John Anthony Burgess Wilson, who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer. Although Burgess was predominantly a comic writer, his dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange remains his best-known novel. In 1971, it was adapted into a controversial film by Stanley Kubrick, which Burgess said was chiefly responsible for the popularity of the book. Burgess produced numerous other novels, including the Enderby quartet, Earthly Powers, he wrote screenplays, including for the 1977 TV mini-series Jesus of Nazareth. He worked as a literary critic for several publications, including The Observer and The Guardian, wrote studies of classic writers, notably James Joyce. A versatile linguist, Burgess lectured in phonetics, translated Cyrano de Bergerac, Oedipus Rex, the opera Carmen, among others. Burgess composed over 250 musical works. Burgess was born at 91 Carisbrook Street in Harpurhey, a suburb of Manchester, England, to Catholic parents and Elizabeth Wilson, he described his background as lower middle class.
He was known in childhood as Jack, Little Jack, Johnny Eagle. At his confirmation, the name Anthony was added and he became John Anthony Burgess Wilson, he began using the pen name Anthony Burgess upon the publication of his 1956 novel Time for a Tiger. His mother Elizabeth died at the age of 30 at home on 19 November 1918, during the 1918 flu pandemic; the causes listed on her death certificate were influenza, acute pneumonia, cardiac failure. His sister Muriel had died four days earlier on 15 November from influenza, broncho-pneumonia, cardiac failure, aged eight. Burgess believed he was resented by his father, Joseph Wilson, for having survived, when his mother and sister did not. After the death of his mother, Burgess was raised by his maternal aunt, Ann Bromley, in Crumpsall with her two daughters. During this time, Burgess's father worked as a bookkeeper for a beef market by day, in the evening played piano at a public house in Miles Platting. After his father married the landlady of this pub, Margaret Dwyer, in 1922, Burgess was raised by his father and stepmother.
By 1924 the couple had established a off-licence business with four properties. Burgess was employed at the tobacconist shop as a child. On 18 April 1938, Joseph Wilson died from cardiac failure and influenza at the age of 55, leaving no inheritance despite his apparent business success. Burgess' stepmother died of a heart attack in 1940. Burgess has said of his solitary childhood: "I was either distractedly persecuted or ignored. I was one despised.... Ragged boys in gangs would pounce on the well-dressed like myself." Burgess attended St. Edmund's Elementary School before moving on to Bishop Bilsborrow Memorial Elementary School, both Catholic schools, in Moss Side, he reflected: "When I went to school I was able to read. At the Manchester elementary school I attended, most of the children could not read, so I was... a little apart, rather different from the rest." Good grades resulted in a place at Xaverian College. As a young child, Burgess did not care about music, until he heard on his home-built radio "a quite incredible flute solo", which he characterised as "sinuous, erotic", became spellbound.
Eight minutes the announcer told him he had been listening to Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune by Claude Debussy. He referred to this as a "psychedelic moment... a recognition of verbally inexpressible spiritual realities". When Burgess announced to his family that he wanted to be a composer, they objected as "there was no money in it". Music was not taught at his school. Burgess had hoped to study music at university, but the music department at the Victoria University of Manchester turned down his application because of poor grades in physics. Instead, he studied English language and literature there between 1937 and 1940, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts, his thesis concerned Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, he graduated with an upper second-class honours, which he found disappointing. When grading one of Burgess's term papers, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote: "Bright ideas insufficient to conceal lack of knowledge." Burgess met Llewela "Lynne" Isherwood Jones at the University where she was studying economics and modern history, graduating in 1942 with an upper second-class.
She claimed to be a distant relative of Christopher Isherwood, although the Lewis and Biswell biographies dispute this. Burgess and Jones were married on 22 January 1942. Burgess spent six weeks in 1940 as an army recruit in Eskbank before becoming a Nursing Orderly Class 3 in the Royal Army Medical Corps. During his service he was unpopular and was involved in incidents such as knocking off a corporal's cap and polishing the floor of a corridor to make people slip. In 1941, Burgess was pursued by military police of the British Armed Forces for desertion after overstaying his leave from Morpeth military base with his future bride Lynne; the following year he asked to be transferred to the Army Educational Corps, despite his loathing of authority he was promoted to sergeant. During the blackout his pregnant wife Lynne was assaulted by four American deserters. Burgess, stationed at the time in Gibraltar, was denied leave to see her. At his stationing in Gibraltar, which he wrote about in A Visio
R. U. R. is a 1920 science fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek. R. U. R. Stands for Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti. However, the English phrase "Rossum's Universal Robots" had been used as the subtitle in the Czech original, it premiered on 25 January 1921 and introduced the word "robot" to the English language and to science fiction as a whole. R. U. R. Became influential after its publication. By 1923, it had been translated into thirty languages; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people, called roboti, from synthetic organic matter. They are not robots by the current definition of the term: they are living flesh and blood creatures rather than machinery and are closer to the modern idea of androids or replicants, they can think for themselves. They seem happy to work for humans at first, but a robot rebellion leads to the extinction of the human race. Čapek took a different approach to the same theme in War with the Newts, in which non-humans become a servant class in human society.
R. U. R. is dark but not without hope, was successful in its time in Europe and North America. Parentheses indicate differences in translations. HumansHarry Domin: General Manager, R. U. R. Fabry: Chief Engineer, R. U. R. Dr. Gall: Head of the Physiological Department, R. U. R. Dr. Hellman: Psychologist-in-Chief Jacob Berman: Managing Director, R. U. R. Alquist: Clerk of the Works, R. U. R. Helena Glory: President of the Humanity League, daughter of President Glory Emma: Helena's maidRobots and robotessesMarius, a robot Sulla, a robotess Radius, a robot Primus, a robot Helena, a robotess Daemon, a robot Helena, the daughter of the president of a major industrial power, arrives at the island factory of Rossum's Universal Robots, she meets Domin, the General Manager of R. U. R. who tells her the history of the company: In 1920, a man named Rossum came to the island to study marine biology, in 1932 he accidentally discovered a chemical that behaved like protoplasm, except that it did not mind being knocked around.
Rossum failed. His nephew came to see him, the two argued non-stop because Old Rossum only wanted to create animals to prove that not only was God unnecessary but that there was no God at all, Young Rossum only wanted to make himself rich. Young Rossum locked his uncle in a laboratory to play with his monsters and mutants, while Young Rossum built factories and cranked out Robots by the thousands. By the time the play takes place – around the year 2000 – Robots are cheap and available all over the world, they have become necessary because they allow products to be made at a fifth the previous cost. Helena meets Fabry, Dr. Gall, Alquist and Hallemeier, reveals she is a representative of the League of Humanity, a human rights organization that wishes to "free" the Robots; the managers of the factory find this a ridiculous proposition. Helena requests that the Robots be paid so that they can buy things they like, but the Robots do not like anything. Helena is convinced that the League of Humanity is a waste of money, but continues to argue on the fact that robots should still have a "soul".
Domin confesses that he loves Helena and forces her into an engagement. Ten years Helena and her nurse Nana are talking about current events—particularly the decline in human births. Helena and Domin reminisce about the day they met and summarize the last ten years of world history, shaped by the new worldwide Robot-based economy. Helena meets Dr. Gall's new Robot experiment, Dr. Gall describes his experimental Robotess, Robot Helena. Both are more advanced featured versions. In secret, Helena burns the formula required to create Robots; the revolt of the Robots reaches Rossum's island. The characters sense that the universality of the Robots presents a danger. Reminiscent of the Tower of Babel, the characters discuss whether creating national Robots who were unable to communicate beyond their language group would have been a good idea; as Robot forces lay siege to the factory, Helena reveals she has burned the formula necessary to make new robots. The characters lament the end of humanity and defend their actions, despite the fact that their imminent deaths are a direct result of those actions.
Busman is killed attempting to negotiate a peace with the Robots, who storm the factory and kill all the humans except for Alquist, the company's chief engineer, whom the Robots spare because they recognize that "he works with his hands like the Robots." Years have passed and all humans had been killed by the robot revolution except for Alquist. He has been attempting to recreate the formula that Helena destroyed, although as he is a mechanical engineer with insufficient knowledge of biological chemistry he has made little progress; the robot government has attempted to search for surviving humans to help Alquist but they have not been able to find any. Officials from the robot government approach Alquist and first order and beg him to complete the formula if it means he will have to kill and dissect other Robots to do so. Alquist yields, agreeing to kill and dissect, which completes the circle of violence begun in Act Two. Alquist is disgusted by it. Robots Primus and Helena fall in love. Playing a hunch, Alquist threatens to dissect Primus and Helena.
Alquist realizes that they are the new Adam and Eve, gives charge of the world to them. The Robots described in Čapek's play are not robots in the popularly understood sense of an automaton. Th
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1887 play)
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a four-act play written by Thomas Russell Sullivan in collaboration with the actor Richard Mansfield, it is an adaptation of Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, an 1886 novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson. The story focuses on the respected London doctor Henry Jekyll and his involvement with Edward Hyde, a loathsome criminal. After Hyde murders the father of Jekyll's fiancée, Jekyll's friends discover that he and Jekyll are the same person; when he runs out of the potion, he commits suicide before he can be arrested. After reading the novella, Mansfield was intrigued by the opportunity to play a dual role, he secured the right to adapt the story for the stage in the United States and the United Kingdom, asked Sullivan to write the adaptation. The play debuted in Boston in May 1887, a revised version opened on Broadway in September of that year. Critics acclaimed Mansfield's performance as the dual character; the play was popular in New York and on tour, Mansfield was invited to bring it to London.
It opened there in August 1888. Some press reports compared the murderer to the Jekyll-Hyde character, Mansfield was suggested as a possible suspect. Despite significant press coverage, the London production was a financial failure. Mansfield's company continued to perform the play on tours of the U. S. until shortly before his death in 1907. In writing the stage adaptation, Sullivan made several changes to the story; the changes have been adopted by many subsequent adaptations, including several film versions of the story which were derived from the play. The films included a 1912 adaptation directed by Lucius Henderson, a 1920 adaptation directed by John S. Robertson, a 1931 adaptation directed by Rouben Mamoulian, which earned Fredric March an Academy Award for Best Actor. A 1941 adaptation, directed by Victor Fleming, was a remake of the 1931 film. In the first act, a group of friends has met up at Sir Danvers' home. Dr. Lanyon brings word that Dr. Henry Jekyll, will be late to the gathering.
He repeats a second-hand story about a man named Hyde, who injured a child in a collision on the street. The story upsets Utterson because Jekyll made a new will that gives his estate to a mysterious friend named Edward Hyde. Jekyll arrives. Jekyll tells Agnes that they should end their engagement because of sins he has committed, but will not explain. Agnes refuses to accept this, tells Jekyll she loves him, he relents, saying that she will help him control himself, leaves. Sir Danvers joins his daughter, they talk about their time in Mangalore, India; when Hyde enters, Sir Danvers tells Agnes to leave the room. The men argue, Hyde strangles Sir Danvers. In the second act, Hyde fears, he gives his landlady, money to tell visitors that he is not home. Inspector Newcome from Scotland Yard offers Rebecca more money to turn Hyde in, which she promises to do. Hyde flees to Jekyll's laboratory. Rebecca, who has followed Hyde and tells Utterson that Hyde murdered Sir Danvers. In the play's original version, the act ends with Jekyll returning to his laboratory.
In versions, the second act contains an additional scene in which Jekyll returns home. Agnes, who saw Hyde before her father was murdered, wants Jekyll to accompany her to provide the police with a description, is distraught when he refuses. In the third act, Jekyll's servant, gives Dr. Lanyon a powder and liquid with instructions from Jekyll to give them to a person who will request them. While he waits, Lanyon speaks with Newcome, Rebecca and Mrs. Lanyon. After the others leave, Hyde arrives for the liquid. After arguing with Lanyon, he drinks it. In the final act, Jekyll has begun to change into Hyde without using the potion. Although he still needs it to change back, he has exhausted his supply. Dr. Lanyon tries to help Jekyll re-create the formula. Jekyll asks Lanyon to bring Agnes to him. Utterson and Newcome arrive to arrest Hyde; the play was produced at the Boston Museum, Broadway's Madison Square Theatre and the Lyceum Theatre in London's West End with the following casts: The Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson wrote Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in 1885 when he was living in Bournemouth, on England's south coast.
In January 1886 the novella was published in the United Kingdom by Longmans, Green & Co. and by Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States, where it was pirated because of the lack of copyright protection in the U. S. for works published in the UK. In early 1887, actor Richard Mansfield read Stevenson's novella and got the idea to adapt it for the stage. Mansfield was looking for material that would help him achieve a reputation as a serious actor in the U. S. where he lived, in England, where he had spent most of his childhood. He had played dual roles as a father and son in a New York production of the operetta Rip Van Win
The Bathhouse is a play by Vladimir Mayakovsky written in 1929, for the Meyerhold Theatre. It was published for the first time in the November, No.11 issue of Oktyabr magazine and released as a book by Gosizdat in 1930. The play premiered at the People's House's Drama Theatre, in Leningrad on January 30, 1930; the "6-act drama with the circus and the fireworks", satirizing bureaucratic stupidity and opportunism under Joseph Stalin, evoked strong criticism in the Soviet press from the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers. Mayakovsky started working upon The Bathhouse right after his return to Moscow from France on 2 May 1929; as well as its predecessor, The Bedbug, this one in retrospect is seen as a logical continuation of Mayakovsky’s late 1920s satirical cycle. " political agenda is fighting the narrow-mindedness, opportunism and paving the way for heroism, the tempo increase, for the Socialist perspectives," the author told Literaturnaya Gazeta in a 1929 interview. The Bathhouse's rough version was finished in September 1929, but Mayakovsky continued to make changes to the text while performing the play at public recitals.
On 22 September he read the play at home to a circle of friends, the next day at the meeting of the Meyerhold Theatre's Arts and politics council. Speaking at the discussion which followed, Vsevolod Meyerhold extolled The Bathhouse, rating it as high as the best work of Moliere and Gogol. " is the greatest phenomenon in the history of the Russian theatre, but we have to applaud Mayakovsky the poet, who's given us the pieces of prose, written as masterfully as the poetry... Without any doubt, Mayakovsky starts the whole new epoch." The Council's resolution unanimously recommended the play to be produced at the theatre. According to the contract, signed on 5 October, Mayakovsky’s function at the theatre was to be the director's assistant. Judging by the drawings the author made of Pobedonosikov and Optimistenko characters, he planned to work as a designer. More public recitals followed: on 27 September, 12 October, 13 October, 20 October, 25 October, 27 October. Mayakovsky performed for the workers’ audiences in factories, including Moscow's 1st Exemplary Typography, Krasny Luch and Icarus.
Speaking to the audience of the Moscow 1st Typography on 30 October, Mayakovsky commented upon the question of whether the play has been now complete: "I never regard any of my work as complete and final'monument to myself', as it were. I believe in the creative forces of the working class, I come to get some help regularly... I receive criticism of different sort, try to find use for all of these critical remarks."On 20 December Mayakovsky read The Bathhouse at the Narkompros' repertoire committee and took part in the discussion that followed. Serious problems with censorship arose and the play was approved for production only on 9 February 1930, on condition that some of the episodes would be "softened". All the while Mayakovsky involved in the rehearsals at the Meyerhold Theatre, was changing the text of the play continuously. Not all these changes have made their way into the printed edition of the play; the play premiered on 30 January 1930 at the People's House's Drama theatre in Leningrad, directed by Meyerhold's student Vladimir Lyutze, with Boris Babochkin in the leading role.
Among those present was Mikhail Zoshchenko, who in 1933 remembered: "The play was received with deadly coldness. Not a burst of laughter, not a single clap in the course of the first two acts. Never in my life have I witnessed a flop so heavy."The Bathhouse premiered at the Meyerhold Theatre on 16 March 1930, with Maxim Shtraukh as Pobedonosikov and Zinaida Reich as the Phosphorescent Woman. The musical score for the show was written by Vissarion Shebalin. One of the junior cast members was Valentin Pluchek who in 1953 produced The Bathhouse at the Moscow Satire Theatre. Again, the audience remained unmoved. Actor Igor Ilyinsky remembered in 1958: "I saw Vladimir Vladimirovich at the Meyerhold Theatre premier... After the performance, received not well by the public, who felt acutely, stood in the lobby all by himself, looking each and every person, leaving the theatre straight into the eye."On 17 March The Bathhouse was shown at the Leningrad's Tovstonogov Bolshoi Drama Theater, directed by Pavel Weisbrem, with Sergey Balashov as Pobedonosikov.
All three productions evoked stormy criticism in the Soviet press. Such hostile reaction dealt a heavy blow to the author and contributed to his submerging into deep depression; the Bathhouse was performed – by the Meyerhold Theatre during its tour in Povolzhye, the Tovstonogov Theatre in Belorussia and Ukraine, but by 1931 the play has been dropped from both theatres repertoire, as, after its author's suicide the four-year'silent obstruction' campaign got started in the Soviet press, which Lilya Brik put a dramatic end to in 1935 with her daring personal letter to Stalin. On 19 July 1951, on the day of Mayakovsky's 58th birthday, the Ruben Simonov-produced version of the play was broadcast on the Soviet Radio, its massive success had
Adolphe Philippe d'Ennery or Dennery was a French playwright and novelist. Born in Paris, his real surname was Philippe, he obtained his first success in collaboration with Charles Desnoyer in Émile, ou le fils d'un pair de France, a drama, the first of a series of some two hundred pieces written alone or in collaboration with other dramatists. He died in Paris in 1899. Among the best of his works are a play about Kaspar Hauser with Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois; the story was adapted in 1921 by D. W. Griffith as the film Orphans of the Storm, he wrote the libretto for Gounod's Le tribut de Zamora. Other opera librettos include La rose de Terone, Si j'étais roi, Le muletier de Tolède, À Clichy by Adolphe Adam, Massenet's early Don César de Bazan and Hervé's La nuit aux soufflets He prepared for the stage Balzac's posthumous comedy Mercadet ou le faiseur, presented at the Théâtre du Gymnase in 1851. Reversing the usual order of procedure, d'Ennery adapted some of his plays to the form of novels. In 2015 was founded the Society of Friends of Adolphe d'Ennery whose purpose is to promote Adolphe d'Ennery, study his work and put an online enriched encyclopedia about the author and his work.
A Celebrated Case, directed by George Melford Don Caesar de Bazan, directed by Robert G. Vignola The Two Orphans, directed by Herbert Brenon Martyre, directed by Camillo De Riso Don Cesar, Count of Irun, directed by Luise Kolm and Jacob Fleck The Adventurer, directed by J. Gordon Edwards Belphegor the Mountebank, directed by Bert Wynne Orphans of the Storm, directed by D. W. Griffith Rosita, directed by Ernst Lubitsch The Spanish Dancer, directed by Herbert Brenon Martyre, directed by Charles Burguet The Two Orphans, directed by Maurice Tourneur The Two Orphans, directed by Carmine Gallone Don Cesare di Bazan, directed by Riccardo Freda The Two Orphans, directed by José Benavides The Two Orphans, directed by Hassan al-Imam The Two Orphans, directed by Roberto Rodríguez Appassionatamente, directed by Giacomo Gentilomo The Two Orphans, directed by Giacomo Gentilomo The Seventh Sword, directed by Riccardo Freda The Two Orphans, directed by Riccardo Freda The Two Orphans, directed by Leopoldo Savona Works by Adolphe d'Ennery at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Adolphe d'Ennery at Internet Archive Adolphe d'Ennery at Internet Movie Database Official Website of the Society of Friends of Adolphe d'Ennery "Dennery, Adolphe Philippe".
New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Back to Methuselah
Back to Methuselah by George Bernard Shaw consists of a preface and a series of five plays: In the Beginning: B. C. 4004, The Gospel of the Brothers Barnabas: Present Day, The Thing Happens: A. D. 2170, Tragedy of an Elderly Gentleman: A. D. 3000, As Far as Thought Can Reach: A. D. 31,920. All were written during 1918–20, published by Constable and Brentano's in 1921, first performed in the United States in 1922 by the New York Theatre Guild at the old Garrick Theatre, New York and, in Britain, at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1923. In the preface, Shaw speaks of the pervasive discouragement and poverty in Europe after World War I, relates these issues to inept government. Simple primitive societies, he says, were governable while the civilized societies of the twentieth century are so complex that learning to govern them properly can't be accomplished within the human lifespan: People with experience enough to serve the purpose fall into senility and die. Shaw's solution is enhanced longevity: we must learn to live much longer.
This change, Shaw predicts, will happen through Creative Evolution. Neither Creative Evolution nor the Life Force were Shavian inventions. Shaw says they are his names for what the churches have called Providence and scientists call Functional Adaptation and Natural Selection and gives due credit to Henri Bergson's élan vital, he uses both terms in Man and Superman, written nine years before Bergson's work was published. These concepts had some currency among Shaw's contemporaries, the Methuselah plays are based on Shaw's extrapolations from the two principles. Although both ideas are out of scientific favour as the twenty-first century begins, Shaw accepted them Shaw advocates what he calls homeopathy as a pedagogical method, arguing that society "can only be lamed and enslaved by" education. Shaw's "homeopathic" educational method consisted of lying to students, until the students were able to see through the lies and argue with the teachers. In the Beginning: B. C. 4004 is allegorical. Adam and Eve, as avatars for aboriginal humanity, discover a fawn dead from a broken neck and realize they, will die from some mishap though they are immune to aging.
Their dread of death is overwhelmed by the yet more dreadful prospect of life unending, with its tedium and burdens, but they feel bound to live forever because Eden must be taken care of and they are the only ones available to do it. The Serpent—spoken of in Genesis.—offers a solution: Lilith, who came before them, was, in fact, their mother, made them male and female, so they have the ability to reproduce. If they learn to propagate they can make other humans to tend the garden and thus be free to escape from living when they wish. Discovering the possibility of death suggests possibilities for other changes and a discussion follows that deals progressively with loneliness and love and fear, fidelity and marriage and the courage found in laughter. At the end the Serpent whispers—for Eve's ears alone—the secret of reproduction, which Eve hears with mixed emotions. A few centuries slip by, their son Cain arrives and aggressive, proud to have invented murder by killing his brother Abel. He is now a warrior who kills beasts for food.
He is utterly disdainful of the simple farming life and soon rudely goes away. Eve thoughtfully remarks that there is more to living than killing or digging in the garden and says her future sons will find things more wonderful to do; the Gospel of the Brothers Barnabas is intended to teach an audience what readers of the Preface are assumed to have learned. Two brothers, one a retired, but influential cleric and the other a biologist of note, independently conclude that humans must increase their lifespans to three centuries in order to acquire the wisdom and experience needed to make complex civilizations functional. Conrad has published their conclusions in a book. A housemaid announces the opportune arrival of Lubin and Burge, two prominent politicians with antagonistic viewpoints. Members of the younger generation, in the persons of Franklyn's daughter Savvy and her sweetheart, a young cleric named Haslam, are at the presentation, too. Both politicians seize upon the promise of enhanced longevity as a way of attracting votes.
One of them is cynical, not believing longevity will happen, but the other deems the theory valid, yet rejects the prospect out of hand because longer lives will be available to everyone instead of only the elite. Savvy and Haslam are nearly unaffected; the brothers are disappointed but remain confident that the change is sure to happen. Except for the brothers, only the housemaid is influenced by the prospect of longevity, for she turns out to be the only one who has read Conrad's book; the Thing Happens begins in 2170, 150 years after the Barnabas brothers disclosed their inferences, Englishmen continue imma
Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein
Presumption. It is the first recorded theatrical adaptation of the novel and had 37 performances during its original run, it was revived at the English Opera House until at least 1850. The play marks the first recorded appearance of Frankenstein's servile assistant character, known in pop culture as Igor. Here, the character is named ` Fritz'; such a character does not exist in the original novel. Mary Shelley attended the play in London during its original run, it was the only presentation of Frankenstein performed during her lifetime. Because Charles II had only awarded royal patents allowing for the staging of plays to the "Theatres Royal" all the other theatres in 1823, could only perform melodramas, pantomimes, puppet theatre, musical entertainments, spectacles; this meant that Peake's Presumption had to include music and spectacle in order for it to be staged. Thus, the play had songs that the Creature could react to, pantomime as the Creature was mute and spectacle in the form of an avalanche in the finale.
The drama opened on Monday, 28 July 1823, at the head of a programme that included two farces, The Rival Soldiers and Sharp and Flat. In its original form the play ran for thirty-seven performances at the English Opera House during a summer season that lasted for three months; the play was performed in New York City in January 1825, at the Porte St. Martin in Paris in 1826 - on both occasions with great success. In the meantime, support for Presumption in London continued through to 1824 when it was performed three times at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden; the 1824 performances were presented with a different cast with the exception of T. P. Cooke and Robert Keeley, who continued in their roles from the previous year; the play was performed for several evenings in 1827, with William Bennett as Frankenstein, Richard John O. Smith as the Creature, Keeley as Fritz; the English Opera House revived Presumption as an afterpiece until at least 1850. Presumption was seen by Mary Shelley and her father William Godwin on 29 August 1823 at the English Opera House shortly after her return to England.
Shelley approved of the way the Creature, played by T. P. Cooke in over 350 performances during his acting acreer, was represented by a series of dashes in the advertising. To capitalise on the success of the play, Godwin arranged for his daughter's novel Frankenstein to be reprinted in two volumes with emendations by himself. Mary Shelley, writing to her and her late husband's friend Leigh Hunt, said of the play: "Frankenstein had prodigious success as a drama & was about to be repeated for the 23rd night at the English opera house; the play bill amused me for in the list of dramatis personæ came, ——— by Mr. T. Cooke: this nameless mode of naming the unameable is rather good. On Friday Aug. 29th Jane My father William & I went to the theatre to see it. Wallack looked well as F—he is at the beginning full of hope & expectation—at the end of the 1st Act; the stage represents a room with a staircase leading to F workshop—he goes to it and you see his light at a small window, through which a frightened servant peeps, who runs off in terror when F. exclaims "It lives!"—Presently F himself rushes in horror & trepidation from the room and while still expressing his agony & terror ——— throws down the door of the laboratory, leaps the staircase & presents his unearthly & monstrous person on the stage.
The story is not well managed—but Cooke played ———'s part well—his seeking as it were for support—his trying to grasp at the sounds he heard—all indeed he does was well imagined & executed. I was much amused, & it appeared to excite a breatheless eagerness in the audience." Set in Geneva'and its vicinity', Peake's adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel portrays the story of Frankenstein as he creates a mute blue-skinned Creature, known as the Hobgoblin. Shown through the concerned eyes of his bumbling servant and his esteemed friend, Frankenstein's work is brought to light; this play brings Mary Shelley's famous characters to life in a series of three acts, each of which highlight the important themes of community and romance. In the opening scene, Clerval shows concern for Frankenstein's health and continuous work in his lab, just like in Mary Shelley's novel. However, in the play, Clerval offers to pay Fritz to find out. Clerval's actions are significant by giving the audience a feeling of community, that Frankenstein isn't alone, different from the isolation established in Shelley's novel.
By having Fritz and Clerval with Frankenstein, there is a diffusion of responsibility for the creation of the Hobgoblin. Fritz states to Clerval, "Now my shrewd guess, sir, is that, like Dr. Faustus, my master is raising the devil," sharing that he has a good idea of what Frankenstein is up to. Neither Clerval nor Fritz try to stop Frankenstein in the midst of his work though they show concern for his welfare; the creation of the Creature happens off stage, during which the audience hears Victor Frankenstein cry'it lives!', run on stage as his creation breaks out of the laboratory and reveals itself to the audience. Frankenstein draws a sword and points it at the Creature, who promptly snatches it and breaks it in two. Throwing Victor Frankenstein to the floor, the Creature runs up the staircase and exits the building through a window. Although Frankenstein destroys the Creature i