Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
The Lexus LFA is a two-seat sports car manufactured by Lexus, the luxury car division of Toyota. It is the second model in the F marque line of performance vehicles from Lexus, following the IS F. Three concept versions were unveiled, each debuting at the North American International Auto Show with the LF-A designation as part of the LF Series concept line. After beginning development in the early 2000s, the first LF-A concept premiered in 2005, followed in 2007 by a second LF-A with a more furnished interior and exterior; the third version of the LF-A, featuring a roadster bodystyle premiered in 2008. The production model, trademarked LFA, was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2009. Akio Toyoda, CEO of parent company Toyota Motor Corporation saw the LFA as an opportunity to create a global icon for the Lexus brand, embodying Toyoda's idea that the ultimate Lexus should connect with its owner; the production version of the Lexus LFA features a 412 kW V10 engine developed in collaboration with Yamaha exclusive to the car and a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer body.
CFRP materials account for 65 percent of the LFA's body composition by mass. The LFA went into production in late 2010, with a base price of US$375,000. A circuit-tuned variant debuted in 2012 with a base price of US$445,000, making it one of the most expensive Japanese road cars built. Production ended in December 2012 with 500 cars produced, the final car being a Nürburgring Package model. In February 2016, Lexus' European boss Alain Uyttenhoven confirmed that there would be no new LFA replacement in the near future, stating: “The LFA is an icon now and always will be - we don't need to replace it to keep that status, it is a car. Its status is assured." He went on to state: “It is possible that we will one day create another supercar, but in my view a super-high-end machine is not what we need right now." In February 2000, the LF-A sports car began development with a codename of P280, intended to showcase the performance capabilities of Toyota Motor Corporation and its Lexus marque. The first prototype was completed during June 2003.
Prototypes of the LF-A were spotted undergoing testing at the Nürburgring, the famous motorsport race track in Nürburg, since October 2004. Numerous test vehicles had been equipped with automatic retractable rear spoilers, carbon ceramic brake discs. In January 2005, the first LF-A concept premiered at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan as a design study with no plans for production; the first LF-A concept had an overall length of 4,399 mm, 13 cm shorter than the Porsche 911 Turbo while its wheelbase measured 2,581 mm, or about 23 cm longer. The concept was nearly 1,219 mm in height, with a width of 1,859 mm; some news outlets reported the concept name as referring to Lexus Future-Advance, a claim dismissed by Chief Engineer Tanahashi. The first LF-A concept featured side cameras mounted in the side mirrors. Twin rear radiators were installed behind the rear wheels, visible behind large screens; the rear bumper featured a triple exhaust placed in an inverted triangle formation.
The wheels were shaped like turbines, air-scoops were placed on the C-pillars. Following enthusiastic public reaction for the LF-A concept on the auto show circuit, development continued with a greater emphasis on a possible production model. Concurrently, Lexus was preparing for the launch of its long-rumored F marque series of performance vehicles, with a production LF-A being a possible future member of this lineup. Reports in 2006 suggested that the LF-A concept car had received the green-light for production, however these reports were not confirmed. Following the original LF-A concept, development time was lengthened by the switch from an aluminum frame to a carbon fiber tub, the result of engineering efforts aimed at improving the LF-A's power-to-weight ratio; the LF-A was reported to draw engineering resources from Toyota's Formula One team. In January 2007, a restyled LF-A concept car premiered alongside the first production F marque vehicle, the IS F sports sedan; the second LF-A concept featured a more aerodynamic exterior, a near-production interior, F marque emblems.
That year, Lexus GB director Steve Settle indicated plans for a V10 and hybrid version of the LF-A. The hybrid version, combining a petrol engine with electric motors, was to feature a V8 powertrain similar to that designed for the Lexus LS 600h L. LF-A test mules continued to be spotted at the Nürburgring, including early models with a large, fixed rear wing. In December 2007, Auto Express reported that the LF-A had set an unofficial 7:24 lap at the Nürburgring. In January 2008, Lexus displayed a roadster version of the LF-A concept car designated LF-A Roadster, or LF-AR, at the North American International Auto Show. Initial specifications for the roadster were a V10 engine under 5.0 L with over 373 kW and a top speed of over 320 km/h. Automotive photographers capturing the LF-A in various test guises had photographed a disguised drop-top test model, dubbed LF-A Spyder, on the Nürburgring as early as October 2005. After its debut at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, the LF-A Roadster was shown at the 2008 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance, the 2008 Geneva Motor Show, the United States Open Championship tournament, at Lexus exhibits in Japan.
A single LF-A racing prototype was entered into Veranstaltergemeinschaft Langstreckenpokal Nürburgring endurance races at the Nürburgring in May 2008, competing in the SP8 class of VLN events. Media reports uncovered an LFA trademark fil
Kibo (ISS module)
The Japanese Experiment Module, nicknamed Kibo, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station developed by JAXA. It is the largest single ISS module, is attached to the Harmony module; the first two pieces of the module were launched on Space Shuttle missions STS-123 and STS-124. The third and final components were launched on STS-127. Kibō consists of six major elements: 1) pressurized module, 2) exposed facility, 3) experiment logistics module–pressurized section, 4) experiment logistics module–exposed section, 5) Japanese Experiment Module remote manipulator system, 6) Inter-orbit communication system; the pressurized module is the core component connected to the port hatch of Harmony. It is cylindrical in shape and contains twenty-three International Standard Payload Racks, ten of which are dedicated to science experiments while the remaining 13 are dedicated to Kibo’s systems and storage; the racks are placed 6-6-6-5 along the four walls of the module. The end of the JEM-PM has two window hatches.
The Exposed Facility, Experiment Logistics Module and the Remote Manipulator System all connect to the pressurized module. Kibo is the location for many of the press conferences that take place on board the station; the exposed facility known as "Terrace", is located outside the port cone of the PM. The EF has 12 EFU ports. All experiment payloads are exposed to the space environment. For proper functioning of these experiments, the payload requires an ORU which consists of the EPS, CT and the TCS. Of the 12 ORUs, eight are replaceable by the JEMRMS; the experiment logistics module includes two sections: The pressurized section – called the JLP – is a pressurized addition to the PM. The module is a storage facility that provides storage space for experiment payloads and spare items; the unpressurized section serves the EF as a transportation module. The remote manipulator system is a 10 m long robotic arm, mounted at the port cone of the PM, intended to service the EF and to move equipment from and to the ELM.
The RMS control console was launched while inside the ELM-PS. The main arm was launched with the PM; the small fine arm is 2 m long and attaches to the end effector of the main arm, was launched aboard HTV-1 on the maiden flight of the HTV spacecraft. Once HTV docked the small fine arm was assembled by the crew and deployed out the airlock to test it. Once deployed outside the JEMRMS grappled it and unfolded the arm to flex the joints before stowing it onto the exposed facility; the free end of the JEMRMS is able to use the type of grapple fixtures. NASA launched the JEM complex over three flights using the Space Shuttle; the shuttle had a large payload bay. This is in contrast to the Russian modules, which are launched into orbit on multistage Proton rockets and rendezvous and dock with the station automatically. On 12 March 2007, the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section, the main laboratory, arrived at the Kennedy Space Center from Japan, it was stored in the Space Station Processing Facility until launched into orbit aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of the STS-123 mission.
On 30 May 2003, the Pressurized Module arrived at KSC from Japan. It was stored at the Space Station Processing Facility until launched into orbit aboard Space Shuttle Discovery as part of the STS-124 mission. On 3 June 2008 the PM was attached to the Harmony module. At first the ELM-PS, the small cargo bay, was connected to a temporary location on Harmony and on 6 June 2008, was moved to its final berthing location on top of the main laboratory; the EF and ELM-ES arrived at KSC on 24 September 2008. The Exposed Facility and ELM-ES were launched on STS-127, on 15 July 2009; the ELM-ES was brought back to Earth at the end of the mission. The assembly of the EF was completed during the fifth spacewalk of the mission. Kibō is the largest single ISS module. Pressurized moduleLength: 11.19 m Diameter: 4.39 m Mass: 15,900 kg Experiment logistics moduleLength: 4.21 m Diameter: 4.39 m Mass: 8,386 kg MAXI - X-ray astronomy from 0.5 to 30 keV ICS-EF - Inter-orbit Communication System - Exposed Facility, Japanese communication system.
CALET - CALorimetric Electron Telescope, Observation for high energy. Launched aboard HTV-5. Mass: 2500 kg NREP - Nanoracks External Platform. NREP-2 is the current mission on this pallet. I-SEEP - IVA-replaceable Small Exposed Experiment Platform CREAM - Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass. Launched on SpaceX CRS-12. ECOSTRESS - Ecosystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station GEDI - Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation on ISS Deorbited with HTV-5: SMILES - Observes and monitors weak sub-millimeter wave emission lines of trace gas molecules in the stratosphere MCE - Multi-mission Consolidated Equipment Deorbited with SpaceX CRS-15: CATS - Cloud-Aerosol Transport System HREP Jettisoned into orbit by ISS robotic arm: SEDA-AP - Measures neutrons, heavy ions, high-energy light particles
Tanegashima is one of the Ōsumi Islands belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The island, 444.99 km² in area, is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands, has a population of 33,000 persons. Access to the island is by air to New Tanegashima Airport. Administratively, the island is divided into the city and the two towns and Minamitane; the towns belong to Kumage District. Tanegashima is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands, it is located 43 kilometres south of the southern tip of Ōsumi Peninsula in southern Kyushu, or 115 kilometres south of Kagoshima. The Vincennes Strait separates it from Yakushima; the island is of volcanic origin. The island has a length of a width ranging from 5 kilometres to 10 kilometres; the climate is subtropical. Tanegashima has a long history of Kofun. Other burials on Tanegashima, namely the Yokomine and Hirota sites, attest to a uniquely well-developed Yayoi period culture at the end of the 4th century AD; the artifacts include magatama, an engraved pendant, emblems with apparent writing.
During the Nara period, the embryo state of Japan began to make contact with Tanegashima. According to the Nihonshoki, the imperial court hosted a banquet for the islanders of Tanegashima in 677. In 679, the court sent a mission to the island who returned in 681. Other missions to the island mentioned in the book were in 683 and 695. According to the Shoku Nihongi, people from Tane, Yaku and Dokan came to the imperial court to pay tribute in 699; these activities resulted in the establishment of Tane Province on the island in 702. Tane Province was merged into Ōsumi Province. Sometime around 1140, the whole island of Tanegashima became part of the Shimazu Estate, the largest medieval shōen of Japan. In the early Kamakura period, the positions of the land steward of the Shimazu Estate and the military governor of Ōsumi Province were given to the Shimazu clan. However, the clan lost these positions to the de facto ruler of the shogunate; the Hōjō clan sent the Higo clan as deputy governors. A branch line of the Higo clan made itself autonomous on Tanegashima after the Hōjō clan was annihilated and began to claim the clan name of Tanegashima.
The Tanegashima clan ruled the island until the Meiji restoration. The Tanegashima clan enjoyed a high degree of autonomy until Shimazu unified southern Kyūshū in the late 16th century, after that, served as a top-ranking retainer to the Satsuma domain. Following the Meiji restoration, the island has been administered as part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Tanegashima is traditionally known as the site of the introduction of European firearms to Japan in 1542; until modern times, firearms were colloquially known in Japan as "Tanegashima", due to the belief that they were introduced by the Portuguese on board the first Portuguese ship. In his memoirs published in 1614, Portuguese adventurer turned author, Fernão Mendes Pinto placed himself in the first landing party, although this claim has since been roundly discredited and in fact contradicts his claims to have been in Burma at the time; the two Portuguese traders, António Mota and Francisco Zeimoto, should be credited as the first Europeans to introduce firearms.
However, Mendes Pinto does appear to have visited Tanegashima soon thereafter. The Europeans had arrived to trade, not only guns, but soap and other goods unknown in medieval Japan, for Japanese goods. During the Muromachi period, Tanegashima functioned as a relay station for one of the main routes of Chinese trade that connected Sakai to Ningbo; the Tanegashima clan cooperated with the Hosokawa clan, one of two powers who controlled Chinese trade. The clan maintained a firm connection with the Honnō-ji Temple of Kyoto; these account for the rapid spread of firearms from Tanegashima to central Japan. Edge tools made in Tanegashima are famous traditional handicrafts in Japan. Craftsmen in Tanegashima have kept alive traditional techniques for forging and sharpening iron tools. Tanegashima is famous as the center of iron sand production; the technique has been around since about 1185 when the Taira clan were exiled here from Kyoto by Minamoto no Yoritomo, taking with them craftsmen and chefs from Kyoto.
The people of the island speak with a Kyoto accent now, rather than a Kyūshū or Kagoshima accent, despite its proximity to Kyūshū. These craftsmen were the original users of the distinct techniques used for sharpening; the technique is unique in the world, produces such tools as "Tanegashima Hōchō", used by chefs, "Tane-basami", preferred by many for the art of Bonsai. The local population has fallen from over fifty thousand in 1970 to just twenty-eight thousand today, in spite of tourism and space industries, putting traditional crafts at risk; the Tanegashima Space Center is Japan's largest space development center. It is run by JAXA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and is located at the southeastern end of Tanegashima, it was established in 1969. Activities include assembly, testing and tracking satellites, as well as rocket engine firing tests. Activity includes orbital launches of the H-IIA rockets from the Yoshinobu Launch Complex; the Space Science and Technology Museum is near the TSC.
It offers an intricate view of rocket technology in Japan. Though most of the displa
Shikoku is one of the four main islands of Japan. Shikoku is the smallest and least populous of the main islands, located south of Honshu and east of Kyushu. Shikoku's ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima, Iyo-shima, Futana-shima, its current name refers to the four former provinces that made up the island: Awa, Tosa and Iyo. Shikoku island, comprising Shikoku and its surrounding islets, covers about 18,800 square kilometres and consists of four prefectures: Ehime, Kagawa, Kōchi, Tokushima. Across the Inland Sea lie Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo, Okayama and Yamaguchi Prefectures on Honshu. To the west lie Ōita and Miyazaki Prefectures on Kyushu; the 50th largest island by area in the world, Shikoku is smaller than Sardinia and Bananal, but larger than Halmahera and Seram. By population, it ranks 23rd, having fewer inhabitants than Sicily or Singapore, but more than Puerto Rico or Negros. Mountains running east and west divide Shikoku into a narrow northern subregion, fronting on the Inland Sea, a southern part facing the Pacific Ocean.
The Hydrangea hirta species can be found in these mountain ranges. Most of the 3.8 million inhabitants live in the north, all but one of the island's few larger cities are located there. Mount Ishizuchi in Ehime at 1,982 m is the highest mountain on the island. Industry is moderately well developed and includes the processing of ores from the important Besshi copper mine. Land is used intensively. Wide alluvial areas in the eastern part of the zone, are planted with rice and subsequently are double cropped with winter wheat and barley. Fruit is grown throughout the northern area in great variety, including citrus fruits, persimmons and grapes; because of wheat production Sanuki udon became an important part of the diet in Kagawa Prefecture in the Edo period. The larger southern area of Shikoku is sparsely populated; the only significant lowland is a small alluvial plain at the prefectural capital. The area's mild winters stimulated some truck farming, specializing in growing out-of-season vegetables under plastic covering.
Two crops of rice can be cultivated annually in the southern area. The pulp and paper industry took advantage of hydroelectric power; the major river in Shikoku is the Yoshino River. It runs 196 km from its source close to Mount Ishizuchi, flowing west to east across the northern boundaries of Kōchi and Tokushima Prefectures, reaching the sea at the city of Tokushima; the Yoshino is famous for Japan's best white-water rafting, with trips going along the Oboke Koboke sections of the river. Shikoku has four important capes. Gamōda in Anan, Tokushima is the easternmost point on the island, Sada in Ikata, Ehime the westernmost. Muroto in Muroto, Kōchi and Ashizuri, the southern extreme of Shikoku, in Tosashimizu, Kōchi, jut into the Pacific Ocean; the island's northernmost point is in Kagawa. Unlike the other three major islands of Japan, Shikoku has no volcanoes. Shikoku is connected to Honshu by three expressways, which together form the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project. Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway Seto-Chūō Expressway Nishiseto Expressway The eastern gateway to Shikoku, Naruto in Tokushima Prefecture has been linked to the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway since 1998.
This line connects Shikoku to the Kansai area which has a large population, including the large conurbations of Osaka and Kobe. Therefore, the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway carries a large traffic volume. Many highway buses are operated between Tokushima Prefecture; the central part of Shikoku is connected to Honshu by ferry, – since 1988 – by the Great Seto Bridge network. Until completion of the bridges, the region was isolated from the rest of Japan; the freer movement between Honshuū and Shikoku was expected to promote economic development on both sides of the bridges, which has not materialized yet. Within the island, a web of national highways connects the major population centers; these include Routes 11, 32, 33, 55, 56. The Shikoku Railway Company connects to Honshu via the Great Seto Bridge. JR lines include: Yosan Line Dosan Line Kōtoku Line Tokushima Line Mugi Line Naruto Line Uchiko Line Yodo Line Honshi Bisan Line Seto Ōhashi LinePrivate railway lines operate in each of the four prefectures on Shikoku.
Shikoku has four regional/domestic airports. All of these airports have flights to Tokyo and other major Japanese cities such as Osaka, Nagoya and Fukuoka. International flights to Seoul, South Korea are serviced by Asiana Airlines from Matsuyama and Takamatsu. There are periodic international charter flights as well. Ferries link Shikoku to destinations including Honshu, Kyūshu, islands around Shikoku. Pioneering natural farmer Masanobu Fukuoka, author of The One-Straw Revolution, developed his methods here on his family's farm. Shikoku is famous for its 88-temple pilgrimage of temples associated with the priest Kūkai. Most modern-day pilgrims travel by bus choosing the old-fashioned method of going by foot, they are seen wearing white jackets emblazoned with the characters reading dōgyō ninin meaning "two traveling together". Tokushima Prefecture has its annual Awa Odori running in August at the time of the Obon festival, which attracts thousands of tourists each year from all over Japan and from abroad.
Kōchi Prefecture is home to the
Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, trading as Fujifilm, or Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo. Fujifilm's principal activities are the development, production and servicing of business document solutions, medical imaging and diagnostics equipment, regenerative medicine, stem cells, biologics manufacturing, optical films for flat panel displays, optical devices and printers, digital cameras, color film, color paper, photofinishing equipment, photofinishing chemicals, graphic arts equipment and materials. Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. was established in 1934 with the aim of being the first Japanese producer of photographic films. Over the following 10 years, the company produced photographic films, motion-picture films and X-ray films. In the 1940s, Fuji Photo entered the optical glasses and equipment markets. After the Second World War, Fuji Photo diversified, penetrating the medical, electronic imaging and magnetic materials fields. In 1962, Fuji Photo and U.
K.-based Rank Xerox Limited launched Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. through a joint venture. From the mid-1950s, Fuji Photo accelerated the establishment of overseas sales bases. In the 1980s, Fuji Photo expanded its production and other bases overseas, stepping up the pace of its business globalization. Meanwhile, Fuji Photo developed digital technologies for its photo-related and printing businesses. Like its rival Eastman Kodak which dominated in the US, Fuji Photo enjoyed a longtime near-monopoly on camera film in Japan. By becoming one of the title sponsors of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, offering cheaper camera film, establishing a film factory in the US, Fuji gained considerable market share there, while Kodak had little success in penetrating Japan. In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji; the complaint was lodged by the US with the World Trade Organization.
On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. The new millennium witnessed the rapid spread of digital technology, demand for photographic films plunged in line with the growing popularity of digital cameras. In response, Fuji Photo implemented management reforms aimed at drastic transformation of its business structures; as early as the 1980s, the company had foreseen the switch from film to digital, so "it developed a three-pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out of the film business as possible, to prepare for the switch to digital and to develop new business lines." While both film manufacturers recognized this fundamental change, Fuji Photo adapted to this shift much more than Eastman Kodak. Fuji Photo's diversification efforts succeeded while Kodak's had failed. In September 19, 2006, Fujifilm announced plans to establish a holding company, Fujifilm Holdings Corp. Fujifilm and Fuji Xerox would become subsidiaries of the holding company.
A representative of the company reconfirmed its commitment to film. On January 31, 2018, Fujifilm announced that it would acquire a 50.1% controlling stake in Xerox for US$6.1 billion, which will be amalgamated into its existing Fuji Xerox business. The deal was subsequently dropped after intervention by activist investors Carl Icahn and Darwin Deason. Fuji Xerox is Xerox Corporation of North America. Fujifilm bought Sericol Ltd. a UK-based printing ink company specializing in screen, narrow web, digital print technologies in March 2005. Fujifilm de México is a Fujifilm subsidiary in Mexico that sells Fujifilm products since 1934 and has been recognized as one of The Best Mexican Companies from 2012 to 2015, a recognition promoted by Banamex, Deloitte México and Tecnológico de Monterrey. Fujifilm Holdings Fujifilm Fujifilm Imaging Systems Fujifilm Medical Fujifilm Pharma Fujifilm RI Pharma Fujifilm Photo Manufacturing Fujifilm Fine Chemicals Fujifilm Electronics Materials Fujifilm Engineering Fujifilm Optics Fujifilm Opto Materials Fujifilm Global Graphic Systems Fujifilm Computer Systems Fujifilm Software Fujifilm Techno Services Fujifilm Techno Products Fujifilm Business Supply Fujifilm Digital Press Fujifilm Media Crest Fujifilm Sonosite, Inc.
Fujifilm Shizuoka Fujifilm Kyushu Fujifilm Logistics Fuji Xerox Fuji Xerox Printing Systems Sales Fuji Xerox Information Systems Fuji Xerox System Service Fuji Xerox Interfield Fuji Xerox Advanced Technologies Fuji Xerox Manufacturing Fuji Xerox Service Creative Fuji Xerox Service Link Fuji Xerox Learning Institute Toyama Chemical Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical Fujifilm Business Expert Fuji Color Photo Center Fujifilm photographic films Motion picture film stock. Fujichrome color reversal films. Velvia: one of the most saturated and fine-grained slide films, valued by nature and landscape photographers. Provia: a slide film giving more natural colors than Velvia Astia: a fined grained, low contrast slide film used for studio or portrait applications Sensia: a low-contrast consumer slide film. Fortia: consumer slide film, featuring vivid color rendering suitable for flower photography and other high-saturation applications. Fujicolor color negative (pr