Guns, Germs, and Steel
Guns and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1998, Guns and Steel won the Pulitzer Prize for general nonfiction and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. A documentary based on the book, produced by the National Geographic Society, was broadcast on PBS in July 2005; the book attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conquered others, while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual, moral, or inherent genetic superiority. Diamond argues that the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate in environmental differences, which are amplified by various positive feedback loops; when cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians, he asserts that these advantages occurred because of the influence of geography on societies and cultures and were not inherent in the Eurasian genomes.
The prologue opens with an account of Diamond's conversation with a New Guinean politician. The conversation turned to the obvious differences in power and technology between Yali's people and the Europeans who dominated the land for 200 years, differences that neither of them considered due to any genetic superiority of Europeans. Yali asked, using the local term "cargo" for inventions and manufactured goods, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?" Diamond realized the same question seemed to apply elsewhere: "People of Eurasian origin... dominate... the world in wealth and power." Other peoples, after having thrown off colonial domination, still lag in power. Still others, he says, "have been decimated, in some cases exterminated by European colonialists." The peoples of other continents have been conquered, displaced and in some extreme cases – referring to Native Americans, Aboriginal Australians, South Africa's indigenous Khoisan peoples – exterminated by farm-based societies such as Eurasians and Bantu.
He believes this is due to these societies' technologic and immunologic advantages, stemming from the early rise of agriculture after the last Ice Age. The book's title is a reference to the means by which farm-based societies conquered populations of other areas and maintained dominance, despite sometimes being vastly outnumbered – superior weapons provided immediate military superiority. Diamond argues geographic and environmental characteristics which favored early development of stable agricultural societies led to immunity to diseases endemic in agricultural animals and the development of powerful, organized states capable of dominating others. Diamond argues that Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity, but of opportunity and necessity; that is, civilization is not created out of superior intelligence, but is the result of a chain of developments, each made possible by certain preconditions. The first step towards civilization is the move from nomadic hunter-gatherer to rooted agrarian society.
Several conditions are necessary for this transition to occur: access to high-carbohydrate vegetation that endures storage. Control of crops and livestock leads to food surpluses. Surpluses free people to specialize in activities other than sustenance and support population growth; the combination of specialization and population growth leads to the accumulation of social and technologic innovations which build on each other. Large societies develop ruling classes and supporting bureaucracies, which in turn lead to the organization of nation-states and empires. Although agriculture arose in several parts of the world, Eurasia gained an early advantage due to the greater availability of suitable plant and animal species for domestication. In particular, Eurasia has barley, two varieties of wheat, three protein-rich pulses for food. Eurasian grains were richer in protein, easier to sow, easier to store than American maize or tropical bananas; as early Western Asian civilizations began to trade, they found additional useful animals in adjacent territories, most notably horses and donkeys for use in transport.
Diamond identifies 13 species of large animals over 100 pounds domesticated in Eurasia, compared with just one in South America and none at all in the rest of the world. Australia and North America suffered from a lack of useful animals due to extinction by human hunting, shortly after the end of the Pleistocene, whilst the only domesticated animals in New Guinea came from the East Asian mainland during the Austronesian settlement some 4,000–5,000 years ago. Biological relatives of the horse, including zebras and onagers proved untameable.
Justice and Development Party (Turkey)
The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, 2018; the party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively; the current party leader is the incumbent President of Turkey. Shortly after formation, the AKP portrayed itself as a pro-Western and pro-American party in the Turkish political spectrum that advocated a liberal market economy including Turkish membership in the European Union.
The party had for a long time been supported by the Cemaat Movement of exiled Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen, whose influence in the judiciary has helped to weaken the opposition against the AKP. The party was an observer in the center-right European People's Party between 2005 and 2013 and a member of the eurosceptic Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe from 2013 to 2018. Controversies over whether the party remains committed to secular principles enshrined in the Turkish constitution despite their Islamist origins have dominated Turkish politics since 2002 and has resulted in numerous unsuccessful closure cases. Nationwide protests broke out against the alleged authoritarianism of the AKP in 2013, with the party's heavy-handed response receiving international condemnation and stalling the party's once championed EU accession negotiations. Since the party has brought about tighter regulations on internet use and alcohol consumption, having temporarily blocked access to Twitter and YouTube in March 2014.
After the government corruption scandal involving several AKP ministers in 2013, the party has been accused of crony capitalism. The AKP favours a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated a presidential system of government and reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013; the AKP was established by a wide range of politicians of various political parties and a number of new politicians. The core of the party was formed from the reformist faction of the Islamist Virtue Party, including people such as Abdullah Gül, Bülent Arınç. A second founding group consisted of members of the social conservative Motherland Party, close to Turgut Özal, such as Cemil Çiçek and Abdülkadir Aksu; some members of the True Path Party, such as Hüseyin Çelik and Köksal Toptan, joined the AKP. Some members, such as Kürşad Tüzmen had nationalist or Ertuğrul Günay, had center-left backgrounds while representatives of the nascent'Muslim left' current were excluded. In addition a large number of people joined a political party for the first time, such as Ali Babacan, Selma Aliye Kavaf, Egemen Bağış and Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu.
All of these people joined Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to found the new party. Although the party is described as an Islamist party in some media, party officials reject those claims. According to former minister Hüseyin Çelik, "In the Western press, when the AKP administration – the ruling party of the Turkish Republic – is being named most of the time'Islamic,"Islamist,"mildly Islamist,"Islamic-oriented,"Islamic-based' or'with an Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used; these characterizations do not reflect the truth, they sadden us." Çelik added, "The AKP is a conservative democratic party. The AKP's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues." In a separate speech made in 2005, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated, "We are not an Islamic party, we refuse labels such as Muslim-democrat." Erdoğan went on to say that the AKP's agenda is limited to "conservative democracy". The party's foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottomanist, an ideology that promotes renewed Turkish political engagement in the former territories of its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire.
However, the party's leadership has rejected this label. In 2005, the party was granted observer membership in the European People's Party. In November 2013, the party left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists instead; this move was attributed to the AKP's disappointment not to be granted full membership in the EPP, while it was admitted as a full member of the AECR. It drew criticism in both national and European discourses, as the driving force of Turkey's aspirations to become a member of the European Union decided to join a eurosceptic alliance, abandoning the more influential pro-European EPP, feeding suspicions that AKP wants to join a watered down, not a integrated EU; the Justice and Development Party has faced two closure cases in its history. Just 10 days before the national elections of 2002, Turkey's chief prosecutor, Sabih Kanadoğlu, asked the Turkish constitutional court to close the Justice and Development Party, leading in the polls at that time.
The chief prosecutor charged the Development Party with abusing the law and justice. He based his case on the fact that the party's leader had been banned from political life for reading an Islamist poem, thus the party had no standing in elections; the European Commission had criticised Turkey for banning the party's leader
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan. It was established on 23 January 1945; the President of ANAS is Acad. Akif Alizadeh and the Academician-Secretary of ANAS is Acad. Rasim Alguliyev. One section of the ANAS is Republican Seismic Survey Center of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; the Academy was based on the Azerbaijan Society for Scientific Research and Studies, first affiliated with Baku State University and with the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1923 the Azerbaijan Society for Researches and Studies that included history, ethnography and natural sciences, was established as the leading scientific institution of Azerbaijan by initiative of Nariman Narimanov. In 1929 the Society was reorganized into Azerbaijan State Scientific Research Institute. ASSRI were coordinating scientific research works, training scientific cadres for specialized high and secondary schools.
In 1932, the Azerbaijani Branch of the Transcaucasian Affiliate of the USSR Academy of Sciences, consisting of 11 divisions and several committees, was organized on the basis of ASSRI. The head of the Branch was A. Ruhulla. Famous Russian scientists such as Ivan Gubkin, Alexander Grossheim, I. Meshshaninov, Iosif Yesman, Azerbaijani scholars such as Bakir Chobanzadeh, Musa Afandiyev, Veli Khuluflu, A. Mammadov, Salman Mumtaz, A. Taghizadeh, etc. conducted scientific researches here. In 1935, Azerbaijani Branch of the Transcaucasian Affiliate of the USSR Academy of Sciences was reorganized into the Azerbaijani Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Chemical, Zoology, History and Archeology, Language and Literature research institutions, as well as the Divisions of Energy, Physics and Soil Science were established on the base of the existing departments of the Branch. In 1945, the USSR Council of People's Commissars ordered the society to be reorganized into the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR.
During its first year, the Academy numbered 15 members. In accord with presidential decree, the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences was granted the status of "National Academy of Sciences", after 2 years ANAS was given the status of supreme state body carrying out the scientific and scientific-technical policy of Azerbaijan, its Charter was granted the state document. Following the presidential decrees dated January 12, 2004 and 5 May 2004, the Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan was a part of ANAS and the Scientific Center of the National Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan was established; the Presidium is located in the historical Ismailiyya building on Istiglaliyyat Street in the center of Baku. The functions of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science include organization of scientific activity. ANAS represents Azerbaijan in different countries and international scientific events, takes measures in order to improve the scientific infrastructure and modernize the material and technical basis of science, its functions include strengthening the relations between science and industries, to create mechanisms for the implementation of applied scientific research in line with the needs of the market, innovative environment for innovative entrepreneurship, developing new types of activities, making proposals for the transfer and acquisition of advanced technologies, suggestions on the organization of techno-parks, innovation zones, incubation services, technology transfer centers, shaping the innovation system in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences is responsible for ensuring scientific reforms. The Academy should determine the strategy and priorities of scientific and technical development, participate in preparation of state programs, make decisions, establish scientific-production-experimental plants, various economic enterprises and organize interaction between science and production. Organizing and implementing scientific researches that aimed at the protection of culture and customs, strengthening ties between science and education, representing Azerbaijan in international events related to scientific issues, participating in the organization and implementation of international scientific projects, promoting the creation of high-tech manufacturing sites and businesses based on science achievements; the Academy applies a single center-management model of research carried out in scientific research institutions, takes measures on effectiveness assessment. The Academy has rights such as follows: To prepare proposals in order to improve legislation in the field of science.
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia. The academy was founded on November 10, 1943 on the basis of the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, established 10 years earlier, in 1935. Among its founders were Joseph Orbeli, Stepan Malkhasyants, Ivan Gevorkian and Victor Ambartsumian. Joseph Orbeli Victor Ambartsumian Fadey Sargsyan Radik Martirosyan Division of Mathematical and Technical SciencesInstitute of Mathematics Institute of Mechanics Institute for Informatics and Automation ProblemsDivision of Physics and AstrophysicsByurakan Astrophysical Observatory Institute of Radiophysics & Electronics Institute of Applied Problems of Physics Institute for Physical ResearchDivision of Natural SciencesCenter for Ecological Noosphere Studies Institute of Biochemistry Institute of Botany G. S. Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems Scientific and Production Center Armbiotechnology Institute of Biotechnology Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” “Institute of Microbiology” Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” Division of Natural Sciences Microbial Depository Center Institute of Molecular Biology Institute of Physiology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Zoology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Hydroecology and IchthyologyDivision of Chemistry and Earth SciencesScientific Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Molecular Structure Research Center of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Chemical Physics Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry Institute of Geological Sciences Institute of Geophysics and Engineering Seismology after A. NazarovDivision of Armenology and Social SciencesInstitute of History Institute of Philosophy and Law M. Kotanyan Institute of Economics Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Institute of Oriental Studies H. Acharian Institute of Language M. Abeghyan Institute of Literature Institute of Art Museum-Institute of Genocide Shirak Armenology Research Center Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing House All Armenian Foundation Financing Armenological Studies Karlen G. Adamyan Official website International Scientific-Educational Center of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus is the national academy of Belarus. The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus was founded on January 1, 1929 on the basis of The Institute of Belarusian Culture, reorganized to the Academy of Science through the Decree of Central Executive Committee and Soviet of People's Commissars of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic on October 13, 1928. At the beginning of its activity the Academy had only 128 staff members, among them 87 scientists. By 1941 the Academy had 12 subdivisions. During World War II the Academy was evacuated to other Soviet republics. Huge damage was brought to the Academy's material state. Right after war's end, eight institutes started their activity again. By 1951 the Academy had 1234 staff including 33 academicians; the Academy was supported by the governments of Belarus and the USSR as well as by leading scientific centres in Moscow and other Soviet cities. Through its history the National Science Academy of Belarus has grown up to a respectful scientific center.
A USSR-wide fame had Belarusian scientists like Panas Akhrem, Mikalay Barysyevich, Fyodar Fyodaraw, Vyeniyamin Vacyakow, Uladzimir Ulashchyk. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the scope of the academic research and the structure of the academy had undergone significant changes, with more emphasis on applied problems, under the immediate supervision of Alexander Lukashenko in accordance with the Law №159-3 of May 5, 1998 "On the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus" and Decree of the President of Belarus №390 of August 4, 1998 "On Additional Measures on Realization by the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus of the Status of Higher State Scientific Organization"; the scientific-application centers were introduced by Lukashenko's decree in 2006. Their emphasis is the problems of vital interest for the economical development of the country; the first centers of this kind created in 2006 specialize in agriculture. In 2006 an e-commerce Scientific and Practical Center for Arable Farming Scientific and Practical Center for Animal Breeding Scientific and Practical Center for Potato and Fruit Growing Scientific and Practical Center for Agriculture Mechanization Scientific and Practical Center for Foodstuffs Inter-branch Scientific and Practical Center for Identification Systems and E-business Operations Central Botanic Garden Grodno Zonal Institute of Plant Growing Institute of Applied Physics Institute of Arable Farming and Selection Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering Institute of Chemistry of New Materials Institute of Economics The Center of Agricultural Economics Institute of Electronics Institute of Experimental Botany Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine Institute of Flax Institute for Fish Industry Institute of Forest Institute for Fruit Growing Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry Institute of Genetics and Cytology The National Co-ordination Centre for BioSafety Institute of Geochemistry and Geophysics Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of History Institute for Land Reclamation Institute of Linguistics Institute of Literature Institute of Mathematics Institute for Meat and Milk Industry Institute of Mechanics of Metal-Polymer Systems Institute of Metal Technology Institute of Microbiology Institute of Molecular and Atomic Physics Institute of Philosophy Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry Institute of Physics Institute of Physiology Institute of Plant Protection Institute for Problems of Natural Resources Use and Ecology Institute of Radiobiology Institute of Sociology Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Institute of State and Law Institute of Study of Arts and Folklore Institute of Technical Acoustics Institute for Vegetable Crops Institute of Zoology Joint Institute of Machine Building Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research - "Sosny" Joint Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics Physical-Engineering Institute Scientific and Engineering Center "Plasmoteg" Polessian Agrarian-Ecological Institute Powder Metallurgy Institute Republican Scientific and Engineering Center for Remote Sensing of Environment "Ecomir" Research Center of Resource-Saving Problems Scientific-Engineering Enterprise "Geoinformation Systems" Scientific and Production Center "The Institute of Pharmacology and Biochemistry" United Institute of Informatics Problems Unitary enterprise Metallopolimer Development and production of equipment for grading and recycling of polymer secondary materials.
Development and production of equipment for application of polymer powder coatings. Production of equipment for recovery of building refuse. Manufacture of fibrous-porous materials Unitary enterprise Nuklon Development and organization of manufacture of laser-optical and spectral devices for scientific research, ecologies, equipment for processing of milk, vegetable growing, electric drives for wheelchairs, electro bicycles R&D center CKB machine building, instrument manufacturing, optical production R&D center Axicon Design and manufacturing of spectral devices for composition and properties of matter control and for medical-biological measurements.
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl