Martindale-Hubbell is an information services company to the legal profession, founded in 1868. The company publishes the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, which provides background information on lawyers and law firms in the United States and other countries, it published the Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, a summary of laws around the world. Martindale-Hubbell is owned by consumer website company Internet Brands. Martindale's Directory was first published in 1868 by James B. Martindale, a lawyer and businessman, he wrote in the Preface: "The object of the work is to furnish to Lawyers, Wholesale Merchants, Real Estate Agents, all others who may have need of business correspondents away from home, the address of one reliable law firm, one reliable bank, one reliable real estate agent in each city and town in the United States. In view of constant and rapid changes occurring among Law firms, by reason of death, election of office, an occasional degeneracy, making the best list of necessity short-lived, in view of the continual changes being made in the commercial laws of the several States, we will revise this work once a year, publish it annually, on the first of every January."In 1870, the first edition of Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared.
As stated in the Introduction: "... The vast and extending relations of business, the immense territory over which this business must be transacted, the difficulties that occur in obtaining reliable correspondents and information respecting the collection of debts in the different States, seem to create a necessity for a work of this character..."By 1896, Martindale's Directory included basic information that still appears in the modern "Practice Profile" listings, ratings and a section on foreign lawyers and firms. The Law Digests of all the States and Provinces constituted a new and valuable feature, being the substance of the law adapted to the comprehension of business men, not mere copies of statutes, as had been the case with most similar publications; the same year, the twenty sixth volume of the Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared, containing 1,600 pages of finely printed information. In 1916, Martindale's American Law Directory contained the following: In Part I - tabulated laws, collection rates, lawyers of the U.
S. of Canada, of Newfoundland, lawyers of fourteen largest cities, Canons of Professional Ethics. In Part II - foreign attorneys, diplomatic service of the U. S. Tariff of American Consular Fees, U. S. Consular Service. Part III - Law Digests of the U. S. and Canada, Law Digest of Newfoundland, Cuba Law Digest, English Law Digest, French Law Digest, German Law Digest, Mexico Law Digest, the Netherlands Law Digest, U. S. Bankruptcy Law Digest, U. S. Patent Law Digest, U. S. Trademark Law Digest, U. S. Court Calendar and Court Calendar of States. In 1930, the Martindale Company purchased the publishing rights to Hubbell's Legal Directory, which consisted of a digest of the collected laws of each state. Through the combination of the Martindale's Directory and Hubbell's Legal Directory, the first edition of the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was produced in 1931 as a two-volume set. Volume I consisted of, other than lawyers listings, lawyers in America, lawyers of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland, selected list of foreign lawyers, list of patent attorneys and a biographical section.
Volume II contained the Law Digests, which included a topical index, Digests of the Laws of the States and Possessions of the USA, Digests of the Laws of Canada, Digests of the Laws of 40 Foreign Countries, United States Patent and Trademark Law Digests, Court Calendars and Uniform Acts and recommended for adoption by the National Conference on Uniform State Laws and Proceedings. The Preface to the Law Digest commenced with the words: "No feature of the modern directory is of more value to the law office than the section, devoted to the synopses of laws of the several states and foreign jurisdictions."In 1951, a digest was added for the new country of Israel. Meanwhile, internal conditions as well as difficulties of communication with Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania had made it necessary to withdraw publication of law digests for these countries; these law digests were again published in the 1990s. Throughout the years Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, revised and published annually, has been considered as an incomplete encyclopaedia of comparative law in English.
In 1963, Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was published in four volumes. Volumes I, II and III contained in the geographical section a roster as complete as possible of the Bar of the U. S. and Canada with ratings and other information, listings of the U. S. Government lawyers located at Washington, D. C. grouped by Agencies etc.. A special section contained names of lawyers registered before the United States Patent Office. A similar section for Canada was included. In another part of the Directory was presented a selected list of lawyers in other countries. Volume IV contained digests of the laws and court calendars for the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and digests of the U. S. Copyright and Trademark laws; some of the Uniform and Model Acts were included as well as were digests of the laws of the Dominion of Canada, of the Canadian Provinces and of 53 countries or jurisdictions, including Germany, the Un
Mendeley is a desktop and web program produced by Elsevier for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online. It combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application available for Windows, macOS and Linux, it provides Mendeley for Android and iOS, with Mendeley Web, an online social network for researchers. Mendeley requires the user to store all basic citation data on its servers—storing copies of documents is at the user's discretion. Upon registration, Mendeley provides the user with 2 GB of free web storage space, upgradeable at a cost. Since its 1.19 release in 2018, Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm. It is further no longer possible to export collections of annotated files, such as for scientific collaboration, leading to a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley, named after the biologist Gregor Mendel and chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev, was founded in November 2007 by three German PhD students and is based in London.
The first public beta version was released in August 2008. The company's investors include some people involved with Last.fm, Warner Music Group, as well as academics from Cambridge and Johns Hopkins University. Mendeley won several awards in 2009: Plugg.eu "European Start-up of the Year 2009", TechCrunch Europas "Best Social Innovation Which Benefits Society 2009", The Guardian ranked it #6 in "Top 100 tech media companies". On September 23, 2013, Mendeley announced iPad apps that are free to install. Mendeley was purchased by the Elsevier publishing company in 2013; the deal price was speculated to be €50 million, following earlier speculation that it was between $69 million and $100 million. The sale led to debate on scientific networks and in the media interested in Open Access, upset members of the scientific community who felt that the program's acquisition by publishing giant Elsevier, known for implementing restrictive publishing practices, the high prices of their journals, publicly supporting the SOPA bill, was antithetical to the open sharing model of Mendeley.
David Dobbs, in The New Yorker, suggested Elsevier's reasons for buying Mendeley could have been to acquire its user data and/or to "destroy or coopt an open-science icon that threatens its business model."In 2012, Mendeley was one of the repositories for green Open Access recommended by Peter Suber. The recommendation was revoked in 2013. In 2018, an update to Mendeley resulted in some users losing PDFs and annotations stored in their accounts. After a number of weeks, Elsevier announced a potential fix for this problem. Since its 1.19 release in 2018 Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm, making it difficult for users to export their data from the application and creating a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley is available either as a premium payable version or a basic version, free but requires registration. Mendeley Desktop, based on Qt, runs on Windows and Linux. Automatic extraction of metadata from PDF papers. Back-up and synchronization across multiple computers and with a private online account.
PDF viewer with text highlighting and full-screen reading. Full-text search across papers. Smart filtering and automatic PDF file renaming. Citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice. Import of documents and research papers from external websites via browser bookmarklet. BibTeX export/file sync. Private groups to collaboratively tag and annotate research papers. Public groups to share reading lists. Social networking features. Usage-based readership statistics about papers and publications. IPhone app. iPad app. Android app. Comparison of reference management software Metadata discovery Citation Style Language COinS Official website
RELX plc is a corporate group comprising companies that publish scientific and medical material, legal textbooks. It serves customers in over 180 nations, it was known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992 as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher. The company is publicly-listed, with shares traded on the London Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. About 55 per cent of the company’s revenues are generated from the US, with 23 per cent from Europe and 22 per cent from the rest of the world; the company is one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 Index, Financial Times Global 500 and Euronext 100 Index. The company, known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992, as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher; the company re-branded itself as RELX in February 2015.
In 1895, Albert E. Reed established a newsprint manufacturing operation at Tovil Mill near Maidstone, Kent. In 1965 Reed Group, as it was known, became a conglomerate, creating its Decorative Products Division with the purchase of Crown Paints and Sanderson's wallpaper and DIY decorating interests. In 1970, Reed Group merged with the International Publishing Corporation and the company name was changed to Reed International Limited; the company continued to grow by merging with other publishers and produced high quality trade journals as IPC Business Press Ltd and women's and other consumer magazines as IPC magazines Ltd. The original family owners, the Reeds, were Methodists and encouraged good working conditions for their staff in the then-dangerous print trade. In 1985 the company decided to rationalise its operations, focusing on publishing and selling off its other interests. Sanderson was sold to WestPoint Pepperell, Inc. of Georgia, United States, that year, while Crown Paint and Polycell were sold to Williams Holdings in 1987.
The company's paper and packaging production operations were bundled together to form Reedpack and sold to private equity firm Cinven in 1988. In 1880, Jacobus George Robbers started a publishing company called NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier to publish literary classics and the encyclopedia Winkler Prins. Robbers named the company after the old Dutch printers family Elzevir, for example, published the works of Erasmus in 1587. Elsevier NV was based in Rotterdam but moved to Amsterdam in the late 1880s. Up to the 1930s, Elsevier remained a small family-owned publisher, with no more than ten employees. After the war it launched the weekly Elsevier magazine, which turned out to be profitable. A rapid expansion followed. Elsevier Press Inc. started in 1951 in Houston, Texas, USA, in 1962 publishing offices were opened in London and New York. Multiple mergers in the 1970s led to name changes, settling at "Elsevier Scientific Publishers" in 1979. In 1991, two years before the merger with Reed, Elsevier acquired Pergamon Press in the UK.
In February 1997, Reed Elsevier divested its trade publishing group to Random House. In 1998, Reed Elsevier sold the children's divisions of Heinemann, Methuen and Mammoth to the Egmont Group. In February 2007, the company announced its intention to sell Harcourt, its educational publishing division. On 4 May 2007 Pearson, the international education and information company, announced that it had agreed to acquire Harcourt Assessment and Harcourt Education International from Reed Elsevier for $950m in cash. In July 2007, Reed Elsevier announced its agreement to sell the remaining Harcourt Education business, including international imprint Heinemann, to Houghton Mifflin for $4 billion in cash and stock. In July 2009, Reed Elsevier announced its intention to sell most of its North American trade publications, including Publishers Weekly, Broadcasting & Cable, Multichannel News, although it planned to retain Variety. In April 2010, Reed Elsevier announced that it had sold 21 US magazines to other owners in recent months, that an additional 23 US trade magazines, including Restaurants & Institutions and Trade Show Week would cease publication.
The closures were due to the weak economy including an advertising slump. Variety, the company's last remaining North American title, was sold in October 2012. In 2014, Reed Business Information sold an online marketplace. In 2016, RELX sold Elsevier BeleggersBelangen in the Netherlands. In 2017 the company sold New Scientist magazine. RELX's Scientific, Technical & Medical business provides information and tools that help investors make decisions that improve scientific and healthcare outcomes, it operates under the name of Elsevier and generated revenues in the year to 31 December 2017 of £2.5 billion. ScienceDirect, an online database of primary research, contains 13 million documents. Scopus is a bibliographic database containing citations for academic journal articles, it contains more than 50 million items in more 20,000 titles from 5,000 publishers worldwide. Mendeley is a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online.
Elsevier is the world's largest publisher of academic articles with 16 per cent market share, accordin
An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on
CMD Group Reed Construction Data and Construction Market Data, is a provider of business information for the North American construction industry. CMD is owned by Reed Business Information, its historical roots lie in Construction Market Data, founded in 1982 to publish construction leads and market data. In 2000, London-based Reed Elsevier purchased this original CMD Group, transitioning the company to Reed Construction Data. In October 2014 private equity firm Warburg Pincus in New York purchased a majority stake in the company, Reed Construction Data changed its name to CMD; the Norcross, Ga.-based provider of North American construction data said the new name is a nod to the company’s original name: Construction Market Data. The new brand includes website; the company tracks data on hundreds of thousands of projects per year, providing coverage of construction projects in both the United States and Canada. The company provides monthly data for all aspects of the construction industry. CMD provides a detailed view of construction activity, including historical data, current-year projections and a five-year forecast.
Their research helps customers forecast to find those market segments experiencing the greatest growth and plan tactical marketing strategies. In October 2009, Reed Construction Data filed suit in federal court against McGraw-Hill Construction, charging that the company's Dodge Report had unlawfully accessed confidential and trade secret information from Reed since 2002 by using a series of fake companies to pose as Reed customers; the lawsuit, filed in the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, seeks an unspecified amount in lost profits and punitive damages, trial by jury, injunctive relief as a result of Dodge’s misuse of proprietary construction project information, that Dodge manipulated the information to create misleading comparisons between Dodge’s and Reed’s products and services in an effort to mislead the marketplace. In 2016, CMD Group became a part of ConstructConnect as part of a merger with iSqFt, BidClerk, Construction Data. Official website
Arabian Travel Market
Arabian Travel Market a.k.a. ATM is a travel and tourism event, organized annually in Dubai to provide a platform for inbound and outbound tourism professionals in the Middle East and gives information on tourism destinations, accommodation options, tourism attractions and aviation industry in the Middle East and around the world; the event is organized by Reed Exhibitions. The event, inaugurated in 1995 and hosted at Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, is aimed at industry and government decision-makers and provides industry news and educational content. 2,700 exhibitors from 83 countries, 68 national pavilions and about 21,000 trade visitors from 157 countries participated in the 2014 event. It covered about 25,000 sq. metres of exhibition space and is regarded as the largest international tourism and hospitality event in the region. The event has been noticed by global companies like Google, Mövenpick, both sponsors of the 2013 edition of the event, Emirates and Alitalia.
It has featured on the World Tourism Organization UNWTO calendar. The Arabian Travel Mart will host the first ATM Global Halal Tourism Summit as part of its line-up of special focus event which will feature three interactive seminar sessions covering the big picture, halal destination strategies and how to sell halal travel, led by leading Muslim travel industry experts including Faeez Fadhlillah, Co-Founder & CEO, Salam Standard & Tripfez. ATM won the World Travel Awards considered as the Oscars of the travel industry, for the years, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, it was at the Arabian Travel Market in 2001, the concept of Palm Islands was revealed. The event recognizes the achievements in the travel and tourism industry by way of Arabian Travel Market awards, distributed annually, it offers an award, the New Frontier Award, to recognise outstanding contributions to tourism development in the face of overwhelming adversity, supporting the chosen destination by donating exhibition space at the event to the value of US$10,000.
Event web site on Dubai World Trade Centre web site News on Hospitality Net News on German participation Jim Krane. Dubai: The Story of the World's Fastest City. Atlantic Books, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84887-394-0
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article