Narconon International is a Scientology organization promoting the theories of founder L. Ron Hubbard regarding substance abuse treatment and addiction, its parent company is the Association for Better Living and Education, owned and controlled by the Church of Scientology. Headquartered in Hollywood, California, U. S. Narconon operates several dozen residential centers worldwide, chiefly in the United States and Western Europe; the organization was formed in 1966 by Scientologist William Benitez with Hubbard's help. Benitez contacted Hubbard after reading his book, Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought and Narconon was incorporated in 1970. While both the Church of Scientology and Narconon state that Narconon is a secular program, that it is independent of Scientology, that it provides legitimate drug education and rehabilitation, Narconon has been described by many government reports and former patients as a Church of Scientology front group; the program has garnered considerable controversy as a result of its origins in Scientology and its methods.
Its drug rehabilitation treatment has been described as "medically unsafe", "quackery" and "medical fraud", while academic and medical experts have dismissed its educational program as containing "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects and spelling". Hubbard's writings, which underlie the program, assert that drugs and their metabolites are stored in the body's fatty tissue, causing the addict's cravings when released on, can be flushed out through a regimen known as Purification Rundown, which involves exercise and intake of high doses of vitamins; this hypothesis is contradicted by experimental evidence, is not medically accepted. Narconon's facilities have been the location of several deaths, some of which have been linked to a lack of trained medical personnel on site. There are no independently recognized studies. Narconon was established 19 February 1966 as a drug rehabilitation program based on the book Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought by L. Ron Hubbard and delivered to drug abusers in the Arizona State Prisons.
The name "Narconon" referred not to an organization but to the program. Narconon's creator was William C. Benitez, a former inmate at Arizona State Prison who had served time for narcotics offenses, his work was supported by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, in 1972 Hubbard sponsored the incorporation of Narconon as an organization, it was co-founded by two Scientologists, Henning Heldt and Arthur Maren. Before Narconon became established and Dianetics were promoted as providing a cure for drug addiction. In 1970 the Reverend John W. Elliot, senior minister of the Church of Scientology and chairman of its Drug Abuse Prevention team, announced that "Dianetic Counseling" had "completely cured 30 out of 30 people" who came to the Church of Scientology for help. Rev. Elliott reported that Dianetics could cure hay fever and arthritis. In the early days of Narconon, no distinction was made between Scientology's'religious' and'secular' branches. "Narconon, with the Scientology program, is another example of the workability of Dianetics and Scientology", said an adherent in 1970.
"The program has been expanded and is used in all Scientology churches and missions". The Narconon website reports that the keynote of Narconon is that the “…individual is responsible for his own condition and that anyone can improve his condition if he is given a workable way to do so… man is good and it is pain and loss that lead him astray.” It positions the program as an approach to rehabilitation without recourse to alternative drugs. This early program did not, deal directly with withdrawal symptoms. In 1973, the Narconon program adopted procedures to include drug-free withdrawal. A number of celebrities have publicly attested. Musician Nicky Hopkins and actress Kirstie Alley have credited Narconon for their recovery from addiction to drugs and alcohol. Alley has since become a public spokesperson for Narconon; the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project has used Hubbard's sauna detoxification regimen in an effort to improve the health of rescue workers exposed to toxic substances from 9/11, although the results are disputed.
Toxicologist Dr Ronald E. Gots described the Narconon / Purification Rundown program in a 1987 report on its use by California firefighters: The treatment in California preyed upon the fears of concerned workers, but served no rational medical function.... Moreover, the program itself, developed not by physicians or scientists, but by the founder of the Church of Scientology, has no recognized value in the established medical and scientific community, it is quackery. In 2004 and 2005, WISE at Work magazine and International Scientology News each published articles clarifying the relationship between Narconon and Scientology. By the end of 2005, according to the International Association of Scientologists, Narconon was operating 183 rehabilitation centers around the world. New centers opened in that year included Hastings, UK, Stone Hawk, in Battle Creek, Michigan. Narconon President Clark Carr asserted that drug prevention lectures “have been given to over 2 million children and adults over several decades..and are being delivered across the United States, all New England States, Washington D.
C. Georgia, Florida and surrounding states and Illinois, Texas, Ne
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, was a British philosopher, mathematician, writer, social critic, political activist, Nobel laureate. At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, although he confessed that his skeptical nature had led him to feel that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense." Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism", he is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein, he is held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic, his philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy".
His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, set theory, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science and philosophy the philosophy of language and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist and he championed anti-imperialism, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly had passed and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government. He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Russell concluded that war against Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany was a necessary "lesser of two evils" and criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Bertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Monmouthshire, into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy.
His parents and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time. Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill to act as Russell's secular godfather. Mill died the year after Russell's birth, his paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell, had been asked twice by Queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister in the 1840s and 1860s. The Russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power and the peerage with the rise of the Tudor dynasty, they established themselves as one of the leading British Whig families, participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536–1540 to the Glorious Revolution in 1688–1689 and the Great Reform Act in 1832. Lady Amberley was Lady Stanley of Alderley. Russell feared the ridicule of his maternal grandmother, one of the campaigners for education of women.
Russell had two siblings: brother Frank, sister Rachel. In June 1874 Russell's mother died followed shortly by Rachel's death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park, his grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the Countess Russell, was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth; the countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, petitioned the Court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas, her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life, her favourite Bible verse, became his motto.
The atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, formality. Russell's adolescence was lonely, he contemplated suicide, he remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in religion and mathematics, that only his wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide. He was educated at home by a series of tutors; when Russell was eleven years old, his brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid, which he described in his autobiography as "one of the great events of my life, as dazzling as first love."During these formative years he discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Russell wrote: "I spent all my spare time reading him, learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, I used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley, to wonder whether
Robert Jay Lifton
Robert Jay Lifton is an American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of wars and political violence and for his theory of thought reform. He was an early proponent of the techniques of psychohistory. Lifton was born in 1926, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of businessman Harold A. Lifton, Ciel Lifton née Roth. In 1942, he enrolled at Cornell University at the age of 16 and was admitted to New York Medical College in 1944, graduating in 1948, he interned at the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn in 1948-49, had his psychiatric residence training at the Downstate Medical Center, New York in 1949-51. From 1951 to 1953 he served as an Air Force psychiatrist in Japan and Korea, to which he attributed his interest in war and politics, he has since worked as a teacher and researcher at the Washington School of Psychiatry, Harvard University, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, where he helped to found the Center for the Study of Human Violence.
He has two children. She died in Boston on November 2010, from complications of pneumonia. Lifton calls cartooning his avocation, he is a member of Collegium International, an organization of leaders with political and ethical expertise whose goal is to provide new approaches in overcoming the obstacles in the way of a peaceful just and an economically sustainable world. In 2012, Lifton was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from The New School. During the 1960s, together with his mentor Erik Erikson and MIT historian Bruce Mazlish, formed a group to apply psychology and psychoanalysis to the study of history. Meetings were held at Lifton's home in Massachusetts; the Wellfleet Psychohistory Group, as it became known, focused on psychological motivations for war and genocide in recent history. In 1965, they received sponsorship from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to establish psychohistory as a separate field of study. A collection of research papers by the group was published in 1975: Explorations in Psychohistory: The Wellfleet Papers.
Lifton's work in this field was influenced by Erikson's studies of Hitler and other political figures, as well as Sigmund Freud's concern with the mass social effects of deep-seated drives attitudes toward death. Beginning in 1953, Lifton interviewed American servicemen, prisoners of war during the Korean War as well as priests and students or teachers, held in prison in China after 1951. In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton's 1961 book Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China, based on this research, was a study of coercive techniques used in the People's Republic of China that he labelled "thought reform" or "brainwashing", though he preferred the former term; the term "thought-terminating cliché" was popularized in this book. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."
A 1989 reprint edition was published by University of North Carolina Press. Several of his books featured mental adaptations that people made in extreme wartime environments: Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima, Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans—Neither Victims nor Executioners, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. Regarding Hiroshima and Vietnam survivors or Nazi perpretators, Lifton believed that the psychic fragmentation experienced by his subjects was an extreme form of the pathologies that arise in peacetime life due to the pressures and fears of modern society, his studies of the behavior of people who had committed war crimes, both individually and in groups, concluded that while human nature is not innately cruel and only rare sociopaths can participate in atrocities without suffering lasting emotional harm, such crimes do not require any unusual degree of personal evil or mental illness, are nearly sure to happen given certain conditions which Lifton called "atrocity-producing situations".
The Nazi Doctors was the first in-depth study of how medical professionals rationalized their participation in the Holocaust, from the early stages of the T-4 Euthanasia Program to the extermination camps. In the Hiroshima and Vietnam studies, Lifton concluded that the sense of personal disintegration many people experienced after witnessing death and destruction on a mass scale could lead to a new emotional resilience—but that without the proper support and counseling, most survivors would remain trapped in feelings of unreality and guilt. In her 2005 autobiography My Life So Far, Jane Fonda would come to describe Lifton's work with Vietnam veterans, along with that of fellow psychiatrists Drs. Leonard Neff, Chaim Shatan, Sarah Haley, as "tireless and empathetic". Lifton was one of the first organizers of therapeutic discussion groups on this subject in which mental health practitioners met with veterans face-to-face, he and Dr. Neff lobbied for the inclusion of post-traumatic stress disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
His book on Hiroshima survivors won the 1969 National Book Award in Science. Totalism, a word first used in Thought Reform, is Lifton's term for the characteristics of ideological movements and organizations that desire total control over human behavior and thought. Lifton's usage differs from t
Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subject’s ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into the subject’s mind, as well as to change his or her attitudes and beliefs; the concept of brainwashing was developed in the 1950s to explain how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Advocates of the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers, it was applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups. This resulted in scientific and legal debate with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of brainwashing; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in legal cases regarding child custody.
Although the term appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association brainwashing is not accepted as scientific fact. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors in a few cases defected to their side.
British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.
In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." In George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the main character is subjected to imprisonment and torture in order to conform his thoughts and emotions to the wishes of the rulers of Orwell's fictional future totalitarian society. Orwell's vision influenced Hunter and is still reflected in the popular understanding of the concept of brainwashing.
In the 1950s many American films were filmed that featured brainwashing of POWs, including The Rack, The Bamboo Prison, Toward the Unknown, The Fearmakers. The film Forbidden Area told the story of Soviet secret agents, brainwashed through classical conditioning by their own government so they wouldn't reveal their identities. In 1962 The Manchurian Candidate "put brainwashing front and center" by featuring a plot by the Soviet government to take over the United States by use of a brainwashed presidential candidate; the concept of brainwashing became popularly associated with the research of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, which involved dogs, not humans, as subjects. In The Manchurian Candidate the head brainwasher is Dr. Yen Lo, of the Pavlov Institute; the science fiction stories of Cordwainer Smith depict brainwashing to remove memories of traumatic events as a normal and benign part of future medical practice. Mind control remains an important theme in science fiction. Terry O'Brien comments: "Mind control is such a powerful image that if hypnoti
L. Ron Hubbard
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard was an American author of science fiction and fantasy stories, the founder of the Church of Scientology. In 1950, Hubbard authored Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health and established a series of organizations to promote Dianetics. In 1952, Hubbard lost the rights to Dianetics in bankruptcy proceedings, he subsequently founded Scientology. Thereafter Hubbard oversaw the growth of the Church of Scientology into a worldwide organization. Hubbard was cited by Smithsonian magazine as one of the 100 most significant Americans of all time. Born in Tilden, Nebraska in 1911, Hubbard spent much of his childhood in Montana. After his father was posted to the U. S. naval base on Guam, Hubbard traveled to the South Pacific in the late 1920s. In 1930, Hubbard enrolled at George Washington University to study civil engineering, but dropped out in his second year, he began his career as a prolific writer of pulp fiction stories and married Margaret "Polly" Grubb, who shared his interest in aviation.
Hubbard served in the Marine Corps Reserve and was an officer in the Navy during World War II. He commanded two ships, but was removed from command both times; the last few months of his active service were spent in a hospital, being treated for a duodenal ulcer. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he spent much of his time at sea on his personal fleet of ships as "Commodore" of the Sea Organization, an elite, paramilitary group of Scientologists; some ex-members and scholars have described the Sea Org as a totalitarian organization marked by intensive surveillance and a lack of freedom. His expedition came to an end when Britain, Spain and Venezuela all closed their ports to his fleet. Hubbard went into seclusion in the California desert. In 1978, a trial court in France convicted Hubbard of fraud in absentia. In 1983 Hubbard was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in an international information infiltration and theft project called "Operation Snow White", he spent the remaining years of his life in a luxury motor home on his California property, attended to by a small group of Scientology officials including his physician.
In 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at age 74; the Church of Scientology describes Hubbard in hagiographic terms, he portrayed himself as a pioneering explorer, world traveler, nuclear physicist with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, including photography, art and philosophy. Though many of Hubbard's autobiographical statements have been found to be fictitious, the Church rejects any suggestion that its account of Hubbard's life is not historical fact. In Scientology publications, he is referred to as "Founder" and "Source" of Scientology and Dianetics, his critics have characterized Hubbard as a mentally-unstable chronic liar. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska, he was the only child of Ledora May, who had trained as a teacher, Harry Ross Hubbard, a former United States Navy officer. After moving to Kalispell, they settled in Helena in 1913. Hubbard's father rejoined the Navy in April 1917, during World War I, while his mother worked as a clerk for the state government. During the 1920s the Hubbards relocated around the United States and overseas.
After Hubbard's father Harry rejoined the Navy, his posting aboard the USS Oklahoma in 1921 required the family to relocate to the ship's home ports, first San Diego Seattle. Hubbard was active in the Boy Scouts in Washington, D. C. and earned the rank of Eagle Scout two weeks after his 13th birthday. The following year, Harry Ross Hubbard was posted to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard at Bremerton, Washington, his son was enrolled at Union High School and studied at Queen Anne High School in Seattle. In 1927 Hubbard's father was sent to the U. S. Naval Station on Guam. Hubbard's mother accompanied her husband, while their child was placed in his grandparents' care in Helena, Montana to complete his schooling. In 1927, Hubbard and his mother traveled to Guam; the trip consisted of a brief stop-over in a couple of Chinese ports before traveling on to Guam, where he stayed for six weeks before returning home. He recorded his impressions of the places he visited and disdained the poverty of the inhabitants of Japan and China, whom he described as "gooks" and "lazy ignorant".
After his return to the United States in September 1927, Hubbard enrolled at Helena High School, where he contributed to the school paper, but earned only poor grades. He went back west to stay with his aunt and uncle in Seattle, he joined his parents in Guam in June 1928. His mother took over his education in the hope of putting him forward for the entrance examination to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. Between October and December 1928 a number of naval families, including Hubbard's, traveled from Guam to China aboard the cargo ship USS Gold Star; the ship stopped at Manila in the Philippines before traveling on to Qingdao in China. Hubbard and his parents made a side trip to Beijing before sailing on to Shanghai and Hong Kong, from where they returned to Guam. Back on Guam, Hubbard spent much of his time writing dozens of short stories and essays and failed the Naval Academy entrance examination. In September 1929, Hubbard was enrolled at the Swavely Preparatory School in Manassas, Virginia, to prepare him for a second attempt at the examination.
However, he was ruled out of consideration due to his near-sightedness. He was instead sent to Woodward School for Boys in Washington, D. C. to qualify for admission to George Washington University. He graduated from the school in June 1930 and entered
Supernatural abilities in Scientology doctrine
In the Church of Scientology doctrine, supernatural or superhuman abilities are a recurring subject, appearing throughout Scientology and Dianetics materials, from the most basic introductory texts to the highest-level Operating Thetan information. All of these concepts were authored by the church's founder, L. Ron Hubbard, have not been subjected to testing outside the Church; the Church of Scientology have never offered any externally accepted, peer-reviewed evidence that Scientologists possess any of these abilities. MEST is an acronym Hubbard coined which stands for matter, energy and time, the component parts of the physical universe, it is claimed that by completing Scientology courses, it is possible to attain "cause over MEST" — the ability to control matter and spacetime in the physical universe, free of the encumbrance of the body. According to the Church of Scientology: In Scientology, a state of complete spiritual freedom is attainable, it has been achieved not on a temporary basis but on a stable plane of full awareness and ability, unqualified by accident or deterioration.
And it is not limited to a few. It is called, in Scientology, “Operating Thetan.” The definition of the state of Operating Thetan is “knowing and willing cause over life, matter, energy and time. Hubbard first introduced Dianetics to the general public in April 1950, in an article published in the Astounding Science Fiction pulp magazine, followed with the book Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health that same summer. Dianetics postulates that there is a part of our psyche called the reactive mind, that most of our mental and physical problems are psychosomatic, thus they can be solved by eliminating this portion of our minds; this mental state of self-mastery is called Clear. In the 1992 Hardcover edition of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Hubbard writes: "A Clear, for instance, has complete recall of everything which happened to him, or anything he studied, he does mental computations, such as those in chess, for example, which a normal would do in half an hour, in ten or fifteen seconds.".
Speaking on the subject of "Exteriorization - communication in Theta and MEST", Hubbard said that an individual thetan has the ability to generate electricity by putting a "beam" inside a vacuum tube, or a bell jar that has had the air evacuated: The truth of the matter is an individual can activate a vacuum tube. By the way, he can activate a vacuum tube because he isn't trying to go through the terrific insulative quality of air. I've forgotten what an inch of air insulates. An inch of air represents maybe a something on that order, he would have to be as big as a lightning storm to get across any space of air. But he can do it in a vacuum tube, he could do it in a bell jar from which the air could be exhausted, while he himself was outside the bell jar, he puts a beam inside the bell jar connecting two electrodes and you would get a registry on a meter inside the bell jar." Some of the miracles of life have been exposed to full view for the first time on the OT levels. Not the least of these miracles is knowing immortality and freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
The "immortality" referred to is not immortality of the body, but of the thetan, Scientology does not claim that it causes the thetan's immortality, but makes a Scientologist aware of that immortality and alleviates the distress that might otherwise be felt at the prospect of death: The subject of death is never a serious one to a Scientologist beyond the fact that he feels kind of sorry for himself sometimes.... was thoughtless enough to dispose of his body and go out of communication. A person sometimes feels pretty unhappy about it and thinks it's a thoughtless thing for a friend to do. On page 121 of the 1992 Hardcover edition of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Hubbard writes: "Clears do not get colds." It is hinted that achieving the state of Clear prolongs lifespan: "What the lifespan of a Clear is cannot be answered now. Hubbard has claimed on numerous occasions that it is possible for Scientologists to use mind over matter to increase one's body weight, although why someone would want to do this is not explained.
In his book Understanding the E-meter, Hubbard wrote that this assertion can be tested by "mocking up" mental pictures in one's imagination. "This test has been made and an increase of as much as thirty pounds measured on scales, has been added to and subtracted from a body by creating'mental energy.'" In December 1954, Hubbard declared before a crowd at a lecture: Just mock up something, pull it in, mock it up and pull it in, mock it up and pull it in. Mock up heavy planets, mock up dense things and pull them in. You shoot a person's weight up - if he's working pretty well, you do this insistently, you insist on density and mass - you can put a person on a set of accurate Toledo scales, have him do this process for a few hours, put him back on the scales and find out his weight has gone up about thirty pounds. In 1957, Hubbard claimed that he was contacted by physicists from a scientific congress in Boston: "They wanted to know if I had any proof I could offer that thought created matter".
Hubbard said he gave them all his data about using Scientology's mental "mock-ups" to increase body weight, reported "I got back a enthusiastic wire saying that my data, as sent to them, had been of great assistance." Scientologists are taught to administer the "Touch Assist", a procedure designed by
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same