European Space Agency
The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,200 in 2018 and an annual budget of about €5.72 billion in 2019. ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight; the main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. The agency is working with NASA to manufacture the Orion Spacecraft service module, that will fly on the Space Launch System; the agency's facilities are distributed among the following centres: ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands. After World War II, many European scientists left Western Europe in order to work with the United States. Although the 1950s boom made it possible for Western European countries to invest in research and in space-related activities, Western European scientists realised national projects would not be able to compete with the two main superpowers.
In 1958, only months after the Sputnik shock, Edoardo Amaldi and Pierre Auger, two prominent members of the Western European scientific community, met to discuss the foundation of a common Western European space agency. The meeting was attended by scientific representatives from eight countries, including Harrie Massey; the Western European nations decided to have two agencies: one concerned with developing a launch system, ELDO, the other the precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO. The latter was established on 20 March 1964 by an agreement signed on 14 June 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO launched seven research satellites. ESA in its current form was founded with the ESA Convention in 1975, when ESRO was merged with ELDO. ESA had ten founding member states: Belgium, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom; these signed the ESA Convention in 1975 and deposited the instruments of ratification by 1980, when the convention came into force. During this interval the agency functioned in a de facto fashion.
ESA launched its first major scientific mission in 1975, Cos-B, a space probe monitoring gamma-ray emissions in the universe, first worked on by ESRO. The ESA collaborated with NASA on the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the world's first high-orbit telescope, launched in 1978 and operated for 18 years. A number of successful Earth-orbit projects followed, in 1986 ESA began Giotto, its first deep-space mission, to study the comets Halley and Grigg–Skjellerup. Hipparcos, a star-mapping mission, was launched in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA. Scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini–Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens; as the successor of ELDO, ESA has constructed rockets for scientific and commercial payloads. Ariane 1, launched in 1979, carried commercial payloads into orbit from 1984 onward; the next two versions of the Ariane rocket were intermediate stages in the development of a more advanced launch system, the Ariane 4, which operated between 1988 and 2003 and established ESA as the world leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s.
Although the succeeding Ariane 5 experienced a failure on its first flight, it has since established itself within the competitive commercial space launch market with 82 successful launches until 2018. The successor launch vehicle of Ariane 5, the Ariane 6, is under development and is envisioned to enter service in the 2020s; the beginning of the new millennium saw ESA become, along with agencies like NASA, JAXA, ISRO, CSA and Roscosmos, one of the major participants in scientific space research. Although ESA had relied on co-operation with NASA in previous decades the 1990s, changed circumstances led to decisions to rely more on itself and on co-operation with Russia. A 2011 press issue thus stated: Russia is ESA's first partner in its efforts to ensure long-term access to space. There is a framework agreement between ESA and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation and partnership in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, cooperation is underway in two different areas of launcher activity that will bring benefits to both partners.
Notable outcomes are ESA's include SMART-1, a probe testing cutting-edge new space propulsion technology, the Mars Express and Venus Express missions, as well as the development of the Ariane 5 rocket and its role in the ISS partnership. ESA maintain
National University of Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba, founded in 1613, is the oldest university in Argentina, the fourth oldest in South America and the sixth oldest in Latin America. It is located in the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students and academic programs; as the location of the first university founded in the land, now Argentina, Córdoba has earned the nickname La Docta. In 1610 the Society of Jesus founded the Collegium Maximum in Córdoba, attended by students of the order. An institution of the highest intellectual caliber for the time, this was the precursor of the university. While still under the control of the Jesuits, during the administration of the Bishop of Tucumán, Juan Fernando de Trejo y Sanabria, advanced studies began to be offered at what was now known as the Colegio Maximo de Córdoba; the school did not yet have authority to confer degrees. This milestone would be soon reached.
With this authorization, with the approval of the church hierarchy and the provincial head of the Jesuits, Pedro de Oñate, the university began its official existence. This marks the beginning of the history of higher education in Argentina; the Jesuits remained in control of the university until 1767, when they were expelled by order of King Carlos III. Leadership passed to the Franciscan order. For the first 150 years after its founding, the university maintained an exclusive focus on philosophy and theology; the first secondary school in Cordoba was Our Lady of Monserrat, founded by a Jesuit priest, Father Ignacio Duarte y Quirós, in 1687 and incorporated into the university's aegis in 1907. The College of Montesrrat, as well as the original physical plant of the university and the Jesuit church, are part of the Jesuit Block, were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. At the end of the 18th century, law studies were added, from this time forward studies at the university were no longer theological.
Following a conflict between the Franciscans and the secular clergy over the direction of the university, the house of study was renamed to Royal University of Saint Charles and Our Lady of Monserrat. With this new name the university acquired the double title of Royal and Pontifical, Monsignor Gregorio Funes was appointed president. With these changes, the Franciscans were replaced by the secular clergy as leaders of the university. Monsignor Funes introduced new subjects. On May 25, 1810 the May Revolution began, the new regime took control of the University of Córdoba, although Monsignor Funes remained in his post. In 1820 the university was relocated in other parts of the province of Córdoba, due to a situation of disorganization and chaos across the nation. Around the middle of the 19th century, a new national constitution was ratified, which outlined the new framework for the political organization of Argentina. At this time there were two provincial universities in the country: one in Córdoba and one in Buenos Aires.
The former was nationalized in 1856, the latter in 1881, leaving both under control of the national government. Between 1860 and 1880, many academic reforms were instituted, similar to those occurring at other universities around the world. In 1864 theological studies were eliminated. During the presidency of Faustino Sarmiento the sciences gained momentum through the recruitment of foreign lecturers specializing in Mathematical-Physical Science, leading to the opening of the School of Exact and Natural Sciences; this period saw the birth of the Academy of Exact Sciences and the Astronomical Observatory. In 1877 the School of Medicine was opened. In 1885 the Law of Avellaneda, the first law pertaining to universities, was passed, laying out the ways in which the bylaws of the national universities could be amended, their administrative framework, leaving other matters under the control of the universities themselves. In 1886 the bylaws of the university in Córdoba were modified to conform to the new law.
In June 1918 the student body at the university of Córdoba launched a movement, to which others all around the continent soon lent their voices, to fight for genuine democratization of the nation's academic activities. Hitherto controlled by interests related to the Catholic Church and the conservative lawmakers tied to the landed gentry, universities in Argentina gained unprecedented autonomy following these reforms. In May 1969 a series of socio-economic events connected to the French May, with participation by students of the university as well as by workers of the middle and lower classes, led to changes in the educational and political strategies of the university. During the 20th century a number of new schools were created within the university, most of which began as institutes or departments within existing schools: the School of Philosophy and the Humanities, the School of Economics, the School of Architecture and Urban Studies, the School of Dentistry, the School of Chemistry, the School of Agriculture, the School of Mathematics and Physics.
Created were the College of Languages and the Manuel Belgrano College of Business. In 2005 tensions erupted among the teaching staff, involving forceful tactics such as strikes and large-scale
INVAP S. E. is an Argentine company that provides design, integration and delivery of equipment and devices. The company operates in North America, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, delivers projects for nuclear, chemical, medical and governmental sectors. INVAP was created on September 1, 1976, as a spin-off of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, research laboratories division; the company is the sole owner being the Province of Río Negro. Its headquarters is in San Carlos de Bariloche; as of 2015, the company directly employs 1330 people, from which 59% are qualified professionals. INVAP was the first company in Latin America certified by NASA to supply space technologies, it constructs satellites and ground stations, including the SAC satellite family, developed for the Argentine space agency CONAE. INVAP was the first company in Latin America to provide design, mission control and operational support; the SAC-D was put into orbit on June 9, 2011, carrying several scientific payloads, including NASA's $100 million Aquarius project, which will measure the oceans' salinity.
ARSAT-1 - the first communications satellite built in Argentina - was launched in 2014, while a second satellite in the series, ARSAT-2 was launched in September 2015. In the field of nuclear projects, the company specializes in the design and construction of nuclear research reactors, radioisotope production plants, nuclear fuel manufacturing plants, uranium enrichment facilities, neutron beam transport systems, radiation protection instrumentation, reactor protection systems, modernization and refurbishment of research reactors. INVAP conducts consultancy and research activities for nuclear power plant suppliers in areas such as nuclear reactor fuels, isotope separation by lasers and reactor core reshuffling studies for nuclear power plants. INVAP has constructed and installed the following nuclear reactors: On 2009, INVAP and the Spanish group Isolux were pre-selected in an international tender, known as the PALLAS project; this entails the procurement of an 80 MW nuclear reactor for the Dutch city of Petten but in February 2010, the Dutch radiopharmaceutical producer Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group extended the preparatory phase up to end of the year for financing On 2010 INVAP and CITEDEF completed the development and readied for testing a method that used a laser to remove the radioactive components from heavy water, used to cool nuclear reactors.
On the 24th of January, 2018, INVAP won the international tender for a nuclear research reactor and radioisotope production facility for medical uses in The Netherlands. Civilian TDA - Design and implementation of the public terrestrial Argentine digital TV project Satellites and space research payload for CONAE Systems for early detection of forest fires Eleven 2D radars INKAN for the Administración Nacional de Aviación Civil the Argentine Civilian Agency in charge of air traffic control Wind Power Dry-freeze plants, for preservation of fruits and vegetables. Storage solutions for irradiated nuclear fuel from NPP and Research Reactors. Radioisotope processing plants Petrochemical plants. CAREM nuclear reactors for nuclear power generating and to propel future Argentine Nuclear Powered Submarine. MilitaryHangar doors for the Argentine Navy destroyer Hércules FLIR system for Argentine Navy P-3 Orion aircraft Sonar systems for Argentine Navy destroyers and future Nuclear Powered submarine. 3D radar prototype plus 6 in order for the Argentine Air Force Maritime patrol simulators Naval electronics and battle management systems for Argentine Navy Meko 360 type destroyers, MEKO 140 type frigates, TR-1700 submarines.
A synthetic aperture radar to replace the Bendix RDR-1500B on the maritime patrol aircraft Beechcraft Super King Air of the Argentine Naval Aviation CONAE - National space agency ARSAT - Government owned communication company CEATSA - Environmental testing company owned in association with ARSAT. Official website Spanish - English La enciclopedia de ciencias y tecnologías en Argentina INVAP - ECyT-ar Retrieved March 11, 2017
Pierre Auger Observatory
The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV. In Earth's atmosphere such particles produce various other particles; these effect particles can be measured. But since these high energy particles have an estimated arrival rate of just 1 per km2 per century, the Auger Observatory has created a detection area of 3,000 km2 —the size of Rhode Island, or Luxembourg—in order to record a large number of these events, it is located in the western Mendoza Province, near the Andes. Construction began in 2000, the observatory has been taking production-grade data since 2005 and was completed in 2008; the northern site was to be located in southeastern Colorado, United States and hosted by Lamar Community College. It was to consist of water-Cherenkov detectors and fluorescence telescopes, covering the area of 10,370 km2—3.3 times larger than Auger South.
The observatory was named after the French physicist Pierre Victor Auger. The project was proposed by Jim Cronin and Alan Watson in 1992. Today, more than 500 physicists from nearly 100 institutions around the world are collaborating to maintain and upgrade the site in Argentina and collect and analyse the measured data; the 15 participating countries shared the $50 million construction budget, each providing a small portion of the total cost. From outer space, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays reach Earth; these consist of single sub-atomic particles, each with energy levels beyond 1018 eV. When such a single particle reaches Earth atmosphere, it has its energy dissipated by creating billions of other particles: electrons and muons, all near the speed of light; these particles spread longitudinally, creating a forward moving plane of particles, with higher intensities near the axis. Such an incident is called an "air shower". Passing through the atmosphere, this plane of particles creates UV light, invisible to the human eye, called the fluorescing effect, more or less in the pattern of straight lightning traces.
These traces can be photographed at high speed by specialised telescopes, called Fluorescence Detectors, overlooking an area at a slight elevation. When the particles reach the Earth's surface, they can be detected when they arrive in a water tank, where they cause visible blue light due to the Cherenkov effect. A sensitive photoelectric tube can catch these impacts; such a station is called a water-Cherenkov Detector or'tank'. The Auger Observatory has both types of detectors covering the same area, which allows for precise measurements; when an air shower hits multiple Cherenkov Detectors on the ground, the direction of the ray can be calculated using basic geometrics. The longitudinal axis point can be determined from the densities in each affected ground station. Depending on the time difference of impact places, the angle of the axis can be determined. Only when the axis would be vertical, all ground detectors register at the same moment in time, any tilting of the axis will cause a time difference between earliest and latest touchdown.
Cosmic rays were discovered in 1912 by Victor Hess. He measured a difference in ionisation at different heights, an indication of the atmospheric thinning of a single ray. Influence of the Sun was ruled out by measuring during an eclipse. Many scientists researched the phenomenon, sometimes independently, in 1937 Pierre Auger could conclude in detail that it was a single ray that interacted with air nuclei, causing an electron and photon air shower. At the same time, the third particle muon was discovered. In 1967 University of Leeds had developed a water-Cherenkov detector and created a 12 km2 detection area Haverah Park using 200 such tanks, they were arranged in groups of four in a triangular ground pattern, the triangles in different sizes. The observatory worked for 20 years, produced the main design parameters for the ground detection system at Auger Observatory, it was Alan Watson who in the years led the research team and subsequently co-initiated Auger Observatory Collaboration. Meanwhile, from the Volcano Ranch, the Fly's Eye and its successor the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector called "HiRes" or "Fly's Eye", the technique of the fluorescence detector was developed.
These are optical telescopes, adjusted to picture UV light rays. It uses faceted observation. In 1992, James Cronin co-initiated the Auger Observation Collaboration. In 1995 at Fermilab, the basic design was made for the Auger observatory. For half a year, many scientists produced the main requirements, a cost estimation, for the projected Auger; the observatory's area had to be reduced from 5000 km2 to 3000 km2. When construction began, a full-scale prototype was set up first: the Engineering Array; this array consisted of a single fluorescence detector. All were equipped; the engineering array operated for 6 months in 2001 as a prototype. It was used to calibrate. In 2003, it became the largest ultra-high energy c
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was an Argentine activist, writer and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history, he was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was concerned with educational issues and was an important influence on the region's literature. Sarmiento grew up in a poor but politically active family that paved the way for much of his future accomplishments. Between 1843 and 1850 he was in exile, wrote in both Chile and in Argentina, his greatest literary achievement was Facundo, a critique of Juan Manuel de Rosas, that Sarmiento wrote while working for the newspaper El Progreso during his exile in Chile. The book brought him far more than just literary recognition. While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America.
He took advantage of the opportunity to modernize and develop train systems, a postal system, a comprehensive education system. He spent many years in ministerial roles on the federal and state levels where he travelled abroad and examined other education systems. Sarmiento died in Paraguay, at the age of 77 from a heart attack, he was buried in Buenos Aires. Today, he is respected as writer. Miguel de Unamuno considered him among the greatest writers of Castilian prose. Sarmiento was born in Carrascal, a poor suburb of San Juan, Argentina on February 15, 1811, his father, José Clemente Quiroga Sarmiento y Funes, had served in the military during the wars of independence, returning prisoners of war to San Juan. His mother, Doña Paula Zoila de Albarracín e Irrázabal, was a pious woman, who lost her father at a young age and was left with little to support herself; as a result, she took to selling her weaving. On September 21, 1801, José and Paula were married, they had 15 children. Sarmiento was influenced by his parents, his mother, always working hard, his father who told stories of being a patriot and serving his country, something Sarmiento believed in.
In Sarmiento's own words: I was born in a family that lived long years in mediocrity bordering on destitution, and, to this day poor in every sense of the word. My father is a good man whose life has nothing remarkable except having served in subordinate positions in the War of Independence... My mother is the true figure of Christianity in its purest sense. At the age of four, Sarmiento was taught to read by his father and his uncle, José Eufrasio Quiroga Sarmiento, who became Bishop of Cuyo. Another uncle who influenced him in his youth was Domingo de Oro, a notable figure in the young Argentine Republic, influential in bringing Juan Manuel de Rosas to power. Though Sarmiento did not follow de Oro's political and religious leanings, he learned the value of intellectual integrity and honesty, he developed qualities which de Oro was famous for. In 1816, at the age of five, Sarmiento began attending the primary school La Escuela de la Patria, he was a good student, earned the title of First Citizen of the school.
After completing primary school, his mother wanted him to go to Córdoba to become a priest. He had spent a year reading the Bible and spent time as a child helping his uncle with church services, but Sarmiento soon became bored with religion and school, got involved with a group of aggressive children. Sarmiento's father took him to the Loreto Seminary in 1821, but for reasons unknown, Sarmiento did not enter the seminary, returning instead to San Juan with his father. In 1823, the Minister of State, Bernardino Rivadavia, announced that the six top pupils of each state would be selected to receive higher education in Buenos Aires. Sarmiento was at the top of the list in San Juan, but it was announced that only ten pupils would receive the scholarship; the selection was made by lot, Sarmiento was not one of the scholars whose name was drawn. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. In 1826, an assembly elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
This action roused the ire of the provinces, civil war was the result. Support for a strong, centralized Argentine government was based in Buenos Aires, gave rise to two opposing groups; the wealthy and educated of the Unitarian Party, such as Sarmiento, favored centralized government. In opposition to them were the Federalists, who were based in rural areas and tended to reject European mores. Numbering figures such as Manuel Dorrego and Juan Facundo Quiroga among their ranks, they were in favor of a loose federation with more autonomy for the individual provinces. Opinion of the Rivadavia government was divided between the two ideologies. For Unitarians like Sarmiento, Rivadavia's presidency was a positive experience, he set up a European-staffed university and supported a public education program for rural male children. He
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most is used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. As a nuclear technology, nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Generating electricity from fusion power remains at the focus of international research; this article deals with nuclear fission power for electricity generation. Civilian nuclear power supplied 2,488 terawatt hours of electricity in 2017, equivalent to about 10% of global electricity generation; as of April 2018, there are 449 civilian fission reactors in the world, with a combined electrical capacity of 394 gigawatt. As of 2018, there are 58 power reactors under construction and 154 reactors planned, with a combined capacity of 63 GW and 157 GW, respectively.
As of January 2019, 337 more reactors were proposed. Most reactors under construction are generation III reactors in Asia. Nuclear power is classified as a low greenhouse gas energy supply technology, along with renewable energy, by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Since its commercialization in the 1970s, nuclear power has prevented about 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and the emission of about 64 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent that would have otherwise resulted from the burning of fossil fuels. There is a debate about nuclear power. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is a safe, sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions. Opponents, such as Greenpeace and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment. Accidents in nuclear power plants include the Chernobyl disaster in the Soviet Union in 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011, the more contained Three Mile Island accident in the United States in 1979.
There have been some nuclear submarine accidents. Nuclear reactors have caused the lowest number of fatalities per unit of energy generated when compared to fossil fuels and hydropower. Coal, natural gas and hydroelectricity each have caused a greater number of fatalities per unit of energy, due to air pollution and accidents. Collaboration on research and development towards greater efficiency and recycling of spent fuel in future generation IV reactors presently includes Euratom and the co-operation of more than 10 permanent member countries globally. In 1932 physicist Ernest Rutherford discovered that when lithium atoms were "split" by protons from a proton accelerator, immense amounts of energy were released in accordance with the principle of mass–energy equivalence. However, he and other nuclear physics pioneers Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein believed harnessing the power of the atom for practical purposes anytime in the near future was unlikely; the same year, his doctoral student James Chadwick discovered the neutron, recognized as a potential tool for nuclear experimentation because of its lack of an electric charge.
Experiments bombarding materials with neutrons led Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie to discover induced radioactivity in 1934, which allowed the creation of radium-like elements. Further work by Enrico Fermi in the 1930s focused on using slow neutrons to increase the effectiveness of induced radioactivity. Experiments bombarding uranium with neutrons led Fermi to believe he had created a new, transuranic element, dubbed hesperium. In 1938, German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, along with Austrian physicist Lise Meitner and Meitner's nephew, Otto Robert Frisch, conducted experiments with the products of neutron-bombarded uranium, as a means of further investigating Fermi's claims, they determined that the tiny neutron split the nucleus of the massive uranium atoms into two equal pieces, contradicting Fermi. This was an surprising result: all other forms of nuclear decay involved only small changes to the mass of the nucleus, whereas this process—dubbed "fission" as a reference to biology—involved a complete rupture of the nucleus.
Numerous scientists, including Leó Szilárd, one of the first, recognized that if fission reactions released additional neutrons, a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction could result. Once this was experimentally confirmed and announced by Frédéric Joliot-Curie in 1939, scientists in many countries petitioned their governments for support of nuclear fission research, just on the cusp of World War II, for the development of a nuclear weapon. In the United States, where Fermi and Szilárd had both emigrated, the discovery of the nuclear chain reaction led to the creation of the first man-made reactor, the research reactor known as Chicago Pile-1, which achieved self-sustaining power/criticality on December 2, 1942; the reactor's development was part of the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to create atomic bombs during World War II. It led to the building of larger single-purpose production reactors, such as the X-10 Pile, for the production of weapons-grade plutonium for use in the first nuclear weapons.
The United States tested the first nuclear weapon in July 1945, the Trinity test, with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki taking place one month later. In August 1945, the first distributed account of nuclear energy, in the form of the pocketbook The Atomic Age, discussed the peaceful future uses of nuclear energy and depicted a future where fo
Education in Argentina
Education in state institutions is free at the initial, primary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level. Private education is paid. According to studies by UNESCO, education in Argentina and Uruguay guarantee equality to have institutional features that hinder the commercialization of education, as well as Finland has characteristics that favor multiethnic population education and special education, education favors Argentina equality. According to the last census, the illiteracy rate is the second lowest in Latin America. In the last decade, Argentina has created nine new universities, while the outflow of university students increased by 68%. Education is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces and federal district and private institutions, though basic guidelines have been set by the Ministry of Education. Associated in Argentina with President Domingo Sarmiento's assertion that "the sovereign should be educated", education has been extended nearly universally and its maintenance remains central to political and cultural debate.
Though education at all levels, including universities, has always been free, there are a significant number of private schools and universities. The education in Argentina known as the Latin American docta has had a convoluted history. There was no effective education plan until President Domingo Sarmiento placed emphasis on bringing Argentina up-to-date with practices in developed countries. Sarmiento encouraged the immigration and settling of European educators and built schools and public libraries throughout the country, in a programme that doubled the enrollment of students during his term; the first national laws mandating universal, compulsory and secular education were sanctioned in 1884 during the administration of President Julio Roca. The non-religious character of this system, which forbade parochial schools from issuing official degrees directly but only through a public university, harmed the relations between the Argentine State and the Catholic Church, leading to resistance from the local clergy and a heated conflict with the Holy See.
Following the University Reform of 1918, Argentine education at university level, became more independent of the government, as well as the influential Catholic Church. The church began to re-emerge in country's secular education system during the administration Juan Perón, when in 1947, catechism was reintroduced in public schools, parochial institutions began again receiving subsidies. A sudden reversal in the policy in 1954 helped lead to Perón's violent overthrow, after which his earlier, pro-clerical policies were reinstated by General Pedro Aramburu. Aramburu's Law 6403 of 1955, which advanced private education and parochial, or more Catholic-run schools, in particular, helped lead to the establishment of the Argentine Catholic University; the program of deregulation and privatization pursued by President Carlos Menem in reaction to the country's socio-economic crisis of 1989 led to the decentralization of the Argentine secondary school system, from 1992 onward, the schools' administration and funding became a provincial responsibility.
The policy's weakness, lay in that federal revenue sharing did not increase accordingly given the decision to shift two primary school years to the secondary system. Real government spending on education increased from the return of democratic rule in 1983 and, in 2007, totaled over US$14 billion. In spite of its many problems, Argentina's higher education managed to reach worldwide levels of excellence in the 1960s. Up to 2013 Argentina educated five Nobel Prize winners, three in the sciences: Luis Federico Leloir, Bernardo Houssay and César Milstein and two in peace: Carlos Saavedra Lamas and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, the highest number in Latin America surpassing countries economically more developed and populated as Ireland or Spain. In addition, as of 2010, Argentines are the only Latin Americans to have been honoured with a Rolf Schock Prize; the Argentine population benefits from a high level of educational attainment, by regional standards. Among those age 20 and over, the highest level attained, per the 2010 Census, was distributed thus: Education in Argentina has four levels and two different systems: initial level, primary level, secondary level and tertiary level.
In some provinces, primary level is called educación primaria or EP comprises of grades first to sixth. Secondary level, called educación secundaria or ES comprises of grades first to sixth. EP and ES are divided in two stages, called ciclos: EP: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th school years ES: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th school yearsIn some other provinces EP comprises grades first to seventh. ES comprises grades first to fifth. In both systems EP is mandatory to all students, as well as secondary education, according to the National Educational Law established in 2011; the fourth stage is tertiary education, which includes both college and university education