Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g. medical peer review. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty tenure. Henry Oldenburg was a British philosopher, seen as the'father' of modern scientific peer review. WA prototype is a professional peer-review process recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting, engineering and forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy; this may take a variety of forms, including mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, the significance of an idea may never be appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.
The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion; each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation; the meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web; the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review.
In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320, Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004. Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review. Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards. Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity as a database search term. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more expand their customer base in journals where authors pay a fee before public
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, astronomy and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. While its dates are debated, the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is cited as marking the beginning of the Scientific Revolution; the concept of a scientific revolution taking place over an extended period emerged in the eighteenth century in the work of Jean Sylvain Bailly, who saw a two-stage process of sweeping away the old and establishing the new. The beginning of the Scientific Revolution, the Scientific Renaissance, was focused on the recovery of the knowledge of the ancients; the completion of the Scientific Revolution is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia.
The work formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation thereby completing the synthesis of a new cosmology. By the end of the 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment that followed Scientific Revolution had given way to the "Age of Reflection." Great advances in science have been termed "revolutions" since the 18th century. In 1747, Clairaut wrote that "Newton was said in his own life to have created a revolution"; the word was used in the preface to Lavoisier's 1789 work announcing the discovery of oxygen. "Few revolutions in science have excited so much general notice as the introduction of the theory of oxygen... Lavoisier saw his theory accepted by all the most eminent men of his time, established over a great part of Europe within a few years from its first promulgation."In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century. "Among the most conspicuous of the revolutions which opinions on this subject have undergone, is the transition from an implicit trust in the internal powers of man's mind to a professed dependence upon external observation.
This gave rise to the common view of the Scientific Revolution today: A new view of nature emerged, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for 2,000 years. Science became an autonomous discipline, distinct from both philosophy and technology and came to be regarded as having utilitarian goals; the Scientific Revolution is traditionally assumed to start with the Copernican Revolution and to be complete in the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia. Much of the change of attitude came from Francis Bacon whose "confident and emphatic announcement" in the modern progress of science inspired the creation of scientific societies such as the Royal Society, Galileo who championed Copernicus and developed the science of motion. In the 20th century, Alexandre Koyré introduced the term "scientific revolution", centering his analysis on Galileo; the term was popularized by Butterfield in his Origins of Modern Science. Thomas Kuhn's 1962 work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions emphasized that different theoretical frameworks—such as Einstein's relativity theory and Newton's theory of gravity, which it replaced—cannot be directly compared.
The period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics and biology in institutions supporting scientific investigation and in the more held picture of the universe. The Scientific Revolution led to the establishment of several modern sciences. In 1984, Joseph Ben-David wrote: Rapid accumulation of knowledge, which has characterized the development of science since the 17th century, had never occurred before that time; the new kind of scientific activity emerged only in a few countries of Western Europe, it was restricted to that small area for about two hundred years.. Many contemporary writers and modern historians claim that there was a revolutionary change in world view. In 1611 the English poet, John Donne, wrote: new Philosophy calls all in doubt,The Element of fire is quite put out. Mid-20th-century historian Herbert Butterfield was less disconcerted, but saw the change as fundamental: Since that revolution turned the authority in English not only of the Middle Ages but of the ancient world—since it started not only in the eclipse of scholastic philosophy but in the destruction of Aristotelian physics—it outshines everything since the rise of Christianity and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements within the system of medieval Christendom....
Looms so large as the real origin both of the modern world and of the modern mentality that our customary periodization of European history has become an anachronism and an encumbrance. The history professor Peter Harrison attributes Christianity to having contributed to the rise of the Scientific Revolution: historians of science have long known that religious factors played a positive role in the emergence and persistence of modern science in the West. Not only were many of the key figures in the rise of science individuals with sincere religious commitmen
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research. Articles in scientific journals are written by active scientists such as students and professors instead of professional journalists. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are read casually, as one would read a magazine; the publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results.
Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Articles in scientific journals can be used in higher education. Scientific articles allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. An essential part of a scientific article is citation of earlier work; the impact of articles and journals is assessed by counting citations. Some classes are devoted to the explication of classic articles, seminar classes can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. Schoolbooks and textbooks have been written only on established topics, while the latest research and more obscure topics are only accessible through scientific articles. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. Public funding bodies require the results to be published in scientific journals. Academic credentials for promotion into academic ranks are established in large part by the number and impact of scientific articles published.
Many doctoral programs allow for thesis by publication, where the candidate is required to publish a certain number of scientific articles. Articles tend to be technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal, they are incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content. Rigorous rules of scientific writing are enforced by the editors. Articles are either original articles reporting new results or reviews of current literature. There are scientific publications that bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing thematic volumes of chapters from different authors. Many journals have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular geographic region, like African Invertebrates; the history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results.
Over a thousand ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, the number has increased after that. Prior to mid-20th century, peer review was not always necessary, but it became compulsory; the authors of scientific articles are active researchers instead of journalists. As such, the authors receive no compensation from the journal. However, their funding bodies may require them to publish in scientific journals; the paper is submitted to the journal office, where the editor considers the paper for appropriateness, potential scientific impact and novelty. If the journal's editor considers the paper appropriate, the paper is submitted to scholarly peer review. Depending on the field and paper, the paper is sent to 1–3 reviewers for evaluation before they can be granted permission to publish. Reviewers are expected to check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, i.e. if the data collected or considered in the paper support the conclusion offered. Novelty is key: existing work must be appropriately considered and referenced, new results improving on the state of the art presented.
Reviewers are unpaid and not a part of the journal staff—instead, they should be "peers", i.e. researchers in the same field as the paper in question. The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely; some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, Physical Review Letters, have a reputation of publishing articles that mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, a formal or informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists. In some countries, journal rankings can be utilized for funding decisions and evaluation of individual researchers, although they are poorly suited for that purpose. For scientific journals Reproducibility and Replicability are core concepts that allow other scientists to check and reproduce the results under the same conditions described
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
The creation–evolution controversy involves an ongoing, recurring cultural and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, of other life. Creationism was once believed to be true, but since the mid-19th century evolution by natural selection has been established as an empirical scientific fact; the debate is religious, not scientific: in the scientific community, evolution is accepted as fact and efforts to sustain the traditional view are universally regarded as pseudoscience. While the controversy has a long history, today it has retreated to be over what constitutes good science education, with the politics of creationism focusing on the teaching of creationism in public education. Among majority-Christian countries, the debate is most prominent in the United States, where it may be portrayed as part of a culture war. Parallel controversies exist in some other religious communities, such as the more fundamentalist branches of Judaism and Islam. In Europe and elsewhere, creationism is less widespread, there is much less pressure to teach it as fact.
Christian fundamentalists repudiate the evidence of common descent of humans and other animals as demonstrated in modern paleontology, genetics and cladistics and those other sub-disciplines which are based upon the conclusions of modern evolutionary biology, geology and other related fields. They argue for the Abrahamic accounts of creation, and, in order to attempt to gain a place alongside evolutionary biology in the science classroom, have developed a rhetorical framework of "creation science". In the landmark Kitzmiller v. Dover, the purported basis of scientific creationism was exposed as a wholly religious construct without formal scientific merit; the Catholic Church now recognizes the existence of evolution. Pope Francis has stated: "God is not a demiurge or a magician, but the Creator who brought everything to life... Evolution in nature is not inconsistent with the notion of creation, because evolution requires the creation of beings that evolve." The rules of genetic evolutionary inheritance were first discovered by a Catholic priest, the Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel, known today as the founder of modern genetics.
According to a 2014 Gallup survey, "More than four in 10 Americans continue to believe that God created humans in their present form 10,000 years ago, a view that has changed little over the past three decades. Half of Americans believe humans evolved, with the majority of these saying God guided the evolutionary process. However, the percentage who say God was not involved is rising." A 2015 Pew Research Center survey found "that while 37% of those older than 65 thought that God created humans in their present form within the last 10,000 years, only 21% of respondents between the ages of 18 and 29 agreed."The debate is sometimes portrayed as being between science and religion, the United States National Academy of Sciences states: Today, many religious denominations accept that biological evolution has produced the diversity of living things over billions of years of Earth's history. Many have issued statements observing that the tenets of their faiths are compatible. Scientists and theologians have written eloquently about their awe and wonder at the history of the universe and of life on this planet, explaining that they see no conflict between their faith in God and the evidence for evolution.
Religious denominations that do not accept the occurrence of evolution tend to be those that believe in literal interpretations of religious texts. The creation–evolution controversy began in Europe and North America in the late 18th century, when new interpretations of geological evidence led to various theories of an ancient Earth, findings of extinctions demonstrated in the fossil geological sequence prompted early ideas of evolution, notably Lamarckism. In England these ideas of continuing change were at first seen as a threat to the existing "fixed" social order, both church and state sought to repress them. Conditions eased, in 1844 Robert Chambers's controversial Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation popularized the idea of gradual transmutation of species; the scientific establishment at first dismissed it scornfully and the Church of England reacted with fury, but many Unitarians and Baptists—groups opposed to the privileges of the established church—favoured its ideas of God acting through such natural laws.
By the end of the 19th century, there was no serious scientific opposition to the basic evolutionary tenets of descent with modification and the common ancestry of all forms of life. The publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 brought scientific credibility to evolution, made it a respectable field of study. Despite the intense interest in the religious implications of Darwin's book, theological controversy over higher criticism set out in Essays and Reviews diverted the Church of England's attention; some of the liberal Christian authors of that work expressed support for Darwin, as did many Nonconformists. The Reverend Charles Kingsley, for instance supported the idea of God working through evolution. Other Christians opposed the idea, some of Darwin's close friends and supporters—including Charles Lyell and Asa Gray—initially expressed reservations about some of his ideas. Gray became a staunch supporter of Darwin in America, collected together a number of his own writings to produce an influential book, Darwiniana.
These essays argued for a conciliation between Darwinian evolution and the tene
The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation, it involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises. Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are inquisitive, so they come up with questions about things they see or hear, they develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are; the best hypotheses lead to predictions. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, expansion or rejection.
If a particular hypothesis becomes well supported, a general theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are the same from one to another; the process of the scientific method involves making conjectures, deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question; the hypothesis might be specific, or it might be broad. Scientists test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; the purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider.
There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry, they are not always in the same order; some philosophers and scientists have argued. Robert Nola and Howard Sankey remark that "For some, the whole idea of a theory of scientific method is yester-year's debate, the continuation of which can be summed up as yet more of the proverbial deceased equine castigation. We beg to differ." Important debates in the history of science concern rationalism as advocated by René Descartes. The term "scientific method" emerged in the 19th century, when a significant institutional development of science was taking place and terminologies establishing clear boundaries between science and non-science, such as "scientist" and "pseudoscience", appeared. Throughout the 1830s and 1850s, by which time Baconianism was popular, naturalists like William Whewell, John Herschel, John Stuart Mill engaged in debates over "induction" and "facts" and were focused on how to generate knowledge.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a debate over realism vs. antirealism was conducted as powerful scientific theories extended beyond the realm of the observable. The term "scientific method" came into popular use in the twentieth century, popping up in dictionaries and science textbooks, although there was little scientific consensus over its meaning. Although there was a growth through the middle of the twentieth century, by the end of that century numerous influential philosophers of science like Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend had questioned the universality of the "scientific method" and in doing so replaced the notion of science as a homogeneous and universal method with that of it being a heterogeneous and local practice. In particular, Paul Feyerabend argued against there being any universal rules of science. Historian of science Daniel Thurs maintains that the scientific method is a myth or, at best, an idealization; the scientific method is the process. As in other areas of inquiry, science can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time.
This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution. The ubiquitous element in the model of the scientific method is empiricism, or more epistemologic sensualism; this is in opposition to stringent forms of rationalism: the scientific method embodies that reason alone cannot solve a particular scientific problem. A strong formulation of the scientific method is not always aligned with a form of empiricism in which the empirical data is put forward in the form of experience or other abstracted forms of knowledge; the scientific method is of necessity als
An academic conference or scientific conference is a event for researchers to present and discuss their work. Together with academic or scientific journals, conferences provide an important channel for exchange of information between researchers. Conferences encompass various presentations, they tend to be concise, with a time span of about 10 to 30 minutes. The work may be bundled in written form as academic papers and published as the conference proceedings. A conference will include keynote speakers; the keynote lecture is longer, lasting sometimes up to an hour and a half if there are several keynote speakers on a panel. In addition to presentations, conferences feature panel discussions, round tables on various issues, poster sessions and workshops; some conferences take more interactive formats, such as the participant driven "unconference" or various conversational formats. Some academic conferences include the Artificial Intelligence International Conference, TED, Festival of Marketing, AliensFest.
Prospective presenters are asked to submit a short abstract of their presentation, which will be reviewed before the presentation is accepted for the meeting. Some disciplines require presenters to submit a paper of about 6–15 pages, peer reviewed by members of the program committee or referees chosen by them. In some disciplines, such as English and other languages, it is common for presenters to read from a prepared script. In other disciplines such as the sciences, presenters base their talk around a visual presentation that displays key figures and research results. A large meeting will be called a conference, while a smaller is termed a workshop, they might be single track or multiple track, where the former has only one session at a time, while a multiple track meeting has several parallel sessions with speakers in separate rooms speaking at the same time. The larger the conference, the more it is that academic publishing houses may set up displays. Large conferences may have a career and job search and interview activities.
At some conferences, social or entertainment activities such as tours and receptions can be part of the program. Business meetings for learned societies or interest groups can be part of the conference activities. Academic conferences fall into three categories: the themed conference, small conferences organized around a particular topic; these conferences are organized by regional, national, or international learned societies, held annually or on some other regular basis. The professional conference, large conferences not limited to academics but with academically related issues. Increasing numbers of amplified conferences are being provided which exploit the potential of WiFi networks and mobile devices in order to enable remote participants to contribute to discussions and listen to ideas. Advanced technology for meeting with any yet unknown person in a conference is performed by active RFID that may indicate wilfully identified and located upon approach via electronic tags. Conferences are organized either by a scientific society or by a group of researchers with a common interest.
Larger meetings may be handled on behalf of the scientific society by a Professional Conference Organiser or PCO. The meeting is announced by way of a Call For Papers or a Call For Abstracts, sent to prospective presenters and explains how to submit their abstracts or papers, it describes the broad theme and lists the meeting's topics and formalities such as what kind of abstract or paper has to be submitted, to whom, by what deadline. A CFP is distributed using a mailing list or on specialized online services. Contributions are submitted using an online abstract or paper management service. There has been a call for more sustainable academic conferencing, as flying to and consumption at conferences is one of the largest components of an academics environmental footprint. However, few conferences have enacted practices to reduce their environmental impact, despite guidelines being available. An analysis of academic conferences taking place in 2016, showed that only 4% of 116 conferences sampled offered carbon offset options and only 9% of these conferences implemented any form of action to their reduce environmental impact.
There have been accusations for scam, or fraudulent conferences.