National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republika Srpska
The Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republika Srpska is highest representative institution in the Republika Srpska of science and art founded in 1996. It has four departments – Department of Social Sciences, Department of Literature and Arts, Department of Natural and Technical Sciences and the Department of Medical Sciences, it is based in Banja Luka. Emir Kusturica Milan Vasić Svetozar Koljević Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts The official web site of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republika Srpska
Minato is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is called Minato City in English, it was formed in 1947 as a merger of Akasaka and Shiba wards following Tokyo City's transformation into Tokyo Metropolis. The modern Minato ward exhibits the contrasting Shitamachi and Yamanote geographical and cultural division; the Shinbashi neighborhood in the ward's northeastern corner is attached to the core of Shitamachi, the original commercial center of Edo-Tokyo. On the other hand, the Azabu and Akasaka areas are representative Yamanote districts; as of 1 July 2015, it has an official population of 243,094, a population density of 10,850 persons per km2. The total area is 20.37 km2. Minato hosts a large number of embassies, it is home to various domestic companies, including Honda, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, NEC, Sony and Toshiba, as well as the Japanese headquarters of a number of multi-national firms, including Google and Goldman Sachs. Minato is located southwest of the Imperial Palace and has boundaries with the special wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, Kōtō, Shinagawa and Shinjuku.
The ward was founded on 15 March 1947 with the merger of Akasaka and Shiba Wards. The name minato means "harbour". Minato is governed by Mayor Masaaki Takei, an Independent supported by all major parties except the Japanese Communist Party; the city legislative assembly is dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party. Minato mayoral election, 2008 Jikei University School of Medicine Nishi Shinbashi campus Kanazawa Institute of Technology Graduate school. Mita Junior High School opened in 2001 after the merger of Minato Junior High School and Shibahama Junior High School; the local public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education. Akasaka High School Mita High School Roppongi High School Shiba Commercial High School There are a variety of private schools, including: Keio Girls Senior High School Keiō Chutobu Junior High School Shiba Junior and Senior High School Azabu Junior and Senior High School Friends School, a Quaker school established in 1887. Meiji Gakuin Senior High School in Shirokane Russian Embassy School in Tokyo in Azabudai The city operates the Minato Library, the Mita Library, the Azabu Library, the Akasaka Library, the Takanawa Library, the Konan Library.
The metropolis operates the Tokyo Metropolitan Library Central Library in Minato. The library opened in 1973. Companies with headquarters in Minato include Air Nippon, All Nippon Airways, ANA & JP Express, All Nippon Airways Trading, Asmik Ace Entertainment, Cosmo Oil Company, Daicel,Dentsu, Fuji Xerox, Haseko, Hazama Ando, Japan Tobacco, Kaneka Corporation, Konami, KYB Corporation, Kyodo News, Mitsubishi Motors, Mitsui Chemicals, Mitsui O. S. K. Lines, Mitsui Oil Exploration Company, NEC, Nippon Sheet Glass, NYK Line, Obayashi Corporation, Oki Electric Industry, Pizza-La, The Pokémon Company, Toraya Confectionery, Sato Pharmaceutical, Sega Sammy Holdings, Sigma Seven, Sony, SUMCO, Toraya Confectionery, Toyo Suisan, TV Tokyo, WOWOW, Yazaki. In addition ANA subsidiary Air Japan has some offices in Minato; the Japanese division of CB&I, the Japanese division of Aramark and Aim Services, Google Japan, Yahoo! Japan, the main Japanese offices of Hanjin and Korean Air are located there. Air France operates an office and ticketing counter in the New Aoyama Building in Minato.
The Japanese division of Deutsche Post, DHL. Air France's Minato office handles Aircalin-related inquiries. Air China has operations in the Air China Building in Minato. Asiana Airlines operates a sales office on the sixth floor of the ATT New Tower Building. Hawaiian Airlines has its Japan offices in the Eagle Hamamatsuchō Building in Minato. Iran Air has its Tokyo office in Akasaka. Japanese companies that had headquarters in Minato include Air Next, Asatsu, Jaleco Holding, Toa Domestic Airlines,On 22 December 2008 operations of Seiko Epson's Tokyo sales office began at Seiko Epson's Hino Office in Hino, Tokyo. Operations were at the World Trade Centre in Minato. Several countries operate their embassies in Minato. Kiribati Mauritius North Macedonia Tuvalu Akasaka: A large residential and commercial area in northern Minato which includes the Akasaka Palace and surrounding gardens, TBS radio and television studios, Ark Hills complex, National Art Center, the embassy of the United States. Aoyama: Home to Aoyama Cemetery, one of Tokyo's largest graveyards, the Chichibunomiya Rugby Stadium.
Atago Shrine, the highest point in all 23 wards of Tokyo. Azabu: One of Tokyo's more upscale residential areas, home to many embassies. Fushimi Sanpō Inari Jinja: A Shinto shrine in Shiba 3-chōme. Hamamatsuchō: Hamamatsucho Station is the terminal for the Tokyo Monorail to Haneda Airport. Mita: Home to Keio University and a large number of small Buddhist temples; the National Art Center, Tokyo is a museum that opened in 2007. Odaiba: One of Tokyo's most popular entertainment areas, featuring the Fuji TV studios, Palette Town sho
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters is a Danish non-governmental science Academy, founded in 1742 for the advancement of science in Denmark. It is based in the Carlsberg Foundation's building at the corner of H. C. Andersens Boulevard and Dantes Plads in central Copenhagen; the Society was founded on 13 November 1742 by permission of King Christian VI, as a historical Collegium Antiquitatum. It was founded by secretary of state, Count Johan Ludvig Holstein and the history professor Hans Gram; the building at 35 H. C. Andersens Boulevard was designed by Vilhelm Petersen in a Neoclassical style; the Carlsberg Foundation is based in the ground floor while the Royal Academy has the three upper floors. First floor contains the Old Meeting Hall, it is decorated with a large oil painting by Peder Severin Krøyer depicting A meeting in the Royal Scientific Society. There is a library and rooms for researchers. Second floor contain the Academy's secretariate and archives as the President's, General Secretary's and Editor's offices.
Third floor now contains New Meeting Room. It was created in the former attic and book storage in connection with an adaption of the building in 1976. Since 2009, it has access to a roof terrace. Members of the Academy are researching and publishing in nearly all fields of science; the Academy has 250 national and 260 foreign members. In 2011 the division The Young Academy was added, which counts 34 young researchers as members. Olaf Pedersen, Lovers of Learning - A History of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 1742-1992, Munksgaard, 1992. ISBN 87-7304-236-6. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters Digital archive of Matematisk-fysiske meddelelser from the University of Southern Denmark Library
Australian Academy of Science
The Australian Academy of Science was founded in 1954 by a group of distinguished Australians, including Australian Fellows of the Royal Society of London. The first president was Sir Mark Oliphant; the Academy operates under a Royal Charter. The Academy Secretariat is at the Shine Dome; the objectives of the Academy are to promote science and science education through a range of activities. It has defined four major program areas: recognition of outstanding contributions to science education and public awareness science policy international relationsThe Academy runs the 22 National Committees for Science which provide a forum to discuss issues relevant to all the scientific disciplines in Australia; the Australian National Research Council was established in 1919 for the purpose of representing Australia on the International Research Council. The Council ceased to exist in 1954, replaced by the Australian Academy of Science; the Shine Dome is a well-known Canberra landmark, notable for its unusual structure, colloquially referred to as "The Martian Embassy", an allusion to its shape and the fact that as the capital of Australia, Canberra is the home of foreign embassies.
It was designed by architect Sir Roy Grounds, of Grounds and Boyd. When completed in 1959 its 45.75-metre-diameter dome was the largest in Australia. On 1 December 1956, the Academy's building design committee met in Adelaide to look over plans submitted by six architects; the plan accepted involved a 710-tonne reinforced concrete dome, which had to be supported by 16 thin supports. The concrete is 60 cm thick at the base supports, 10 cm at the top; the dome supports itself, with no internal wall holding it up. It cost £200,000 to build; the foundation stone, laid on 2 May 1958 by Prime Minister of Australia, Robert Menzies, was part of the pier of the Great Melbourne Telescope constructed in 1869 under the supervision of the Royal Society and transferred to Mount Stromlo Observatory in the 1940s. The building was named Becker House, for benefactor and Fellow of the Academy Sir Jack Ellerton Becker, in 1962. In 2000, it was renamed in honour of Fellow John Shine, who donated one million dollars to renovate the dome.
The interior contains three floors: on the ground level, the main auditorium, the Ian Wark Theatre, seats 156 people, the Jaeger Room for functions and meetings, the Becker Council Meeting Room and offices. In 2016, the dome appeared in the television documentary series about Australian modernist architecture Streets of Your Town presented by Tim Ross. Science education is a main commitment of Australian Academy of Science. Current activities include following projects: Primary Connections Science by Doing Nova: science for curious minds reSolve: Mathematics by Inquiry Science booklets Brain Box The Fellowship of the Australian Academy of Science is made up of around 500 leading Australian scientists. Scientists judged by their peers to have made an exceptional contribution to knowledge in their field may be elected to Fellowship of the Academy. Twenty new Fellows may be elected every year. No more than two Fellows may be elected every three years on the basis of distinguished contributions to science by means other than personal research.
A small number of distinguished foreign scientists with substantial connections to Australian science are elected as Corresponding Members. Fellows are denoted by the letters FAA after their name; when the Academy was founded in 1954 there were 24 members, known as the Foundation Fellows: Source: Sir Mark Oliphant Sir John Eccles Sir Thomas Cherry Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Dr David Martyn Professor Dorothy Hill Sir Rutherford Robertson Sir Geoffrey Badger Dr Lloyd Evans Professor Arthur Birch Professor David Curtis Professor David Craig Sir Gustav Nossal Professor Brian Anderson Dr Jim Peacock Professor Kurt Lambeck Professor Suzanne Cory Professor Andrew Holmes Professor John Shine Early career awards: Anton Hales Medal to recognise distinguished research in the Earth sciences. Moran Medal to recognise outstanding research in one or more of the fields of applied probability, mathematical genetics and statistics. Mid career awards: Gustav Nossal Medal, to health researchers. Career awards recognising lifelong achievement: David Craig Medal and Lecture, for researchers in chemistry.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
The Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology known as MEXT, Monka-shō, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. The Meiji government created the first Ministry of Education in 1871. In January 2001, the former Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and the former Science and Technology Agency merged to become the present MEXT. MEXT is led by the Minister of Education, Sports and Technology, a member of the Cabinet and is chosen by the Prime Minister from the members of the Diet; the Japanese government centralises education, it is managed by a state bureaucracy that regulates every aspect of the education process. The School Education Law requires schools around the country to use textbooks that follow the curriculum guideline set by the ministry, although there are some exceptions. MEXT is one of three ministries, it offers the Monbukagakusho Scholarship known as the MEXT or Monbu-shō scholarship. The Ministry sets standards for the romanization of Japanese. MEXT provides the Children Living Abroad and Returnees Internet which provides information to Japanese families living abroad.
MEXT sends teachers around the world to serve in nihonjin gakkō, full-time Japanese international schools in foreign countries. The Japanese government sends full-time teachers to hoshū jugyō kō supplementary schools that offer lessons that are similar to those of nihonjin gakkō or those which each have student bodies of 100 students or greater. In addition, MEXT subsidizes weekend schools. National Spiritual Mobilization Movement Education in Japan Fundamental Law of Education History of education in Japan Japanese history textbook controversies Monbukagakusho Scholarship Reischauer, Edwin O. and Marius Jansen. The Japanese Today. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. Official website Official website Ministry of Education, Science and Culture website Ministry of Education, Science and Culture website Press release on Legislation of "the National University Corporation Law"