantasy Award special award in the professional category for Weird Tales, his poem Remembering the Future won the 2006 Asimov's Science Fiction's Readers' Award for best poem. Steve Behrends. "Holy Fire: Darrell Schweitzer's Imaginative Fiction". Studies in Weird Fiction 5: 3-11. "Dreamer on the wildside" – 2004 interview by Cold Print magazine "Spotlight on Darrell Schweitzer" – 2007 interview by Portal Press Books Darrell Schweitzer at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Darrell Schweitzer at Library of Congress Authorities, with 32 catalog records
Brian David Schweitzer is an American politician who served as the 23rd Governor of Montana from January 5, 2005, to January 7, 2013. Schweitzer served for a time as chair of the Western Governors Association as well as the Democratic Governors Association, he served as President of the Council of State Governments. Schweitzer was born in Havre, the fourth of six children of Kathleen Helen and Adam Schweitzer, his paternal grandparents were ethnic Germans from Kuchurhan in the Odessa Oblast. He is a first cousin, once removed, of entertainer Lawrence Welk. Following his high school years at Holy Cross Abbey, Canon City, Colorado in 1973, Schweitzer earned his bachelor of science degree in international agronomy from Colorado State University in 1978 and a master of science in soil science from Montana State University, Bozeman in 1980. Upon finishing school, Schweitzer worked as an irrigation developer on projects in Africa, Asia and South America, he spent several years working in Libya and Saudi Arabia, speaks Arabic.
He returned to Montana in 1986 to launch a irrigation business in Whitefish. Bill Clinton appointed Schweitzer to the United States Department of Agriculture as a member of the Montana USDA Farm Service Agency Committee, where he worked for seven years. While working for the USDA, he was appointed to the Montana Rural Development Board and the National Drought Task Force. In 2000, Schweitzer ran for the U. S. Senate to challenge Republican incumbent Conrad Burns. Burns faced a difficult re-election campaign. In February 1999, he announced that he would break his 1988 promise to only hold office for two terms, claiming "Circumstances have changed, I have rethought my position." That same month, while giving a speech about U. S. dependence on foreign oil to the Montana Equipment Dealers Association, Burns referred to Arabs as "ragheads". Burns soon apologized, saying he "became too involved" during the speech. Burns faced trouble regarding deaths from asbestos in Montana. While he supported a bill to limit compensation in such cases, he withdrew his support for the bill, under public criticism, added $11.5 million for the town to an appropriations bill.
While Burns attempted to link Schweitzer with presidential candidate Al Gore, Schweitzer "effectively portrayed himself as nonpolitical". Schweitzer challenged Burns on the issue of prescription drugs, organizing busloads of senior citizens to take trips to Canada and Mexico for cheaper medicine. Burns charged that Schweitzer favored "Canadian-style government controls" and claimed that senior citizens went to doctors to have "somebody to visit with. There's nothing wrong with them."Schweitzer lost narrowly to Burns, with a 51% to 47% margin, despite being outspent two-to-one, Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore receiving just 33% of the vote in Montana the same day. When incumbent Governor Judy Martz announced she would not run for re-election in 2004, Schweitzer announced his candidacy, his running mate was a Republican state senator. He won the general election by defeating Montana Secretary of State Bob Brown 50%-47%. Schweitzer won re-election to a second term by a landslide, 66%-33%, over Republican State Senator Roy Brown.
Both while campaigning and as Governor, Schweitzer became known for a folksy public persona. The Governor's dog, a Border Collie named Jag accompanied him on work days at the Capitol, as well as some other official occasions. Schweitzer was known for his unsparing use of the veto, a power exercised 95 times during his tenure, he vetoed 74 bills in the 2011 legislature. For instance, in April 2011, Schweitzer made news with his unconventional use of a branding iron to publicly veto several bills passed by the Republican-controlled legislature, he denounced them as "frivolous and just bad ideas" that were "in direct contradiction to the expressed will of the people of Montana."He has endorsed an expansion of wind and biofuel technologies as well as a plan to turn coal into diesel fuel. Schweitzer has pointed out that Montana has had the highest ending fund balances in the state's history under his administration, with an average ending fund balance of $414 million; the average balance of the eighteen years prior was $54 million.
Schweitzer held one of the highest approval ratings among governors in the nation, with polls showing a rating of above 60 percent. Due to term limits in Montana, he was barred from running for a third term in 2012; as Governor, Schweitzer was an active member of the Democratic Governors Association. Prior to becoming chair, he served as the organization's vice chair, finance chair, recruitment chair; as governor, he signed into law voluntary full-time kindergarten. Senate Bill 2, which passed during a special session of the legislature, created full-time kindergarten. Governor Schweitzer signed the bill May 17, 2007. Governor Schweitzer was instrumental in implementing, for the first time since the Constitutional Convention of 1972 called on the State to "recognize the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians", Indian Education for All funding. Indian Education for All was funded in House Bill 2 and signed into law by Governor Schweitzer on May 6, 2005; as one of his first endeavors, Schweitzer proposed and passed the "Best and Brightest" scholarship program.
This scholarship has given the opportunity to more than 2700 students to study at any of Montana's 2-or 4-year public colleges and universities, including community and tribal colleges. A report released in 2012 b
Johann Friedrich Schweitzer
Johann Friedrich Schweitzer or Sweitzer known as Helvetius was a Dutch physician and alchemical writer of German extraction. He is known for his books Vitulus Aureus, published in 1667, Ichts aus Nichts, für alle Begierigen der Natur from 1655 and Miraculo transmutandi Metallica, Antwerp, 1667. Helvetius was born or baptized 17 January 1630 in Köthen as the son of the jurist Balthazar Sweitzer and Anna Braunin, he arrived in 1649 in the Dutch Republic, where he obtained a degree at the University of Harderwijk in 1656 with a dissertation de Peste. He first lived in Amsterdam, but subsequently moved to The Hague, where he became a physician to the Prince of Orange-Nassau, he wrote numerous books on herbs and medicine in Dutch and Latin. He is notorious for the story that he carried out transmutation of lead into gold, he is said to have known Baruch Spinoza. Helvetius married Johanna Pels in July 1658 in The Hague, they had 16 children, including Adriaan Helvetius, who introduced the use of ipecac in his position at the French court and was the father of another court physician, Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius.
The philosopher Claude-Adrien Helvétius was a son of the latter. Helvetius died 29 August 1709 in The Hague. Arthur Edward Waite, John Frederick Helvetius: The Famous Alchemist Works by Johann Friedrich Helvetius at Project Gutenberg The Golden Calf, Which the World Adores, Desires at Project Gutenberg
Jeff Schweitzer is an American non-fiction author, political commentator and proponent of scientific skepticism. His published works are devoted to the interrelationship between politics, morality and science, he is a blogger for The Huffington Post. Schweitzer was raised in Southern California. Schweitzer began his scientific career in the fields of marine neurophysiology, he earned his Ph. D. from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Schweitzer joined the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory at the University of California, Irvine in 1984. While at U. C. Irvine, Schweitzer was selected in 1986 to participate in the Science and Diplomacy Fellowship program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1991 Schweitzer was appointed as the Chief Environmental Officer at the State Department’s Agency for International Development. Schweitzer is the founder of the multi-agency International Cooperative Biodiversity Group Program, a U.
S. Government effort to promote the conservation of biodiversity through rational economic use of natural resources. In 1992 he was appointed to the position of Assistant Director for International Affairs in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, an Executive Office of the President of the United States. Schweitzer was responsible for providing scientific and technological policy advice and analysis directly to Vice President Al Gore and the Director of the OSTP, he worked with President Bill Clinton’s cabinet and 22 U. S. Government technical agencies, with countries throughout the world, in biology, chemistry, agriculture and marine sciences, he helped establish the permanent Global Forum on Science and Technology at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to promote greater international scientific collaboration. Schweitzer identifies with the moderate left wing of the democratic party. According to Schweitzer, “History has shown that Democrats offer stronger support for science than Republicans."His book, Vote To Save The Planet, was a collection of short articles intended to inform voters about the benefits of electing Barack Obama/Joe Biden and the disadvantages of electing John McCain/Sarah Palin in the 2008 Presidential Election.
His criticisms of McCain/Palin were a major focus of his Huffington Post articles during that time. Schweitzer contends that the GOP is hostile to environmental regulation, claims that Republicans and Tea Party enthusiasts have recklessly and irresponsibly attacked reasonable attempts to clean our air. Schweitzer describes himself as a rationalist, he rejects the use of the term atheist, which means without god, because "we cannot be without something that does not exist". He further rejects the idea that his belief system can be defined as the negative of another belief system. According to Schweitzer, "The world should be divided between rationalists and'arationalists'". Schweitzer argues that war, poverty, destruction of the environment and indifference to the needs and rights of other life forms all result, to a large extent, from an obsolete religious moral code. Schweitzer claims that the foundation of our moral code is fundamentally flawed. Schweitzer and his wife, Sally Schweitzer, live in Central Texas, moving there following his service at the White House.
Schweitzer is a pilot who operates his personal aircraft. He and his wife Sally are avid scuba divers travelling the globe to explore new wildlife. Beyond Cosmic Dice-Moral Life In a Random World Vote to Save the Planet Calorie Wars: Fat and Fiction Healing the Heart of the World Global Change of Planet Earth The Dilemma of the Sphinx Indo-Pacific Fish Biology Media:Malibu Mirage Magazine – Founder and contributor Huffington Post – Featured Blogger
Pierre-Paul Schweitzer was the International Monetary Fund's fourth managing director and chairman of the executive board, serving from 1963 to 1973. He was born on 29 May 1912, in Elsaß-Lothringen, German Empire, he is the father of CEO of Renault. He was the nephew of Albert Schweitzer. Schweitzer was educated at the University of Strasbourg, the University of Paris, the Paris School of Political Science and received degrees in law and political science. In his early career, Schweitzer joined the French Government as an assistant Inspecteur des Finances, before becoming an Inspecteur des Finances, he was: deputy director for the department of external finance of the French Treasury. In 1960, he was appointed deputy governor of the Bank of France, he served as a director of the European Investment Bank, a director of Air France, as a government commissioner on the boards of the French Petroleum Company and the French Refinery Company. On 21 June 1963 Schweitzer was appointed managing director and chairman of the executive board of the IMF, he assumed his duties on 1 September 1963.
Schweitzer was appointed to a second five-year term as managing director and chairman of the board of the IMF on 15 May 1968. Schweitzer's term as the IMF's managing director was a critical period, not only due to the collapse of the Par Value System, but for the creation of the special drawing rights, as an international reserve asset. During his tenure as managing director of the IMF, its membership grew from 91 to 125 countries. Schweitzer received many decorations, such as the Commander of the Légion d'Honneur. Schweitzer died on 2 January 1994 in Switzerland. Schweitzer was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French Army after the outbreak of World War II; when France fell in 1940, he joined the French Resistance and was captured and held at the Buchenwald concentration camp, on the outskirts of Weimar, until it was liberated in 1945. Schweitzer was a Nazi concentration camp survivor. Newspaper clippings about Pierre-Paul Schweitzer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.