Gottfried Semper was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. In 1849 he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the wanted list. Semper fled first to Zürich and to London, he returned to Germany after the 1862 amnesty granted to the revolutionaries. Semper designed works at all scales, from a baton for Richard Wagner to major urban interventions like the re-design of the Ringstraße in Vienna, Semper was born into a well-to-do industrialist family in Altona. The fifth of eight children, he attended the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums in Hamburg before starting his university education at Göttingen in 1823 and he subsequently studied architecture in 1825 at the University of Munich under Friedrich von Gärtner. In 1826, Semper travelled to Paris in order to work for the architect Franz Christian Gau, between 1830 and 1833 he travelled to Italy and Greece in order to study the architecture and designs of antiquity.
In 1832 he participated for four months in archaeological research at the Acropolis in Athens, the drawn reconstructions of the painterly decorations of ancient villas he created in Athens inspired his designs for the painted decorations in Dresden and Vienna. The flourishing growth of Dresden during this period provided the young architect with considerable creative opportunities, in 1838-40 a synagogue was built in Dresden to Sempers design, it was ever afterward called the Semper Synagogue and is noted for its Moorish Revival interior style. The Synagogues exterior was built in romanesque style so as not to call attention to itself, the interior design included not only the Moorish inspired wall decorations, but furnishings, specifically, a silver lamp of eternal light, which caught Richard Wagner and his wife Cosimas fancy. They gave a great deal of effort to have a copy of this lamp, Sempers student, Otto Simonson would construct the magnificent Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue in 1855.
Certain civic structures remain today, such as the Elbe-facing gallery of the Zwinger Palace complex and his first building for the Dresden Hoftheater burnt down, and the second, today called the Semperoper, was built in 1841. Other buildings remain indelibly attached to his name, such as the Maternity Hospital, the Synagogue, the Oppenheim Palace, and this last construction stands as a prototype of German villa architecture. On September 1,1835 Semper married Bertha Thimmig, the marriage ultimately produced six children. A convinced Republican, Semper took a role, along with his friend Richard Wagner. He was a member of the Civic Guard and helped to erect barricades in the streets, when the rebellion collapsed, Semper was considered a leading agitator for democratic change and a ringleader against government authority and he was forced to flee the city. He was destined never to return to the city that would, the Saxon government maintained a warrant for his arrest until 1863. When the Semper-designed Hoftheater burnt down in 1869, King John, on the urging of the citizenry, Semper produced the plans, but left the actual construction to his son, Manfred.
What must I have done in 48, that one persecutes me forever, one single barricade did I construct - it held, because it was practical, and as it was practical, it was beautiful, wrote Semper in dismay
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings and his most famous buildings are found in and around Berlin. Schinkel was born in Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg, when he was six, his father died in the disastrous Neuruppin fire of 1787. He became a student of architect Friedrich Gilly and his father, David Gilly, after returning to Berlin from his first trip to Italy in 1805, he started to earn his living as a painter. When he saw Caspar David Friedrichs painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog at the 1810 Berlin art exhibition he decided that he would never reach such mastery of painting, after Napoleons defeat, Schinkel oversaw the Prussian Building Commission. From 1808 to 1817 Schinkel renovated and reconstructed Schloss Rosenau, Coburg and he rebuilt the ruins of Chorin Abbey. He believed that in order to avoid sterility and have a soul, a building must contain elements of the poetic and the past and his most famous extant buildings are found in and around Berlin.
He carried out improvements to the Crown Princes Palace and to Schloss Charlottenburg, Schinkel was responsible for the interior decoration of a number of private Berlin residences. Later, Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the Neo-Gothic in his Friedrichswerder Church, Schinkel died in Berlin, Province of Brandenburg. Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and these and other designs may be studied in his Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe and his Werke der höheren Baukunst. He designed the famed Iron Cross medal of Prussia, with essays by Kurt W. Forster and Wolfgang Pehnt, ISBN 0-86559-105-9. Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-88221-866-4, die Geschichte vom Leben und Sterben des Baumeisters Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Christoph von Wolzogen, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Unter dem bestirnten Himmel, edition Fichter, Frankfurt 2016, ISBN 978-3-943856-33-0. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Schinkel, Karl Friedrich, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The Last Great Architect.
Prefatory essay from Collection of Architectural Designs including those designs which have been executed and objects whose execution was intended by Karl Friedrich Schinkel
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences, in many parts of Europe, the term is applied to ambitious private mansions of the aristocracy. Many historic palaces are now put to uses such as parliaments, hotels. The word is sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The word palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the original palaces on the Palatine Hill were the seat of the imperial power while the capitol on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. Emperor Caesar Augustus lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate.
His descendants, especially Nero, with his Golden House, enlarged the house, the word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning government can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, AD790 and describing events of the 660s, When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus. At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his palace at Aachen, in the 9th century, the palace indicated the housing of the government too, and the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces and this has been used as evidence that power was widely distributed in the Empire, as in more centralized monarchies, only the monarchs residence would be a palace. In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler, court, in informal usage, a palace can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.
The earliest known palaces were the residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes, featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud and Nineveh, the Minoan palace at Knossos, the Brazilian new capital, Brasília, hosts modern palaces, most designed by the citys architect Oscar Niemeyer. The Alvorada Palace is the residence of the Brazils president. The Planalto Palace is the official workplace, the Jaburu Palace is the official residence of Brazils vice-president. In Canada, Government House is a given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy. The use of the term Government House is a custom from the British Empire
Ludwigslust Palace is a stately home or schloss in the town of Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, northern Germany. It was built as a lodge, rebuilt as a luxurious retreat from the ducal capital, Schwerin. It was the joy of Prince Christian Ludwig, the son of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ludwigslust had its origins in a simple hunting lodge within a days ride of the ducal capital, Schwerin. In 1724 Prince Christian Ludwig, the son of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, decided to build a lodge on this site. Even after he became duke in his turn in 1747, he passed most of his time at this residence, in 1765, Duke Friederich made Ludwigslust the capital of the duchy instead of Schwerin. In the years 1772-1776 Ludwigslust was rebuilt to plans by Johann Joachim Busch, the structure is brick, clad in the local sandstone, forty over-lifesize allegorical figures, in sandstone, by Rudolf Kaplunger, alternating with vases, crown the low attic above the cornice. The interiors of Ludwigslust are more fully neoclassical, the grand reception rooms are on the piano nobile, or Festetage, above a low ground floor that contained guestrooms.
One flanking range was semi-public, with a sequence of antechamber and audience chamber, the opposite range was semi-private, with the Dukes drawing-room and bedchamber, a cabinet and a gallery with a porcelain chimneypiece. The Schloss was the center-point of a range of grand buildings sited in deference to it, the palaces surrounding Schlosspark of 120 ha. In 1837 Grand Duke Paul Friedrich returned Schwerin to its capital status, as a summer residence, Schloss Ludwigslust was preserved from further alterations. The deposed Mecklenburg-Schwerin family continued to use Ludwigslust until 1945
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. The term is used to refer to the natural, brownish orange color, of most terracotta. This article covers the senses of terracotta as a medium in sculpture, as in the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines and European sculpture in porcelain is not covered. Glazed architectural terracotta and its version as exterior surfaces for buildings were used in Asia for some centuries before becoming popular in the West in the 19th century. In archaeology and art history, terracotta is used to describe objects such as figurines not made on a potters wheel. An appropriate refined clay is formed to the desired shape, after drying it is placed in a kiln or atop combustible material in a pit, and fired. The typical firing temperature is around 1,000 °C, though it may be as low as 600 °C in historic and archaeological examples. In some contexts, such as Roman figurines, white-colored terracotta is known as pipeclay, as such clays were preferred for tobacco pipes, fired terracotta is not watertight, but surface-burnishing the body before firing can decrease its porousness and a layer of glaze can make it watertight.
It is suitable for use below ground to carry pressurized water, for garden pots or building decoration in many environments, most other uses, such as for tableware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments, require the material to be glazed. Terracotta, if uncracked, will ring if lightly struck, painted terracotta is typically first covered with a thin coat of gesso, painted. It has been widely used but the paint is only suitable for indoor positions and is much less durable than fired colors in or under a ceramic glaze. Terracotta sculpture was rarely left in its raw fired state in the West until the 18th century. Terracotta/earthenware was the known type of ceramic produced by Western and pre-Columbian people until the 14th century. Terracotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery as well as for bricks, in ancient times, the first clay sculptures were dried in the sun after being formed. They were placed in the ashes of open hearths to harden, only after firing to high temperature would it be classed as a ceramic material.
Terracotta female figurines were uncovered by archaeologists in excavations of Mohenjo-daro, along with phallus-shaped stones, these suggest some sort of fertility cult and a belief in a mother goddess. The Burney Relief is a terracotta plaque from Ancient Mesopotamia of about 1950 BC. In Mesoamerica, the majority of Olmec figurines were in terracotta
John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg
John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg, in older literature known as John or Johann, was the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow from 1547 to 1556 and of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1556 to 1576. In 1549 John Albert I saw to it that the parliament of Mecklenburg carried through the Reformation for the entire Duchy, John Albert was the eldest son of the Duke Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and his wife Anne of Brandenburg. Until the age of 13, he was educated by the papist vicar Johann Sperling, in 1539, his father sent him to the court of his uncle, the protestant Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, where he was educated together with the Electors son John George. From 1541 to 1544, they attended the newly founded University of Frankfurt an der Oder together, John Albert was a devout supporter of Protestantism when he returned to Mecklenburg. Nevertheless, he fought on the side in the Schmalkaldic War. When is father died in 1547, John Albert and his brothers Ulrich III, as a staunch supporter of the Protestantism John Albert I, unlike his father, engaged himself to introduce the Reformation in his territory.
In 1549, John Albert I presided over a meeting of the Estates in Sternberg and this can be seen as the official introduction of Lutheranism as the state religion in Mecklenburg. In February 1550, he concluded an alliance with Margrave John of Brandenburg-Küstrin and Duke Albert of Prussia. On 22 May 1551, John Albert concluded the secret Treaty of Torgau with the other Protestant princes in northern Germany and this treaty formed the legal framework for the Princes rebellion of 1552 against Emperor Charles V, in which John Albert I participated. His uncle Henry V, who ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin, died in 1552 without a male heir, when John Alberts brother Ulrich claimed the inheritance, the Emperor objected. Ulrich forced John Albert to consent to the Treaty of Wismar of 11 March 1555, the dispute was finally resolved in 1556 by the Edict of Ruppin by Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg. This edict made John Albert I regent of the part of Mecklenburg, while Ulrich received the eastern part. Ulrich chose Güstrow as his residence, Duke John Albert was considered a modern Renaissance prince and a patron of the arts and sciences, with an open mind for the scientific discoveries of his time.
He committed himself to the Reformation and modernized the state and he possessed an extensive library, which eventually came into the possession of the University of Rostock. He was interested in scientific instruments and in astronomy and cartography and he employed Tilemann Stella as his court librarian and cartographer. They jointly visited the court in Vienna, where they studied architecture and modern fortification techniques. Among his major achievement are the creation of high schools, in Güstrow in 1552, in Schwerin in 1553. On 24 February 1555 he married Anna Sophia of Prussia, the daughter of Duke Albert of Prussia, Wismar,1885 L. Schultz, Johann Albrecht I
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Lake Schwerin is a lake in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, northern Germany. It was named after the city Schwerin, on its southwestern shore, the smaller town Bad Kleinen is on the north shore of the lake. Its surface is approximately 61.54 square kilometres, and its depth is 52.4 metres. The natural outflow of the lake is the river Stör, a tributary of the Elde, the Wallensteingraben, a 16th-century canal, connects the lake with the Baltic Sea at Wismar. Media related to Schweriner See at Wikimedia Commons Nixdorf, B. et al, Schweriner See, Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands, Umweltbundesamt, p.265
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a territory in Northern Germany held by the House of Mecklenburg residing at Schwerin. It was a member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation. The smaller southeastern part was held by the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz branch of the ducal house. Likewise in the west, the Duchy of Holstein was incorporated into the Schleswig-Holstein Province, in the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars Duke Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar, which was pawned to him from Sweden. After Napoleons victory at the Battle of Austerlitz and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Napoleon, in preparation for the French invasion of Russia in 1812, disregarded this alliance, Denmark was promised the adjacent lands of Swedish Pomerania by the 1814 Peace of Kiel and the rule of the Mecklenburg dukes remained inviolate. In 1819 serfdom was abolished in his dominions.
During the revolutions of 1848, the duchy witnessed a considerable agitation in favour of a liberal constitution, on 10 October 1849 Grand Duke Frederick Francis II granted a new Basic law elaborated by his First Minister Ludwig von Lützow. In the dispute over neighbouring Holstein which culminated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Frederick Francis II supported the Kingdom of Prussia and his grand duchy began to pass more and more under Prussian influence. In 1867 he joined the North German Confederation and the Zollverein, in the Franco-Prussian War, Prussia again received valuable assistance from Grand Duke Frederick Francis II, who was an ardent advocate of German unity and held a high command in her armies. In the course of the German unification in 1871, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, there was now renewed agitation for a more democratic constitution, and the German Reichstag parliament gave some countenance to this movement. In 1897 Frederick Francis IV succeeded his father Frederick Francis III as the last grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1907 the Grand Duke promised a constitution to his subjects.
The duchy had always been under a system of government. The duchy shared a diet, which met for a short session each year, at other times they were represented by a committee consisting of the proprietors of knights estates, known as the Ritterschaft, and the Landschaft, or burgomasters of certain towns. Mecklenburg-Schwerin returned six members to the Reichstag, upon the suicide of his cousin Grand Duke Adolphus Frederick VI on 23 February 1918, Frederick Francis served as regent of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Shortly afterwards, on 14 November, he was forced to renounce the Mecklenburg throne in the course of the German Revolution, the grand duchy turned into the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a federated state of the Weimar Republic. Thereby ended nearly eight centuries of rule by the originally Obotrite Mecklenburg dynasty. Until 1918 the grand duke was styled as Prince of the Wends and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Wismar is a port and Hanseatic city in Northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It is located about 45 kilometres east of Lübeck and 30 kilometres north of Schwerin and its natural harbour, located in the Bay of Wismar, is well-protected by a promontory. The population was 42,219 in 2013 and it is the capital of the district of Nordwestmecklenburg. Wismar received its rights in 1229, and came into the possession of Mecklenburg in 1301. In 1259 it had entered a pact with Lübeck and Rostock and this developed into the Hanseatic League. During the 13th and 14th centuries it was a flourishing Hanseatic town, though a plague carried off 10,000 of the inhabitants in 1376, the town seems to have remained tolerably prosperous until the 16th century. Under the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 Wismar passed into the possession of Sweden, through Wismar and the other dominions in the Holy Roman Empire, the Swedish monarchs in their roles as princes, or Reichsfürsten, took part in the Imperial Diets.
From 1653 it was the seat of the highest court for that part of Sweden, in 1803 Sweden pledged both town and lordship to Mecklenburg for 1,258,000 Riksdaler, however, the right of redemption after 100 years. In view of this contingent right of Sweden, Wismar was not represented at the diet of Mecklenburg until 1897, in 1903 Sweden finally renounced its claims on the town. Wismar still retains a few relics of its old privileges, including the right to fly its own flag, at the turn of the 19th century the most important manufacturing industries of Wismar were iron, paper, roofing-felt and asphalt. There was considerable trade, especially by sea, in exports including grain, oil-seeds and butter, the harbour was deep enough to admit vessels of 5 meters draught, permitting sizeable steamers to unload at its quays. Wismar was the home to the Dornier aircraft plant, and to railway rolling-stock factories, in World War II Wismar was heavily damaged by Allied air raids. On 7 May 1945 General Montgomery and Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky met in Wismar, on July 1,1945, due to the occupation zone agreements of the Yalta Conference making Wismar a part of the Soviet Zone of Germany, the British troops departed and Soviet troops took over.
During the period of the German Democratic Republic, from 1949 to 1990, Wismar was developed as a port and shipbuilding city, becoming East Germanys second-largest port, after Rostock. Although the DDR government pledged to restore churches that had been heavily bomb-damaged during the war, in 2011, Wismar became the capital of the Landkreis of Nordwestmecklenburg. The squares focal point is the Wasserkunst, an elaborate wrought-iron fountain imported from Holland in 1602, the northern side of the square is occupied by the Town Hall, built in neoclassical style in 1817–1819. Another notable building in the square is a Brick Gothic Bürgerhaus called the Alter Schwede, St. Georges Church, the third so-named edifice on the site, dates from 1404. It had escaped damage during most of World War II