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Scientism

Scientism is the promotion of science as the best or only objective means by which society should determine normative and epistemological values. The term scientism is used critically, implying a cosmetic application of science in unwarranted situations considered not amenable to application of the scientific method or similar scientific standards. In the philosophy of science, the term scientism implies a critique of the more extreme expressions of logical positivism and has been used by social scientists such as Friedrich Hayek, philosophers of science such as Karl Popper, philosophers such as Hilary Putnam and Tzvetan Todorov to describe the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that, measured or confirmatory. More scientism is interpreted as science applied "in excess"; the term scientism has two senses: The improper usage of science or scientific claims. This usage applies in contexts where science might not apply, such as when the topic is perceived as beyond the scope of scientific inquiry, in contexts where there is insufficient empirical evidence to justify a scientific conclusion.

It includes an excessive deference to the claims of scientists or an uncritical eagerness to accept any result described as scientific. This can be a counterargument to appeals to scientific authority, it can address the attempt to apply "hard science" methodology and claims of certainty to the social sciences, which Friedrich Hayek described in The Counter-Revolution of Science as being impossible, because that methodology involves attempting to eliminate the "human factor", while social sciences center purely on human action. "The belief that the methods of natural science, or the categories and things recognized in natural science, form the only proper elements in any philosophical or other inquiry", or that "science, only science, describes the world as it is in itself, independent of perspective" with a concomitant "elimination of the psychological dimensions of experience". Tom Sorell provides this definition: "Scientism is a matter of putting too high a value on natural science in comparison with other branches of learning or culture."

Philosophers such as Alexander Rosenberg have adopted "scientism" as a name for the view that science is the only reliable source of knowledge. It is sometimes used to describe universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human learning—sometimes to the complete exclusion of other viewpoints, such as historical, economic or cultural worldviews, it has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society". The term scientism is used by historians and cultural critics to highlight the possible dangers of lapses towards excessive reductionism in all fields of human knowledge. For social theorists in the tradition of Max Weber, such as Jürgen Habermas and Max Horkheimer, the concept of scientism relates to the philosophy of positivism, but to the cultural rationalization for modern Western civilization.

Reviewing the references to scientism in the works of contemporary scholars, Gregory R. Peterson detected two main broad themes: It is used to criticize a totalizing view of science as if it were capable of describing all reality and knowledge, or as if it were the only true way to acquire knowledge about reality and the nature of things. An example of this second usage is to label as scientism any attempt to claim science as the only or primary source of human values or as the source of meaning and purpose; the term scientism was popularized by F. A. Hayek, who defined it as the "slavish imitation of the method and language of Science". Karl Popper defines scientism as "the aping of what is mistaken for the method of science". Mikael Stenmark proposed the expression scientific expansionism as a synonym of scientism. In the Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, he wrote that, while the doctrines that are described as scientism have many possible forms and varying degrees of ambition, they share the idea that the boundaries of science could and should be expanded so that something that has not been considered as a subject pertinent to science can now be understood as part of science.

According to Stenmark, the strongest form of scientism states that science has no boundaries and that all human problems and all aspects of human endeavor, with due time, will be dealt with and solved by science alone. This idea has been called the Myth of Progress. E. F. Schumacher, in his A Guide for the Perplexed, criticized scientism as an impoverished world view confined to what can be counted and weighed. "The architects of the modern worldview, notably Galileo and Descartes, assumed that those things that could be weighed and counted were more true than those that could not be quantified. If it couldn't be counted, in other words, it didn't count."Intellectual historian T. J. Jackson Lears argued there has been a recent reemergence o

Stream recorder

A stream recorder is a computer program used to save data streams to a file. This type of program is most used to save audio or video streaming media; the process is sometimes referred to as destreaming. There are different approaches that are used by the software to make the recording, depending on which stage of the process one taps into. In order, they are: In some cases, it is possible to download the stream as a file, by going to the right address. Simplest is if the stream is served by requesting it, just as web pages are, as in an HTTP GET request: this will directly copy the encoded, streamed file. In this case, one needs to determine the URL, download that, either by pasting it into one's web browser, or via a specialized download manager. Notable implementations of this approach include: Adblock Plus, in which the list of blockable content includes requested URLs URL Snooper Some streaming is not via a simple HTTP request to an URL – in this case, to capture the stream requires some understanding and implementation of the particular streaming protocol, either: passively / offline capturing the actual traffic and extracting it, or / online implementing the streaming protocol / program enough to request the encoded data.

This can vary in difficulty. If the protocol is not public, or there are various access controls or digital rights management implemented, this can involve substantial reverse engineering. Alternatively, one can hack an existing client to use the existing streaming extraction, direct it to save the encoded stream, rather than decoding it. In any case, there may be legal issues, depending on jurisdiction. Adobe's RTMP is an example of a proprietary protocol, thus capturing media encapsulated in RTMP streams is more difficult than from HTTP streams. However, nowadays there are more than a dozen programs that can capture RTMP streams. Implementing a custom client program to perform the request is difficult, it requires significant reverse-engineering of the request protocol. However, if the hosted media are not available via a standard protocol, this may be the only way to capture the stream. An approach used to get around that problem is to record the decoded information at the end level, such as the information, being passed to the video and sound card of the computer.

This is capturing what the user is watching or listening to directly from the screen, can be likened to recording off the air – in this regard it is analogous to the analog hole. This solution makes it possible to record anything the user is able to view or listen to, regardless of original format or restriction, though it suffers from a loss in quality due to re-encoding. Indeed, as a last measure, one can in fact exploit the analog hole and use an analog recorder, though this suffers most from quality degradation. In terms of functionality, software varies in which formats it can record and in what quality: URL Snooping is high-quality and easy, but not always available. Encoded capture is high-quality and can always be done, but is very difficult and software is unavailable. Decoded capture is lowest quality; the Recording Industry Association of America has taken stances against websites that are, in particular, used to rip content from YouTube, citing that their use to download music from the website and convert them to audio formats constitutes a violation of their members' copyrights.

The RIAA has targeted various stream ripping websites under the anti-circumvention provisions of the U. S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act, under its claim that a "rolling cipher" used by YouTube to generate the URL for the video file itself constitutes a technical protection measure, since it is "intended to inhibit direct access to the underlying YouTube video files, thereby preventing or inhibiting the downloading, copying, or distribution of the video files". Unlike the more common forms of takedowns performed under the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, there is no scheme of counter-notices for such takedowns; these actions have faced criticism, noting that there are legitimate uses for these services beyond ripping music, such as downloading video content needed to utilize one's right to fair use, or explicit rights of reuse granted by a content creator. Comparison of streaming media systems Comparison of video services Digital television Internet radio Internet television IPTV List of music streaming services List of streaming media systems Multicast P2PTV Protection of Broadcasts and Broadcasting Organizations Treaty Push technology Software as a service Streaming media Webcast Web television Audio utilities at Curlie StreamRecorder.

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We Are the People (Feeder song)

"We Are the People" was the first and only top 40 single from Feeder's sixth studio album, Silent Cry. The single was released on 9 June 2008, receiving its first radio play on Kerrang! Radio, two months before on 14 April, it charted at #25 in the UK becoming Feeder's landmark 20th top 40 single, but their last to date after follow-up "Tracing Lines / Silent Cry" missed the top 200 alongside being their least successful lead single from any of their albums since 1999. "We Are the People" is the first Feeder single since 1997's "Crash", to miss the BBC Radio 1 playlist and the first of their singles since that one to only spend one week on the UK top 75. It was included on XFM's top 100 tracks of 2008 list; the album version ends with a coda entitled "We are One" which according to a US promo CD from February 2008 was meant to be a standalone track on what was to become Silent Cry. The single edit fades out before this section begins and shortens some of the instrumental sections after the second chorus.

London-based radio station XFM, ran a competition for an extra to appear in the video. The winner had to be available with the details disclosed to them. In a blog posted by the bands drummer Mark Richardson on their official website, it was revealed the director used the traditional blue screen chroma key technique; the video involves their face hidden in darkness. At the beginning of the video the mysterious character walks past singer Grant Nicholas, from this point Grant disappears and the person in the hood displays the face of Grant Nicholas; as the video goes on he continues to display the faces of everyone whom the mysterious character walks past, the faces change as the character sings. The video ends with this hooded figure throwing all the faces in the air as he watches them float to the ground as if made from paper, the face of Grant Nicholas floats to the ground at the end of the video. Bassist Taka Hirose and Mark make an appearance; the video has been given heavy criticism for being weak in its ideas.

The Video is directed by David Mould. Some of the people who made an appearance within the video were competition winners, including some who knew the band through working for them at the time. "We are the People" - 3:50 "Calling Out for Days" - 3:16 "We are the People" - 3:50 "Calling Out for Days" - 3:16 "We are the People" - 3:50 "Somewhere to Call Your Own" - 2:31 "We are the People" - 3:50 "We are the People" - 4:46 "We are the People" - 3:54