Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
Muñoz the Science City of Muñoz, is a 4th class city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 81,483 people. Situated 151 kilometres north of the capital Manila and due to its rich topography and tropical climate, it is now home to agricultural research and technology centers, committed to the production of information and technological breakthroughs to promote rural development and food security. From its lowly origins as “Sitio Papaya”, it was renamed as Muñoz in 1886 in honor of Spanish Governor Don Francisco Muñoz, it was under Executive Order No. 72, when Muñoz was declared as a new and independent municipality. Muñoz is politically subdivided into 37 barangays: In 1886, Papaya was changed into'Muñoz' to honor Don Francisco Muñoz, the province’s alcalde mayor, the community’s first appointed gobernadorcillo. Muñoz was annexed as a barrio of San Juan de Guimba municipality. Settlers trickled in from the Ilocos Region. In 1911, the provincial capital, was flooded.
Muñoz was considered a possible new capital of the province. At about the same time, the people of Barrios Muñoz and San Antonio in San Juan de Guimba town, Palusapis in Sto. Domingo municipality, together with Sitios Kabisukulan, Rang-ayan, Mataas na Lupa, Purok Agrikultura, Pulong Maragul in Talavera town, were organizing themselves to be separated from their three respective municipalities to become a new independent municipality, they were prepared to construct a school building for the emerging town. On the recommendation of the Provincial Board of Nueva Ecija headed by Governor Isauro Gabaldon, with approval of Acting Governor General Newton Gilbert, the organized barrios and sitios were granted independence as a regular municipality on January 10, 1913 under the name of Muñoz; the seat of the fledgling municipal government was positioned in erstwhile Barrio Muñoz. The municipality of Muñoz was born and grew to become an agricultural Science City in the making. A municipal hall, a church, a small public market were erected in Lumang Bayan.
A road linking the young Muñoz town with the national highway from Barangay Bacal, Talavera was constructed. In World War II, Muñoz was the last stronghold of the Japanese Imperial Army. In 2000, after achieving cityhood status and scientific research institutes sprung up; the local government used and, adopted the Science city status. Churches: Sacred Heart of Jesus Shrine San Sebastian parish Church Christ the Worker Parish Church Iglesia ni Cristo Christian Churches IIJMS Temples There are many new establishments in Munoz in the past few years. Notable are Friendship Supermarket and the Villa-Mendoza Training Institute, both are now major landmarks on the city. With a bustling market center with rice trading as a major economic activity, it has transformed into its present status as a Science City by virtue of Republic Act 8977 on December 9, 2000. Being a science city, Muñoz was acknowledged as one of the members of League of Cities of the Philippines and became a pilot city of achieving the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals.
Research and development centers: The Philippine Rice Research Institute is found in Muñoz Central Office of the Philippine Carabao Center. National Freshwater and Fisheries Training and Research Center The main offices of the Bureau of Postharvest Research and Extension Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources are based in Muñoz; as with most towns in Central Luzon, inter-city transport is through the Pan-Philippine Highway, the country's principal transport backbone. The principal mode of transport is through Jeepneys with fixed routes, or through tricycles, whom you need to tell where to go. Buses from Cagayan Valley to Manila and vice versa stops here. From Manila, you can ride a public bus going to San Jose City, Nueva Ecija or Take the North Luzon Expressway and Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway and take La Paz Exit, and continue until reaching the city. Central Luzon State University: is a state university on a 658-hectare campus in Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, it is the lead agency of the Muñoz Science Community and the seat of the Regional Research and Development Center in Central Luzon.
To date, CLSU is one of the premier institutions of agriculture in Southeast Asia and known for its breakthrough researches in aquatic culture, crops and water management researches. Https://clsu.edu.ph/ Science City Of Muñoz Official Website Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System Inquirer.net, Carabao may be key to biofuel, says scientist
City of Arts and Sciences
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia and one of the 12 Treasures of Spain; the City of Arts and Sciences is situated at the end of the former riverbed of the river Turia, drained and rerouted after a catastrophic flood in 1957. The old riverbed was turned into a picturesque sunken park. Designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela, the project began the first stages of construction in July 1996, was inaugurated April 16, 1998 with the opening of L'Hemisfèric; the last great component of the City of Arts and Sciences, El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, was inaugurated on October 9, 2005, Valencian Community Day. Budgeted at €300 million, it has cost nearly three times the initial expected cost; the complex is made up of the following buildings, in order of their inauguration: L'Hemisfèric — an IMAX Cinema and laserium. The building is meant to resemble a giant eye, has an approximate surface of 13,000 m².
The Hemesferic known as the planetarium or the "eye of knowledge," is the centerpiece of the City of Arts and Sciences. It was the first building completed in 1998, its design resembles an eyelid. The bottom of the pool is glass; this planetarium is a half-sphere composed of concrete 110 meters long and 55.5 meters wide. The shutter is built of elongated aluminum awnings that fold upward collectively to form a brise soleil roof that opens along the curved axis of the eye, it opens to reveal the dome, the "iris" of the eye, the Ominax theater. The City of Arts and Sciences is divided in half by a set of stairs that descend into the vaulted concrete lobby; the underground spaces are illuminated with the use of translucent glass panels within the walking path. The transparent roof is supported by concrete arches. There is a miraculous echo inside of the building and if two people stay on the two opposite pillars inside of the eye they can seamlessly speak with each other. El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe — Is an interactive museum of science that resembles the skeleton of a whale.
It occupies around 40,000 m² on three floors. The hotch-potch of exhibits is designed more for'entertainment value' than for science education. Much of the ground floor is taken up by a basketball court sponsored by a local team and various companies; the building is made up of three floors. The first floor has a view of the Turia Garden; the second floor hosts "The Legacy of Science" exhibition by the researchers. The third floor is known as the "Chromosome Forest" which shows the sequencing of human DNA. On this floor is the "Zero Gravity," the "Space Academy," and "Marvel Superheroes" exhibitions; the building's architecture is known for its geometry, use of materials, its design around nature. The building is about 42,000 square meter and 26,000 square meters of is exhibition space, the largest in Spain, it has 20,000 square meters of glass, 4,000 panes, 58,000 m³ of concrete, 14.000 tons of steel. This magnificent building stands 80 meters wide and 55 meters high. L'Umbracle — an open structure enveloping a landscaped walk with plant species indigenous to Valencia.
It harbors in its interior The Walk of the Sculptures, an outdoor art gallery with sculptures by contemporary artists.. The Umbracle is home to numerous free-standing sculptures surrounded by nature, it was designed as an entrance to the City of Sciences. It is 60 meters wide, located on the southern side of the complex, it includes 54 floating arches that stand 18 meters high. The plants displayed were picked to change colour with each season; the garden includes 78 small palm trees, 62 bitter orange trees. There are 42 varieties of shrubs from the Region of Valencia including Cistus, Buddleia, Pampas grass, Plumbago. In the garden there are 16 species of the four-o'clock plant. Honeysuckle and hanging Bougainvillea are two of the 450 climbing plants in the L'Umbracle. There are 5,500 ground cover plants such as Lotus, Spanish Flags, Fig Marigolds. There are over a hundred aromatic plants including Lavender. L'Oceanogràfic — an open-air oceanographic park, designed by Félix Candela, it is the largest oceanographic aquarium in Europe with 110,000 square meters and 42 million liters of water.
It is the work of architect Félix Candela. Each building represents different aquatic environments including the Mediterranean, Wetlands and Tropical Seas, the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Ted Sea; this aquarium is a home to over 500 different species including dolphins, sawfish, starfish, sea urchins, sea lions, penguins, sharks,and rays. It inhabits wetland bird species. El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia — an opera house and performing arts center, it contains four large rooms: a Main Room, Magisterial Classr
Kapurthala is a city in Punjab state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Kapurthala District, it was the capital of a princely state in British India. The secular and aesthetic mix of the city with its prominent buildings based on French and Indo-Saracenic architecture self-narrate its princely past, it is known as city of Palaces & Gardens. According to the 2011 Census, Kapurthala is the least populated city in India. Kapurthala was founded in 11th century by Rana Kapur, scion of Rajput royal house of Bhattis in Jaisalmer, it is known to be an erstwhile royal state. Kapurthala was once the capital of Kapurthala State, a princely state in pre-independence India, ruled by the Ahluwalia Sikh rulers. Kapurthala flag has two color background, with insgnia and moto that says "pro rege et patria" meaning "For king and country" As per provisional data of 2011 census Kapurthala had a population of 101,854, out of which males were 55,485 and females were 46,169; the literacy rate was 85.82 per cent.
The City of Kapurthala has several buildings and places of interest linked to its local history such as the Sainik School, Shalimar Bagh, District Courts buildings, Moorish Mosque, Panch Mandir, Clock Tower, State Gurudwara, Kanjli Wetlands, Guru Nanak Sports Stadium, Jagjit Club, the NJSA Government college. The city have first climatic change theater of country; the Sainik School known as Jagatjit Palace, is housed in what was the palace of the erstwhile Maharajah of Kapurthala state, HRH Maharajah Jagatjit Singh. The palace building's architecture is based on the Palace of Versailles and Fontainebleau and is spread over a total area of 200 acres, it was built by a local builder Allah Ditta. It was built in renaissance style with the sunken park in the front, its Durbar Hall is one of the finest in India, the Plaster of Paris figures and painted ceilings represent the finest features of French and Italian art and architecture. The construction of this palace was commenced in 1900 and completed in 1908 in time for the new wife of the Maharajah Anita Delgado.
The Elysee Palace was built by Kanwar Bikrama Singh in 1862. This building has now been converted into MGN School of Kapurthala. An example of the secular history of Kapurthala is the Moorish Mosque, a replica of the Grand Mosque of Marakesh, was built by a French architect, Monsieur M Manteaux, its construction was commissioned by the last ruler of Kapurthala, Maharajah Jagatjit Singh and took 13 years to complete between 1917 and 1930. It was consecrated in the presence of the late Nawab of Bhawalpur; the Mosque's inner dome contains decorations by the artists of the Mayo School of Lahore. The Mosque is a National Monument under the Archaeological Survey of India, it was one of the monumental creations in the State during the premiership of late Diwan Sir Abdul Hamid Kt. CIE, OBE, it was his keen interest with Maharaja's blessings. Its wooden model lay at the entrance of the Lahore Museum. Jagatjit Club is an elegant building situated in the heart of the city based on the Greek roman style of architecture.
Its design loosely resembles the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens and features the Coat of Arms of the erstwhile ruling family of Kapurthala with their royal motto "Pro Rege et Patria" on its pediment. The building has been used for a variety of purposes since it was constructed, it was used as a church in the early nineteenth century, as a cinema hall in the 1940s and now houses a local club which includes a well built badminton court, a card room and a dining hall. Shalimar Gardens are situated in the centre of the city and provide an escape from the hustle-bustle of the city; the Shahi Samadhs in the Shalimar Gardens emphasize the traditions of its ruling Dynasty. Marble obelisks inside the red sandstone Chambers, are Memorials to the former Rulers and their families. Nearby, a grand structure built in 1880 and built on a marble plinth, houses the Samadhs of Maharajas Kharak Singh, Jagatjit Singh and Paramjit Singh. Panch Mandir of Kapurthala is a place of reverence for all faiths; the temple complex is home to five small temples.
Built during the reign of Sardar Fateh Singh, an extraordinary feature of this temple is that from the entry door, one can view all the five idols and pay obeisance to all. There is a temple Mandir Shivala Dewan Banna Mal Gautam in Nawanshahr Which is replica of Panch Mandir Kapurthala. Dewan Banna Mal Gautam was Chief Minister of Kapurthala State and Manager of His Highness Maharaja Sir Randhir Singh Bahadur of Kapurthala's estates in Oudh; the large and imposing red sandstone building of the State Gurudwara was consecrated in 1915 under the in charge of Revail Singh. Built in the Indo-Saracenic style, it has vast expanses of marble haloed by the feet of the hundreds of devotees, it is situated in the center of the city on the Sultanpur road. It is being renovated. Now,there is a big park behind the Gurudwara building to do some yoga and jogging as well. Most of the people came there in the early morning or in the evening time and in the meantime they get connected to religious music as well, a kind of stressbuster for someone during walking in the park.
11 Mukhi Shiv Ling Brahmkund Temple is jathere of Gautam Brahmin Family of Dewan Banna Mal Gautam. This temple was built by Dewan Banna Mal's sons Dewan Sundri Mal Gautam. Dewan Banna Mal was Dewan of Maharaja Randhir Singh Bahadur of Kapurthala and Manager of Kapurthala's estate in Oudh. Bana Mala Wala village in
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Science City Kolkata
The Science City of Kolkata is the largest science centre in the Indian subcontinent. Managed by National Council of Science Museums, Ministry of Culture, Government of India, it is located at the crossing of Eastern Metropolitan Bypass and J. B. S. Haldane Avenue. Saroj Ghose, the first director general of NCSM, credited with having conceptualised this centre in 1997; this centre was inaugurated by two parts: the ‘Convention Centre Complex’ was unveiled on 21 December 1996 by Paul Jozef Crutzen in presence of the chief minister Jyoti Basu and the whole centre was opened by the prime minister Inder Kumar Gujral on 1 July 1997. On 10 January 2010, prime minister of India, Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the second phase of Science City in presence of the chief minister of West Bengal, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee. Dynamotion Hall Hands-on and interactive exhibits on various topics of science encouraging visitors to experience with props and enjoy the underlying scientific principles.
Illusions. A permanent exhibition on the world of illusions with interactive exhibits, explores how motion and placement make a different in the visual perception. Powers of Ten. 43 exhibits unfold the smallest or the biggest of the universe through zooming in or out in the order of ten. Fresh Water Aquarium. Variety of fresh water fishes in 26 tanks. Live Butterfly Enclave. A colony of live butterflies hatched here and screening of a film Rang Bahari Prajapati on life cycle of butterfly. Science On a Sphere; the spherical projection system created by NOAA. Each show of 30 minutes duration for around 70 people at a time. Earth Exploration Hall Inaugurated on 6 December 2008 by Ambika Soni, the Union Minister for Culture, India. A permanent exhibition on earth is housed in a two storied hemispherical building that displays the details of the southern hemisphere in the ground floor and northern hemisphere in the first floor. Slicing a huge earth globe at the centre of the hall into 12 segments vertically in each hemisphere, important features of each segment such as physical geography and people, flora and fauna and other dynamic natural phenomenon on earth have been highlighted around the central globe with the modern display technologies such as attractive visuals, interactive multimedia, video walls, panoramic videos, tilting tables, computer kiosks and 3-D effects theatre wearing a special Polaroid spectacle.
Space Odyssey Comprising Space Theatre equipped with Helios Star Ball planetarium supported by 150 special effect projectors and Astrovision 10/70 Large format Film Projection system housed in a 23-meter diameter tilted dome having unidirectional seating arrangements for 360 person immersive shows on sciences. Now the Astrovision film Adventures in Wild California of 40 minutes duration has been screening from June, 2013. 3-D Vision Theater. A show based on stereo back projection system where visitors experience 3D effect by Polaroid spectacles. Mirror Magic. There are 35 exhibits based on reflection of light. Time Machine. 30-seater motion simulator provides virtual experience of space flight or journey into unknown world sitting in a casual maneuvered by hydraulic motion control system. Maritime Centre Depicts maritime history of India, artifacts and interactive exhibits on shipping and navigation systems. There is an unmanned quiz corner also. In a tropical country like India, the outdoor is sunny and more inviting than the indoors for most part of the year.
In a Science Park, people come closer to plants and other objects in their natural surroundings and learn about the basic principles of science in an open air learning environment. The park interactive exhibits are engineered so as to tolerate all the weather. Science Park has become the integral part in all the centres of NCSM, it comprises Caterpillar Ride, Gravity Coaster, Musical Fountain, Road Train, Cable Cars, Monorail Cycle, butterfly nursery and several exhibits on physical and life sciences and a maze set up in a lush green ambience. There are many people came in different states The 5400 square metres new building is opened in 2016 with the latest infrastructure and provides an enquiry based learning to the visitors, it has four sections: Emerging Technologies gallery Evolution of Life a dark ride Panorama on Human Evolution. Depicts the evolution of life over the ages, on the world's largest Panoramic Display. Science and Technology Heritage of India gallery Convention Centre Complex Grand Theater: 2232 seating capacity main auditorium with stage for 100 performers at a time is the largest auditorium in eastern India.
Mini Auditorium: 392 seating capacity, with stage for 30 performers at a time is ideal for smaller conferences and shows. Seminar Building: Comprising eleven halls, four with seating capacity of 100 persons, two with seating capacity of 40 persons each, two with seating capacity of 30 persons each, two with seating capacity of 15 persons and a meeting room for 12 persons, is ideal venue for conference, seminars and workshops. Swami Vivekananda Planetarium, Mangalore Pushpa Gujral Science City, Punjab, India Gujarat Science City, Gujarat, India Science City at Union Station, Kansas City, United States Science Centre, Surat Science City Chennai
Gujarat Science City
Gujarat Science City, located in Hebatpur, Ahmedabad, is a part of Gujarat government's initiative to draw more students towards education in science. The center hosts an IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, Planet Earth, an amphitheatre, Life Science Park and dancing musical fountains among others; the center provides housing for students preparing for science exams. For last few years, a program called "Vacation Training Program on sources for children" is being organised by Science city with the help of government funds to encourage students regarding Bioresources, it is a month-long program for students who gave their SSC exams, each from every district of the state. As of 2012, Science City is awaiting the opening of a long-anticipated Earth Pavilion - an earth-shaped dome created in 2009 whose goal is to showcase live experiences with natural disasters; the Pavilion will allow visitors to participate in hands-on activities. Science Centre, Surat Swami Vivekananda Planetarium, Mangalore Official website
ETH Zurich is a science, technology and mathematics university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Like its sister institution EPFL, it is an integral part of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain, directly subordinate to Switzerland's Federal Department of Economic Affairs and Research; the school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, serve as a national center of excellence in science and technology and provide a hub for interaction between the scientific community and industry. In the 2019 edition of the QS World University Rankings ETH Zurich is ranked 7th in the world, is ranked 10th in the world by the Times Higher Education World Rankings 2018. In the 2019 QS World University Rankings by subject it is ranked 3rd in the world for engineering and technology, 1st for Earth & Marine Science; as of August 2018, 32 Nobel laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein.
It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities and a member of the CESAER network. ETH was founded on 7 February 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and began giving its first lectures on 16 October 1855 as a polytechnic institute at various sites throughout the city of Zurich, it was composed of six faculties: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, forestry, an integrated department for the fields of mathematics, natural sciences and social and political sciences. It is locally still known as Polytechnikum, or as Poly, derived from the original name eidgenössische polytechnische Schule, which translates to "federal polytechnic school". ETH is a federal institute; the decision for a new federal university was disputed at the time. In the beginning, both universities were co-located in the buildings of the University of Zürich. From 1905 to 1908, under the presidency of Jérôme Franel, the course program of ETH was restructured to that of a real university and ETH was granted the right to award doctorates.
In 1909 the first doctorates were awarded. In 1911, it was given Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments. ETH Zurich, the EPFL, four associated research institutes form the "ETH Domain" with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects. ETH Zurich is ranked among the top universities in the world. Popular rankings place the institution as the best university in continental Europe and ETH Zurich is ranked among the top 1-5 universities in Europe, among the top 3-10 best universities of the world. ETH Zurich has achieved its reputation in the fields of chemistry and physics. There are 32 Nobel Laureates who are associated with ETH; the most recent Nobel Laureate is Richard F. Heck, awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is its most famous alumnus. In 2018, the QS World University Rankings placed ETH Zurich at 7th overall in the world. In 2015, ETH was ranked 5th in the world in Engineering and Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Cambridge University and National University of Singapore.
In 2015, ETH ranked 6th in the world in Natural Sciences, in 2016 ranked 1st in the world for Earth & Marine Sciences for the second consecutive year. In 2016, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked ETH Zurich 9th overall in the world and 8th in the world in the field of Engineering & Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, Cambridge University, Imperial College London and Oxford University. In a comparison of Swiss universities by swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zurich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences. In the survey CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programmes in the fields biology, chemistry and mathematics, ETH was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent graduate programmes in all considered fields, the other two being the Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge.
ETH Zurich had a total budget of 1.885 billion CHF in the year 2017. For Swiss students, ETH is not selective in its undergraduate admission procedures. Like every public university in Switzerland, ETH is obliged to grant admission to every Swiss resident who took the Matura. Applicants from foreign countries are required to take either the reduced entrance exam or the comprehensive entrance exam although some applicants from several European countries are exempted from this rule. An applicant can be admitted to ETH without any verifiable educational records by passing the comprehensive entrance exam; as at all universities in Switzerland, the academic year is divided into two semesters. Examinations are held durin