The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, a mathematician, given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, analogous to that of differential calculus unknown, his research into number theory, he made notable contributions to analytic geometry and optics. He is best known for his Fermat's principle for light propagation and his Fermat's Last Theorem in number theory, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica. Fermat was born in the first decade of the 17th century in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France—the late 15th-century mansion where Fermat was born is now a museum, he was from Gascony, where his father, Dominique Fermat, was a wealthy leather merchant, served three one-year terms as one of the four consuls of Beaumont-de-Lomagne. His mother was Claire de Long.
Pierre had one brother and two sisters and was certainly brought up in the town of his birth. There is little evidence concerning his school education, but it was at the Collège de Navarre in Montauban, he attended the University of Orléans from 1623 and received a bachelor in civil law in 1626, before moving to Bordeaux. In Bordeaux he began his first serious mathematical researches, in 1629 he gave a copy of his restoration of Apollonius's De Locis Planis to one of the mathematicians there. In Bordeaux he was in contact with Beaugrand and during this time he produced important work on maxima and minima which he gave to Étienne d'Espagnet who shared mathematical interests with Fermat. There he became much influenced by the work of François Viète. In 1630, he bought the office of a councillor at the Parlement de Toulouse, one of the High Courts of Judicature in France, was sworn in by the Grand Chambre in May 1631, he held this office for the rest of his life. Fermat thereby became entitled to change his name from Pierre Fermat to Pierre de Fermat.
Fluent in six languages, Fermat was praised for his written verse in several languages and his advice was eagerly sought regarding the emendation of Greek texts. He communicated most of his work in letters to friends with little or no proof of his theorems. In some of these letters to his friends he explored many of the fundamental ideas of calculus before Newton or Leibniz. Fermat was a trained lawyer making mathematics more of a hobby than a profession, he made important contributions to analytical geometry, number theory and calculus. Secrecy was common in European mathematical circles at the time; this led to priority disputes with contemporaries such as Descartes and Wallis. Anders Hald writes that, "The basis of Fermat's mathematics was the classical Greek treatises combined with Vieta's new algebraic methods." Fermat's pioneering work in analytic geometry was circulated in manuscript form in 1636, predating the publication of Descartes' famous La géométrie, which exploited the work. This manuscript was published posthumously in 1679 in Varia opera mathematica, as Ad Locos Planos et Solidos Isagoge.
In Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minimam and in De tangentibus linearum curvarum, Fermat developed a method for determining maxima and tangents to various curves, equivalent to differential calculus. In these works, Fermat obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity of various plane and solid figures, which led to his further work in quadrature. Fermat was the first person known to have evaluated the integral of general power functions. With his method, he was able to reduce this evaluation to the sum of geometric series; the resulting formula was helpful to Newton, Leibniz, when they independently developed the fundamental theorem of calculus. In number theory, Fermat studied Pell's equation, perfect numbers, amicable numbers and what would become Fermat numbers, it was while researching perfect numbers. He invented a factorization method—Fermat's factorization method—as well as the proof technique of infinite descent, which he used to prove Fermat's right triangle theorem which includes as a corollary Fermat's Last Theorem for the case n = 4.
Fermat developed the two-square theorem, the polygonal number theorem, which states that each number is a sum of three triangular numbers, four square numbers, five pentagonal numbers, so on. Although Fermat claimed to have proven all his arithmetic theorems, few records of his proofs have survived. Many mathematicians, including Gauss, doubted several of his claims given the difficulty of some of the problems and the limited mathematical methods available to Fermat, his famous Last Theorem was first discovered by his son in the margin in his father's copy of an edition of Diophantus, included the statement that the margin was too small to include the proof. It seems, it was first proven by Sir Andrew Wiles, using techniques unavailable to Fermat. Although he studied and drew inspiration from Diophantus, Fermat began a different tradition. Diophantus was content to find a single solution to his equations if it were an undesired fractional one. Fermat was interested only in integer solutions to his Diophantine equations, he looked for all po
Science and technology in Germany
Science and technology in Germany has reached achievements which have been significant and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy. Germany has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably physics, mathematics and engineering. Before World War II, Germany had generated more Nobel laureates in scientific fields than any other nation, it compelled as best country in the natural sciences. Scientific research in the country is supported by industry, by the network of German universities and by scientific state-institutions such as the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; the raw output of scientific research from Germany ranks among the world's best. Germany was named the second most innovative country in the world in the 2015 Bloomberg Innovation Index, manages to be in the top three. Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology German Academic Exchange Service, promoting international exchange of scientists and students) German National Library of Economics German National Library of Medicine German National Library of Science and Technology Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres Fraunhofer Society Leibniz Association Max Planck Society Gesellschaft für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year.
With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world. The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was crucial to the foundation of modern physics, which Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger developed further, they were preceded by such key physicists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays, an accomplishment that made him the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 and earned him an element name, roentgenium. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation were pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication. Mathematical aerodynamics was developed in Germany by Ludwig Prandtl. Paul Forman in 1971 argued the remarkable scientific achievements in quantum physics were the cross-product of the hostile intellectual atmosphere whereby many scientists rejected Weimar Germany and Jewish scientists, revolts against causality and materialism, the creation of the revolutionary new theory of quantum mechanics.
The scientists adjusted to the intellectual environment by dropping Newtonian causality from quantum mechanics, thereby opening up an new and successful approach to physics. The "Forman Thesis" has generated an intense debate among historians of science. At the start of the 20th century, Germany garnered fourteen of the first thirty-one Nobel Prizes in Chemistry, starting with Hermann Emil Fischer in 1902 and until Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931. Otto Hahn is considered a pioneer of radioactivity and radiochemistry with the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938, the scientific and technological basis of atomic energy; the bio-chemist Adolf Butenandt independently worked out the molecular structure of the primary male sex hormone of testosterone and was the first to synthesize it from cholesterol in 1935. Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg, credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe. German inventors and industrialists such as Zeppelin, Daimler, Otto, Von Braun and Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology including the beginnings of space travel.
The engineer Otto Lilienthal laid some of the fundamentals for the science of aviation. Emil Behring, Ferdinand Cohn, Paul Ehrlich, Robert Koch, Friedrich Loeffler and Rudolph Virchow, six key figures in microbiology, were from Germany. Alexander von Humboldt's work as a natural scientist and explorer was foundational to biogeography. Wladimir Köppen was an eclectic Russian-born botanist and climatologist who synthesized global relationships between climate and soil types into a classification system, used, with some modifications, to this day. Alfred Wegener, a interdisciplinary scientist, was one of the first people to hypothesize the theory of continental drift, developed into the overarching geological theory of plate tectonics. Wilhelm Wundt is credited with the establishment of psychology as an independent empirical science through his construction of the first laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879. Besides natural sciences, German researchers have added much to the development of humanities.
Contemporary examples are the philosopher Jürgen Habermas, the egyptologist Jan Assmann, the sociologist Niklas Luhmann, the historian Reinhart Koselleck and the legal historian Michael Stolleis. In order to promote the international visibility of research in these fields a new prize, Geisteswissenschaften International, was established in 2008, it serves the translation of studies in humanities into English. German inventors and discoverers German inventions and discoveries Operation Paperclip Technology during World War II Competing Modernities: Science and Education, Kathryn Olesko and Christoph Strupp. Engl
Science and technology in Hungary
Science and technology in Hungary is one of the country's most developed sectors. Hungary spent 1.4% of its gross domestic product on civil research and development in 2015, the 25th-highest ratio in the world. Hungary ranks 32nd among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, standing before Hong Kong, Iceland or Malta; the Global Innovation Index places Hungary 33rd among the countries of the world in 2016. In 2014, Hungary counted 2,651 full-time-equivalent researchers per million inhabitants increasing from 2,131 in 2010 and compares with 3,984 in the US or 4,380 in Germany. Hungary's high technology industry has benefited from both the country's skilled workforce and the strong presence of foreign high-tech firms and research centres. Hungary has one of the highest rates of filed patents, the 6th highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrual output, the 12th-highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th-best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world.
The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research and Innovation Office, a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research and innovation, the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian government, the primary RDI funding agency. Its role is to develop RDI policy and ensure that Hungary adequately invest in RDI by funding excellent research and supporting innovation to increase competitiveness and to prepare the RDI strategy of the Hungarian Government, to handle the National Research and Innovation Fund, represents the Hungarian Government and a Hungarian RDI community in international organizations; the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and its research network is the another key player in Hungarian R&D and it is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary, with the main responsibilities of the cultivation of science, dissemination of scientific findings, supporting research and development and representing Hungarian science domestically and around the world.
Among Hungary's numerous research universities, the Eötvös Loránd University, founded in 1635, is one of the largest and the most prestigious public higher education institutions in Hungary. The 28,000 students at ELTE are organized into eight faculties, into research institutes located throughout Budapest. ELTE is affiliated with 5 Nobel laureates, as well as winners of the Wolf Prize, Fulkerson Prize and Abel Prize, the latest of, Abel Prize winner Endre Szemerédi in 2012. Semmelweis University in the released QS World University Rankings 2016 listed among the world’s best 151-200 universities in the categories of medicine and pharmacy. According to the international ranking in the field of medicine Semmelweis University ranked first among the Hungarian universities; the “Modern Medical Technologies at Semmelweis University” project ensuring institution's place among the leading research universities in four main areas: Personalised medicine. Budapest University of Technology and Economics's research activities encouraged and is present on all levels from the B.
Sc. through to the doctoral level. During the 1980s the BUTE was among the first in the "Eastern block" to recognise the importance of participating in research activities with institutions in Western Europe; the university has the most well-established research relationships with Western European universities. There are many famous alumni at university: Dennis Gabor, the inventor of holography got his Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971, George Oláh got his Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1994. Nowadays the university has 1100 lecturers, 400 researchers. University of Szeged internationally acknowledged, competitive research activities are essential parts of its educational mission, it is important to ensure the institution’s position as a research university, its research and creative activities include basic and applied research, creative arts and service development. University of Debrecen with a student body of about 30 thousand is one of the largest institutions of higher education in Hungary and its priority areas of research include: molecular science.
University of Pécs is one of the leading research universities in the country with a huge professional research background. The Szentágothai Research Centre of the University of Pécs is covers all aspects of education and innovation in the fields of biomedical and environmental sciences; the infrastructure and expertise of the 22 research groups operating on the premises provide an excellent basis to become a well-known, leading research facility in Hungary as well as in Central Europe with an extensive and fruitful collaboration network. Hungarian Academy of Sciences's research network contributes to research output of Hungary, it comprises 15 independent research institutions and more than 130 research groups at universities co-financed by the academy. This research network focusing above all on discovery research is unparalleled in Hungary, accounting for one-third of all scientific publications produced in the country. Citation indices of publications posted by the academy’s researchers surpass the Hungarian average by 25.5%.
The research network addresses discovery and targeted research, in cooperation with universities and corporations. The main components of the network are the MTA Sze
French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences. Headed by Sébastien Candel, it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France; the Academy of Sciences traces its origin to Colbert's plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the King's library, thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there; the first 30 years of the Academy's existence were informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution. In contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government; the Academy was expected to remain apolitical, to avoid discussion of religious and social issues. On 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules.
The Academy was installed in the Louvre in Paris. Following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died; this reform codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work. On 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. On 22 August 1795, a National Institute of Sciences and Arts was put in place, bringing together the old academies of the sciences and arts, among them the Académie française and the Académie des sciences. All the old members of the abolished Académie were formally re-elected and retook their ancient seats. Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists: in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte was elected a member of the Academy and three years a president in connection with his Egyptian expedition, which had a scientific component.
In 1816, the again renamed "Royal Academy of Sciences" became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France. In the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction; the Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans' knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France; the Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The Comptes rendus is now a journal series with seven titles; the publications can be found on site of the French National Library. In 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light; the civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new wave theory of light. Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, studied Fresnel's theory in detail.
Being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. Poisson thought that he had found a flaw when he demonstrate that Fresnel's theory predicts that an on-axis bright spot would exist in the shadow of a circular obstacle, where there should be complete darkness according to the particle-theory of light; the Poisson spot is not observed in every-day situations, so it was only natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result and that it should disprove Fresnel's theory. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, who incidentally became Prime Minister of France, decided to perform the experiment in more detail, he molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax. To everyone's surprise he succeeded in observing the predicted spot, which convinced most scientists of the wave-nature of light. For three centuries women were not allowed as members of the Academy; this meant that many women scientists were excluded, including two-time Nobel Prize winner Marie Curie, Nobel winner Irène Joliot-Curie, mathematician Sophie Germain, many other deserving women scientists.
The first woman admitted as a correspondent member was a student of Curie's, Marguerite Perey, in 1962. The first female full member was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat in 1979. Today the Academy is one of five academies comprising the Institut de France, its members are elected for life. There are 150 full members, 300 corresponding members, 120 foreign associates, they are divided into two scientific groups: the Mathematical and Physical sciences and their applications and the Chemical, Biological and Medical sciences and their applications. Each year, the Academy of Sciences distributes about 80 prizes; these include: the Grande Médaille, awarded annually, in rotation, in the relevant disciplines of each division of the Academy, to a French or foreign scholar who has contributed to the development of science in a decisive way. The Lalande Prize, awarded from 1802 through 1970, for outstanding achievement in astronomy the Valz Prize, awarded from 1877 through 1970, to honor advances in astronomy the Richard Lounsbery Award, jointly with the National Academy of Sciences the Prix Jacques Herbrand, for mathematics and physics the Prix Paul Pascal, for chemistry the Louis Bachelier Prize for major contributions to mathematical modeling in finance the Prix Michel Montpetit for computer science and applied mathematics, awarded since 1977 the Leconte Prize, awarded annually since 1886, to recognize important discoveries in
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war. Unlike tactical bombers, fighter-bombers, attack aircraft, which are used in air interdiction operations to attack enemy combatants and military equipment, strategic bombers are designed to fly into enemy territory to destroy strategic targets. In addition to strategic bombing, strategic bombers can be used for tactical missions. There are three countries that operate strategic bombers: the United States and China; the modern strategic bomber role appeared after strategic bombing was employed, atomic bombs were first used in combat during World War II. Nuclear strike missions can be carried out by most modern fighter-bombers and strike fighters at intercontinental range, with the use of aerial refueling, so any nation possessing this combination of equipment and techniques theoretically has such capability.
Primary delivery aircraft for a modern strategic bombing mission need not always be a heavy bomber type, any modern aircraft capable of nuclear strikes at long range is able to carry out tactical missions with conventional weapons. An example is France's Mirage IV, a small strategic bomber replaced in service by the ASMP-equipped Mirage 2000N fighter-bomber and Rafale multirole fighter; the first strategic bombing efforts took place during World War I, by the Russians with their Sikorsky Ilya Muromets bomber, by the Germans using Zeppelins or long-range multi-engine Gotha aircraft. Zeppelins reached England on bombing raids by 1915, forcing the British to create extensive defense systems including some of the first anti-aircraft guns which were used with searchlights to highlight the enemy machines overhead. Late in the war, American fliers under the command of Brig. Gen. Billy Mitchell were developing multi-aircraft "mass" bombing missions behind German lines, although the Armistice ended full realization of what was being planned.
Study of strategic bombing continued in the interwar years. Many books and articles predicted a fearful prospect for any future war, paced by political fears such as those expressed by British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin who told the House of Commons early in the 1930s that "the bomber will always get through" no matter what defensive systems were undertaken, it was believed by the late 1930s that strategic "terror" bombing of cities in any war would result in devastating losses and might decide a conflict in a matter of days or weeks. But theory far exceeded what most air forces could put into the air. Germany focused on short-range tactical bombers. Britain's Royal Air Force began developing four-engine long-range bombers only in the late 1930s; the U. S. Army Air Corps was limited by small budgets in the late 1930s, only saved the B-17 bomber that would soon be vital; the important B-24 first flew in 1939. Both aircraft would constitute the bulk of the American bomber force that made the Allied daylight bombing of Nazi Germany possible in 1943–45.
At the start of World War II, so-called "strategic" bombing was carried out by medium bomber aircraft which were twin-engined, armed with several defensive guns, but only possessed limited bomb-carrying capacity and range. Both Britain and the U. S. were developing larger two- and four-engined designs, which began to replace or supplement the smaller aircraft by 1941–42. After American entry into the war, late, in 1941, the U. S. 8th Air Force began to develop a daylight bombing capacity using improved B-17 and B-24 four-engine aircraft. In order to assemble the formations to carry out these bombing campaigns, assembly ships were used to form defensive combat boxes; the RAF concentrated its efforts on night bombing. But neither force was able to develop adequate bombsights or tactics to allow for often-bragged "pinpoint" accuracy; the post-war U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey studies supported the overall notion of strategic bombing, but underlined many of its shortcomings as well. Attempts to create pioneering examples of "smart bombs" resulted in the Azon ordnance, deployed in the European Theater and CBI Theater from B-24s.
Following the untimely death of the top German advocate for strategic bombing, General Walther Wever in early June 1936, the focus of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe bomber forces, the so-named Kampfgeschwader became the battlefield support of the German Army as part of the general Blitzkrieg form of warfare, carried out with both medium bombers such as the Heinkel He 111, Schnellbombers such as the Junkers Ju 88A. General Wever's support of the Ural bomber project before WW II's start dwindled after his passing, with the only aircraft design that could match the Allied bomber force's own aircraft – the early November 1937-origin Heinkel He 177A, deployed in its initial form in 1941–42, hampered by a RLM requirement for the He 177A to perform medium-angle dive bombing, not rescinded until September 1942 – unable to perform either function properly, with a powerplant selection and particular powerplant installation design features on the 30-meter wingspan Greif, that led to endless problems with engine fires.
The March 1942-origin, trans-Atlantic ranged Amerika Bomber program sought to ameliorate the lack of a long-ranged bomber for the Luftwaffe, but resulted with only three Messerschmitt-built and a pair of Junkers-built prototypes flown, no o
French space program
The French space program includes both civil and military spaceflight activities. It is the 3rd oldest institutional space program in history, along with the USSR and the US. Space travel has long been a significant ambition in French culture. From the Gobelins' 1664 tapestry representing a space rocket, to Jules Verne's 1865 novel De la terre à la lune and George Méliès' 1902 movie Voyage dans la lune and rocketry were present in French society long before the technological means appeared to allow the development of a space exploration program. During the late 18th century, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, Jacques Charles and the Montgolfier brothers are seen as worldwide precursors and explorers of aeronautics, with the world record altitude reached by a human at 7,016 metres performed by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac in 1804; those names, their numerous students and their works will mark the early expertise of France's space program in all types of air balloons since. In the beginning of the twentieth century, the origins of the French space program are tied to French technological developments in aerospace and astronautics, notably the nascent airplane and rocket industries.
Robert Esnault-Pelterie appears as one of the early pioneers in space exploration design and rocket science. From 1908, he studied space flight. From 1935 to 1939 he designed a high-altitude sounding rocket, but World War II interrupted his plans. Esnault-Pelterie convinced physicist Jean-Jacques Barré, a pioneer in rocket propulsion, to collaborate on the design of a self-propelled cryogenic rocket. Between 1927 and 1933, Barré did extensive research and developed a rocket that could reach the upper atmosphere and space, the EA-41 Eole; the beginning of the institutional French space program dates back to 1946 when, right after World War II, the Laboratoire de recherches balistiques et aérodynamiques was created in Vernon to develop the next generation of rockets taking advantage of the German development of the V2 rocket. Before this and during the war, as Free France continued to function, the EA-41 was tested and improved by military personnel, from October 1942 through to 1945.22 May 1952: Véronique N1 is launched from the Saharan desert.
In 1958, President Charles de Gaulle directed the creation of several space research committees. In 1959, the Comité d'études spatiales was born under the supervision of Pierre Auger. In 1961, de Gaulle signed the creation of the Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales to coordinate French space activities. Development of Western Europe's first carrier rocket, the Diamant, began in 1962, first launched in Algeria. November 26, 1965: at 15h 47mn and 21s, the first French satellite in space, is launched by a Diamant rocket from the Algerian desert, it is active for 2 consecutive days before ceasing to transmit. In 1965, France's space launch pads and CNES settled in Kourou. In 1973, France became its first contributor; the French space budget, although stagnant since the early 2000s in constant euros, remains in absolute terms the largest of the member countries of the European Space Agency and the second largest national budget at 2,33 Billion €. In 2004, this budget stood at 1.698 billion euros, with 685 million being transferred to the Paris-based ESA for the programs conducted under its supervision.
The Ariane rocket family is France's own launcher family, which use has been extended to the whole of ESA's member countries. Its spaceport, near Kourou, was selected in 1964 to host all of France's launches, it was selected as ESA's launch site. Before being in French Guiana, France's space launches were made from Algeria, in Colomb-Béchar and Hammaguir; the French space program thus benefits from the best ground position for launch sites on Earth, as its position 5.3° north of the equator allows rockets to gain propulsion from the spinning of the Earth when launched eastward and save on propellant. No other governmental launch sites allow this level of physical parameters, it is able to launch satellites into polar orbits from this spaceport. As of 2017, Kourou counts amongst the spaceports with the highest percentage of successful launches, both successive and overall. Here is a chronology of all orbital launches from the Kourou spaceport since 1970, under the French and European space programmes.
Charts include all orbital launches from Kourou. Historical data: launch tables from List of Ariane launches, Soyuz ST, Vega and Encyclopedia Aeronautica. Last updated on 28 October 2018. France's public involvement in space technologies is deep into European programs such as Columbus and Automated Transfer Vehicle, through Thales Alenia, headquartered in Cannes; the French space program includes collaborations between its institutions and other countries, European as well as other foreign countries and institutions in projects ranging from the Herschel Space Observatory to BepiColombo, Saral/Altika and the Planck space observatory. In 2016, for the COP21, CNES and ISRO impulsed a groundbreaking and worldwide plan to unite all space agencies for the gathering of satellite information and detection on