Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland. It is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies by sales. Novartis manufactures the drugs clozapine, carbamazepine, imatinib mesylate, letrozole, methylphenidate and others. In 1996, Ciba-Geigy merged with Sandoz. Other Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz businesses were sold, or, like Ciba Specialty Chemicals, spun off as independent companies; the Sandoz brand disappeared for three years, but was revived in 2003 when Novartis consolidated its generic drugs businesses into a single subsidiary and named it Sandoz. Novartis divested its agrochemical and genetically modified crops business in 2000 with the spinout of Syngenta in partnership with AstraZeneca, which divested its agrochemical business. Novartis is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America.
Novartis AG is a publicly traded Swiss holding company. Novartis AG owns, directly or indirectly, all companies worldwide that operate as subsidiaries of the Novartis Group. Novartis's businesses are divided into three operating divisions: Advanced Accelerator Applications and Sandoz. Novartis operates directly and through dozens of subsidiaries in countries around the world, each of which fall under one of the divisions, that Novartis categorizes as fulfilling one or more of the following functions: "Holding/Finance: the entity is a holding company and/or performs finance functions for the Group. Novartis owned 24.9% of Idenix Pharmaceuticals prior to its sale to Merck & Co, Inc. Novartis has two significant license agreements with Genentech, a Roche subsidiary. One agreement is for Lucentis. Novartis has established a multi-functional center in Hyderabad, India, in order to offshore several of its R&D, clinical development, medical writing and administrative functions; the global service centere began in 2001 with 17 people.
The center supports the drug major’s operations in the pharmaceuticals, eye care and generic drugs segments. This centre covers more than 870,000 square feet - large enough to house 8000 people. Overall, Novartis was the world's second largest pharmaceutical company in 2011. An IMS Health report ranked Novartis as the biggest pharma company in 2012. Alcon: Alcon was the world's largest and most profitable eye care company when Novartis bought it, with 2009 annual sales of $6.5 billion and net income of $2 billion. At that time, Novartis stated that it believed the two companies could generate some $200 million of potential annual pre-tax cost synergies. In April 2019, Novartis completed the spin-off of Alcon as a separate commercial entity. Sandoz: As of 2013, Sandoz was the world's second-largest generic drug company, contributing US$1.09 billion to Novartis' operating profit on US$8.70 billion in revenue in 2012. Sandoz' biosimilars leads its field, getting the first biosimilar approvals in the EU.
In 2018, Sandoz reported USD $9.9 billion in net sales. Vaccines and Diagnostics Division: In 2013,Novartis announced it was considering selling this division off. While "sales in the unit were up 14% for the first half of 2013, it reported an operating loss of $240 million in the first half of 2013 after a $250 million loss for all 2012.... Vaccine revenue was $1.4 billion in 2012 and has been forecast to more than double to $3.14 billion by 2018.". In 2014, Novartis announced its intention of selling the Vaccines Division to CSL Limited for $275 million; this sale was completed in late 2015 and the division was integrated into CSL's BioCSL operation with the combined entity trading as Seqirus In June 2018 Novartis sold its consumer healthcare joint venture vaccines division to GlaxoSmithKline for USD 13.0 billion. Consumer: Novartis is not a leader in the over-the-counter or animal health segments. In 2012, Novartis ranked 7th on the Access to Medicine Index, which "ranks companies on how they make their products available to the world’s poor."
In 2010, Novartis was in the top three pharma companies. For the fiscal year 2018, Novartis reported earnings of US$12.6 billion, with an annual revenue of US$53.2 billion, an increase of 6.05% over the previous fiscal cycle. Novartis shares traded at over $91 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$209.7B billion in February 2019. Novartis was created in 1996 from the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz Laboratories, both Swiss companies with long histories. Ciba-Geigy was formed in 1970 by the merger of J. R. Geigy Ltd and CIBA. Combining the histories of the merger partners, the company's effective history spans 250 years. In 1859, Alexander Clavel (180
Harbor–UCLA Medical Center
Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is a 570-bed public teaching hospital located at 1000 West Carson Street in Torrance, California within Los Angeles County, United States. Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is funded by the County of Los Angeles, serves as the Level I Trauma Center for the South Bay area. A medical facility was opened on the site in 1943 as the U. S. Army's Port of Embarkation Hospital, a receiving point for the wounded returned from the Pacific theater during World War II. Situated on a tract of 80 acres, it had an administration building and a large number of barracks wards arranged under the cottage system. In February 1946, the county purchased the facility from the Federal Government in order to decentralize the activities of the Los Angeles County General Hospital, one of the largest institutions of its kind in the world, founded a branch hospital to serve the Harbor and Long Beach; the Los Angeles County Harbor General Hospital began its affiliation with UCLA School of Medicine in 1951.
Construction of the present eight-story hospital building was completed in 1962 on the easterly portion of the grounds, at Carson Street and Vermont Avenue, replacing a number of the wooden barracks and cottages comprising Harbor General. Affiliation with the UCLA School of Dentistry was established in 1972. In 1978, the name of the hospital was changed to Los Angeles County Harbor–UCLA Medical Center in order to draw attention to its working relationship with the UCLA School of Medicine; the main building was portrayed as Rampart General Hospital in the popular TV series Emergency!. Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is home of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, one of the largest independent, not-for-profit biomedical research institutes in the United States. Known as Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, the LA BioMed has been conducting biomedical research, training young scientists and providing community services, including childhood immunization, nutrition assistance and anti-gang violence programs over the past 50 years.
Pioneering research in many fields such as reproductive endocrinology, infectious diseases and respiratory medicine has brought worldwide attention to the Harbor-UCLA campus. Among the major milestones are: In 1984, Harbor-UCLA was the first institution in the world to achieve successful pregnancies using the technique of ovum transfer; the research team was directed by Dr. John Buster that performed history's first embryo transfer from one woman to another resulting in a live birth and led to the announcement on February 3, 1984. In the procedure, an embryo, just beginning to develop was transferred from one woman in whom it had been conceived by artificial insemination to another woman who gave birth to the infant 38 weeks later; the sperm used in the artificial insemination came from the husband of the woman. This scientific breakthrough established standards and became an agent of change for women suffering from the afflictions of infertility and for women who did not want to pass on genetic disorders to their children.
Donor embryo transfer has given women a mechanism to become pregnant and give birth to a child that will contain their husband's genetic makeup. Although donor embryo transfer as practiced today has evolved from the original non-surgical method, it now accounts for 5% of in vitro fertilization recorded births; this work established the technical foundation and legal-ethical framework surrounding the clinical use of human oocyte and embryo donation, a mainstream clinical practice, which has evolved over the past 25 years. Building upon Dr. Buster's groundbreaking research and since the initial birth announcement in 1984, well over 47,000 live births resulting from donor embryo transfer have been and continue to be recorded by the Centers for Disease Control in the United States to infertile women, who otherwise would not have had children by any other existing method; the discovery by A. F. Parlow, PhD of the molecular structure of the human follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
The Parlow Pituitary Hormone and Antisera Laboratory produces purified pituitary components which are used in research and therapy around the world. One of the hormones produced, human growth hormone, is used to prevent severe growth retardation in thousands of children around the world. Dr. Delbert Fisher was the first to comprehensively characterize the ontogenesis of fetal thyroid development, he went on to conceptualize and develop a simple effective newborn screening test for congenital hypothyroidism, including developing the micro assay methods that made it possible to screen on a national scale. Internationally renowned genetics research to help treat and prevent short stature, led by Dr. David Rimoin, he was responsible for early work on disorders of growth hormone metabolism, for expanding the knowledge of dwarfism and developing the $2.2 million Skeletal Dysplasia Center at Harbor-UCLA. Dr. J. Michael Criley's cardiac research into improved cardiac resuscitation techniques and better training of emergency paramedics, leading to the country's first hospital-based paramedic training program.
A major discovery in defining the basic biochemical defect in a skin disease, known as x-linked ichthyosis. Dr. Larry Shapiro's discovery that this was a hereditary disease was a significant breakthrough and led to improved treatment strategies. Dr. Michael Kaback's advances in developing and improving screening for Tay–Sachs disease, an inherited, fatal disorder. Harbor-UCLA has become the headquarters for the California and international screening programs for the disease. Definitive studies of lung surfactant have resulted in saving the lives of thousands of premature
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. abbreviated OPC, is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Tokyo and Naruto, Japan. The company was established August 10, 1964. OPC's parent company Otsuka Holdings Co. Ltd. joined the Tokyo Stock Exchange through an initial public offering on December 15, 2010, at which time Otsuka Holdings was Japan's No.2 drug maker by sales after industry leader Takeda Pharmaceutical Company. The IPO debuted at $2.4 billion. In early 2012, Otsuka announced it would focus its "future operations on CNS disorders and oncology"; this decision necessitated a revision in the terms of an agreement with UCB to end collaboration on immunology products while continuing collaboration in the CNS area. In September 2013, Otsuka Holdings announced it had agreed to acquire Astex Pharmaceuticals for close to $900 million. In December 2014, Otsuka Holdings struck a deal to buy Avanir Pharmaceuticals for $3.54 billion. In March 2017, the company agreed to acquire Neurovance, Inc. for $250 million, gaining the firm’s Phase III-ready ADHD drug centanafadine.
Otsuka's subsidiary Otsuka America will pay $100 million upfront for Neurovance, plus up-to $150 million in development and approval milestones. As a result of the transaction, Neurovance will operate as an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary; the company has sponsored a football club in Naruto. In July 2018, Otsuka agreed to acquire Visterra for $430 million cash and renal-focused ReCor Medical, Inc. Otsuka Pharmaceutical Company, Limited
Sanofi S. A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales. The company was formed as Sanofi-Aventis in 2004 by the merger of Aventis and Sanofi-Synthélabo, which were each the product of several previous mergers, it changed its name to Sanofi in May 2011. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Sanofi engages in the research and development and marketing of pharmaceutical drugs principally in the prescription market, but the firm develops over-the-counter medication; the company covers seven major therapeutic areas: cardiovascular, central nervous system, internal medicine, oncology and vaccines. In February 2019, Sanofi appointed Dr. Ameet Nathwani as its Chief Digital Officer. Sanofi was founded in 1973 as a subsidiary of Elf Aquitaine, when Elf Aquitaine took control of the Labaz group, a pharmaceutical company formed in 1947 by Societe Belge de l'Azote et des Produits Chimiques du Marly.
In 1993 Sanofi made a move into the Eastern Europe market by acquiring a controlling interest in Chinoin, a Hungarian drug company that had about US$104 million in sales in 1992. In that same year, Sanofi's made its first significant venture into the U. S. and strengthened its presence in Eastern Europe, by first partnering with Sterling Winthrop and acquiring the prescription pharmaceuticals business in 1994. Sanofi was incorporated under the laws of France in 1994 as a société anonyme, a form of limited liability company. Synthélabo was founded in 1970 through the merger of two French pharmaceutical laboratories, Laboratoires Dausse and Laboratoires Robert & Carrière. In 1973, the French cosmetics group L’Oréal acquired the majority of its share capital. In 1991, Synthelabo acquired Laboratories Delalande and Laboratoires Delagrange, through this deal picked up the product metoclopramide. Sanofi-Synthélabo was formed in 1999; the merged company was based in France. The merged companies focused on pharmaceuticals, divesting several businesses soon after the merger, including beauty, animal health and nutrition, custom chemicals, two medical equipment businesses.
Aventis was formed in 1999 when French company Rhône-Poulenc S. A. merged with the German corporation Hoechst Marion Roussel, which itself was formed from the 1995 merger of Hoechst AG with Cassella, Roussel Uclaf and Marion Merrell Dow. The merged company was based near Strasbourg, France. At the time of the merger, Rhône-Poulenc's business included the pharmaceutical businesses Rorer and Pasteur Merieux, the plant and animal health businesses Rhône-Poulenc Agro, Rhône-Poulenc Animal Nutrition, Merial, a 67 percent share in Rhodia, a speciality chemicals company. Hoechst, one of the companies resulting from the post-WWII split of IG Farben, had seven primary businesses: Hoechst Marion Roussel, AgrEvo, HR Vet, Dade Behring, Centeon and Messer. Merieux has been in the business of selling blood products, In the 1980s during the AIDS epidemic and other companies were involved in scandals related to HIV-contaminated haemophilia blood products that were sold to developing nations. In mid 2000 Aventis and Millennium Pharmaceuticals, a US biotechnology company formed to discover new drugs based on the then-new science of genomics, announced that Aventis would make a $250M investment in Millennium and would pay $200M to Millennium in research fees over five years, one of the largest such deals between a big pharmaceutical company and a biotech company at the time.
In late 2000, in the midst of the recall of Starlink, its genetically modified maize product, Aventis announced that it had determined to sell off Aventis Cropscience, the seed and pesticide business unit it had created from the agriculture businesses of its predecessors. In October 2001, Bayer and Aventis announced that Bayer would acquire the unit for about $6.6 billion, with the unit becoming Bayer CropScience and making Bayer the world's second-largest agrochemical company behind Syngenta. In 2003 Aventis entered into a collaboration with Regeneron, a New York biotechnology company, to develop Regeneron's VEGF-inhibiting drug, aflibercept, in the field of cancer, in Phase I clinical trials. Aventis made an upfront payment of $80 million in cash. Regeneron partnered the drug with Bayer Healthcare in the field of proliferative eye diseases, under the name Eylea it was approved by the FDA in 2011. Sanofi-Aventis was formed in 2004. In early 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo made. Aventis rejected the bid because it felt that the bid offered inferior value based on the company's share value, the board of Aventis went so far as to enact poison pill provisions and to invite Novartis to enter merger negotiations.
The three-month takeover battle concluded when Sanofi-Synthélabo launched a friendly bid of €54.5 billion in place of
Genentech, Inc. is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009. Genentech Research and Early Development operates as an independent center within Roche; as of February 2019, Genentech employed 13,697 people. The company was founded in 1976 by venture capitalist Robert A. Swanson and biochemist Herbert Boyer. Boyer is considered to be a pioneer in the field of recombinant DNA technology. In 1973, Boyer and his colleague Stanley Norman Cohen demonstrated that restriction enzymes could be used as "scissors" to cut DNA fragments of interest from one source, to be ligated into a cut plasmid vector. While Cohen returned to the laboratory in academia, Swanson contacted Boyer to found the company. Boyer worked with Arthur Riggs and Keiichi Itakura from the Beckman Research Institute, the group became the first to express a human gene in bacteria when they produced the hormone somatostatin in 1977. David Goeddel and Dennis Kleid were added to the group, contributed to its success with synthetic human insulin in 1978.
In 1990 F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG acquired a majority stake in Genentech. In 2006 Genentech acquired Tanox in its first acquisition deal. Tanox had started developing Xolair and development was completed in collaboration with Novartis and Genentech. In July 2014, Genentech/Roche acquired Seragon for its pipeline of small-molecule cancer drug candidates for $725 million cash upfront, with an additional $1 billion of payments dependent on successful development of products in Seragon's pipeline. Genentech was a pioneering research-driven biotechnology company that has continued to conduct R&D internally as well as through collaborations. Genentech's research collaborations include: In 2008 Genentech entered into a collaboration with Roche and its subsidiary GlycArt to develop obinutuzumab. In February 2010 Genentech entered into a collaboration with University of California, San Francisco after having worked with them in about fifteen other collaborations, this time to collaborate on small molecule drug discovery in neurology.
In October 2014 Genentech paid $150M upfront to collaborate with Iowa-based NewLink Genetics on checkpoint inhibitors. In June 2015 it entered into a wide-ranging partnership with The Data Incubator to help train and hire the next generation of data scientists at the company. In January 2015 it signed a $60M deal with 23andMe that gave Genentech access to the genomic and patient-reported data held by 23andMe. In October 2015 it started a collaboration with Nimbus Therapeutics to develop leads from Nimbus' in silico drug discovery platform. In June 2016 Genentech partnered Epizyme to conduct clinical trials exploring whether Epizyme’s EZH2 inhibitor tazemetostat would be synergistic with Genentech's atezolizumab. In August 2016, the company began a collaboration with Carmot Therapeutics in which Carmot will discover new candidates and Genentech will develop them. In September 2016 Genentech partnered with the Israeli company BioLineRx on a checkpoint inhibitor that Genentech intended to pair with its own atezolizumab.
Genentech's corporate headquarters are in South San Francisco, with additional manufacturing facilities in Vacaville, California. In December 2006, Genentech sold its Porriño, facility to Lonza and acquired an exclusive right to purchase Lonza's mammalian cell culture manufacturing facility under construction in Singapore. In June 2007, Genentech began the construction and development of an E. coli manufacturing facility in Singapore, for the worldwide production of Lucentis bulk drug substance. Genentech Inc Political Action Committee is a U. S. Federal Political Action Committee, created to "aggregate contributions from members or employees and their families to donate to candidates for federal office." In November 1999, Genentech agreed to pay the University of California, San Francisco $200 million to settle a nine-year-old patent dispute. In 1990, UCSF sued Genentech for $400 million in compensation for alleged theft of technology developed at the university and covered by a 1982 patent.
Genentech claimed that they developed Protropin, independently of UCSF. A jury ruled that the university's patent was valid in July 1999, but wasn't able to decide whether Protropin was based upon UCSF research or not. Protropin, a drug used to treat dwarfism, was Genentech's first marketed drug and its $2 billion in sales has contributed to its position as an industry leader; the settlement was to be divided as follows: $30 million to the University of California General Fund, $85 million to the three inventors and two collaborating scientists, $50 million towards a new teaching and research campus for UCSF, $35 million to support university-wide research. In 2009, The New York Times reported that Genentech's talking points on health care reform appeared verbatim in the official statements of several Members of Congress during the national health care reform debate. 1982: Synthetic "human" insulin approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, partnered with insulin manufacturer Eli Lilly and Company, who shepherded the product through the FDA approval process.
The product was licensed to and manufactured by Lilly, was the first-ever approved genetically engineered human therapeutic. 1985: Protropin: Supplementary growth hormone for children with growth hormone deficiency. 1987: Activase: A recombinant tissue plasminogen activator used to d